Matilda of England



Matilda of England (1156 Windsor CastleJuly 13, 1189 Brunswick), also known as Maud, was the eldest daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Matilda was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. She was a younger sister of William, Count of Poitiers and Henry the Young King. She was also an older sister of Richard I of England, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Leonora of Aquitaine, Joan of England and John of England. Matilda seems to have spent much of her early life in the company of her mother, Queen Eleanor.

In 1165 Rainald of Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne, arrived at the court of King Henry II at Rouen, to negotiate a German match for Matilda. There was conflict during the negotiations, however, when Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester refused to greet the archbishop, alleging him to be a schismatic and a supporter of the anti-pope, Victor IV. The original plan to match a daughter of Henry II with a son of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor was abandoned, and instead Matilda left England in September 1167 to marry Henry the Lion.

She married Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, on February 1, 1168 at Minden Cathedral. They had four sons and one daughter:
  1. Matilda (1171-1210), married Geoffrey III, Count of Perche.# Richenza (1172-1204)
  2. Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine (1173- 28 April 1227).
  3. Lothar (1174 - 16 October 1190).
  4. Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Duke of Swabia (1175/1176 - 19 May 1218).
  5. William, Duke of Lüneburg (11 April 1184- 12 December 1213).


Three other children are listed, by some sources, as having belonged to Henry and Matilda;
  • Eleanor (born 1178); died young
  • Ingibiorg (born 1180); died young
  • Son (Stillborn 1182)
Enlarge picture
Matilda of England tomb Effigy


At the time of their marriage, Henry the Lion was one of the most powerful allies of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. Matilda governed her husband's vast estates during his absence in the Holy Land from 1172 to 1173. In 1174, Henry the Lion became involved in a conflict with the Emperor Frederick, and Henry and Matilda were forced to flee Germany and take refuge in Normandy at her father's court in 1182. During this time at the royal court at Argentan, Matilda became acquainted with the Troubadour Bertran de Born, who, calling her "Elena" or "Lana", made her the object of his desire in two of his poems of "courtly love".

English Royalty
House of Plantagenet

Armorial of Plantagenet
Henry II
   William, Count of Poitiers
   Henry, Count of Anjou
   Richard I the Lionheart
   Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany
   John
   Matilda, Duchess of Saxony
   Leonora, Queen of Castile
   Joan, Queen of Sicily
Matilda, her husband, and their family remained in Normandy under the protection and support of King Henry until 1185, when they were able to return to Saxony. When her father Henry II died in 1189, Matilda survived him by only one week.

The pictures shows an idealized portrait made between 1230 and 1240 on the tomb of Matilda and Henry the Lion in Brunswick cathedral; and the effigy on Matilda's tomb.

See also

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Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited castle in the world and, dating back to the time of William the Conqueror, is the oldest in continuous occupation.
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July 13 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.
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Henry II
By the Grace of God, King of the English
and Duke of the Normans and Aquitanians
and Count of the Angevins
and Lord of Ireland


Reign 25 October 1154-6 July 1189
Coronation 19 December 1154
Born
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Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Ali̩nor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1] РApril 1 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages.
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Marie of France, or Marie Capet, Countess of Champagne (1145 – March 11, 1198), was the elder daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Her younger sister was Alix of France.
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Alix of France (summer 1151 – 1197/1198) was the second daughter born to Louis VII of France by his first wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. She was named after her aunt Petronilla of Aquitaine, who was also called "Alix".
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William (August 17, 1153 – April 1156) was the first child of Henry Plantagenet (later Henry II of England) and Eleanor of Aquitaine, born in Normandy, on the same day that his father's rival Eustace IV of Boulogne died.
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Henry the Young King (February 28, 1155 – June 11, 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Henry was a younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France.
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Richard I
By the Grace of God, King of the English, Duke of the Normans and Aquitanians, Count of the Angevins

Reign 6 July 1189 – 6 April 1199
Coronation 3 September 1189
Born 8 September 1157
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Geoffrey, Earl of Richmond, Duke of Brittany (23 September 1158 – 19 August 1186) was Duke of Brittany between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. Geoffrey was the fourth son of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine.
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Queen Leonora (October 13, 1162 – October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England (and Aquitaine) and became Leonora, Queen of Castile as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile.
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Joan of England (October, 1165 – 4 September, 1199) was the seventh child of King Henry II of England and his Queen consort, Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Joan was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France.
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John (24 December 1166 – 18/19 October 1216) reigned as King of England from 6 April, 1199, until his death. He succeeded to the throne as the younger brother of King Richard I (known in later times as "Richard the Lionheart").
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Rainald of Dassel (c. 1120 – August 14, 1167 near Rome) was archbishop of Cologne from 1159 to 1167 and archchancellor of Italy. He was preceded as archbishop by Friedrich II of Berg and succeeded by Philip I von Heinsberg.
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Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 – 5 April 1168). The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists, in fact the only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert".
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Frederick I Barbarossa[1] (1122 – 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy at Pavia in 1154, and finally crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155.
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Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der L̦we; 1129 Р6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.
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Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der L̦we; 1129 Р6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.
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The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria:

Dukes of Bavaria

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Agilolfing Dynasty 548-788

Around 548 the kings of the Franks placed the border region of Bavaria under the administration of a duke -- possibly
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Town hall of Minden
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The county of Perche was a medieval county lying between Normandy and Maine.

It was held by an independent line of counts until 1226. One of these, Geoffroy V, would have been a leader of the Fourth Crusade had he not died before the assembled forces could depart.
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