# mean value theorem

## Information about mean value theorem

For any function that is continuous on [ab] and differentiable on (ab) there exists some c in the interval (ab) such that the secant joining the endpoints of the interval [ab] is parallel to the tangent at c.
In calculus, the mean value theorem states, roughly, that given a section of a smooth curve, there is a point on that section at which the derivative (slope) of the curve is equal to the "average" derivative of the section. It is used to prove theorems that make global conclusions about a function on an interval starting from local hypotheses about derivatives at points of the interval.

This theorem can be understood concretely by applying it to motion: if a car travels one hundred miles in one hour, so that its average speed during that time was 100 miles per hour, then at some time its instantaneous speed must have been exactly 100 miles per hour.

An early version of this theorem was first described by Parameshvara (1370–1460) from the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics in his commentaries on Govindasvāmi and Bhaskara II.[1] The mean value theorem in its modern form was later stated by Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789–1857). It is one of the most important results in differential calculus, as well as one of the most important theorems in mathematical analysis, and is essential in proving the fundamental theorem of calculus. The mean value theorem can be used to prove Taylor's theorem, of which it is a special case.

## Formal statement

Let f : [a, b] → R be a continuous function on the closed interval [a, b], and differentiable on the open interval (a, b). Then, there exists some c in (a, b) such that
:

The mean value theorem is a generalization of Rolle's theorem, which assumes f(a) = f(b), so that the right-hand side above is zero.

The mean value theorem is still valid in a slightly more general setting, one only needs to assume that f : [a, b] → R is continuous on [a, b], and that for every x in (a, b) the limit

exists as a finite number or equals Â±∞.

## Proof

An understanding of this and the point-slope formula will make it clear that the equation of a secant (which intersects (a, f(a)) and (b, f(b)) ) is:

The formula ( f(b) − f(a) ) / (b − a) gives the slope of the line joining the points (a, f(a)) and (b, f(b)), which we call a chord of the curve, while f ' (x) gives the slope of the tangent to the curve at the point (x, f(x) ). Thus the Mean value theorem says that given any chord of a smooth curve, we can find a point lying between the end-points of the chord such that the tangent at that point is parallel to the chord. The following proof illustrates this idea.

Define g(x) = f(x) + rx, where r is a constant. Since f is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b), the same is true of g. We choose r so that g satisfies the conditions of Rolle's theorem, which means

By Rolle's theorem, since g is continuous and g(a) = g(b), there is some c in (a, b) for which g '(c) = 0, and it follows from g(x) = f(x) + rx that,

as required.

## Cauchy's mean value theorem

Cauchy's mean value theorem, also known as the extended mean value theorem, is the more general form of the mean value theorem. It states: If functions and are both continuous on the closed interval , differentiable on the open interval , and is not zero on that open interval, then there exists some in , such that

Cauchy's mean value theorem can be used to prove l'Hopital's rule. The mean value theorem is the special case of Cauchy's mean value when (or more generally when is affine and not constant, meaning where and are constants and ).

### Proof of Cauchy's mean value theorem

The proof of Cauchy's mean value theorem is based on the same idea as the proof of the mean value theorem. First we define a new function h(t) and then we aim to transform this function so that it satisfies the conditions of Rolle's theorem.

where m is a constant. We choose m so that

Since h is continuous and h(a) = h(b), by Rolle's theorem, there exists some c in (a, b) such that h′(c) = 0, i.e.

as required.

## Mean value theorems for integration

The first mean value theorem for integration states

If G : [a, b] → R is a continuous function and φ : [a, b] → R is an integrable positive function, then there exists a number x in (a, b) such that

:

In particular for φ(t) = 1, there exists x in (a, b) such that

There are various slightly different theorems called the second mean value theorem for integration. A commonly found version is as follows:

If G : [a, b] → R is a positive monotonically decreasing function and φ : [a, b] → R is an integrable function, then there exists a number x in (a, b] such that
:

Here G(a + 0) stands for limx↓aG(x), the existence of which follows from the conditions. Note that it is essential that the interval (a, b] contains b. A variant not having this requirement is:

If G : [a, b] → R is a monotonic (not necessarily decreasing and positive) function and φ : [a, b] → R is an integrable function, then there exists a number x in (a, b) such that

:

This variant was proved by Hiroshi Okamura in 1947.

## References

1. ^ J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson (2000). Paramesvara, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.

Calculus (Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics that includes the study of limits, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series, and constitutes a major part of modern university education.
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theorem is a statement, often stated in natural language, that can be proved on the basis of explicitly stated or previously agreed assumptions. In logic, a theorem is a statement in a formal language that can be derived by applying rules and axioms from a deductive system.
Vatasseri Parameshvara (വടശ്ശേരി പരമേശ്വരന്‍) (1360-1425) was a major Indian mathematician of Madhava of Sangamagrama's Kerala school, as well as an astronomer
The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, South India, which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri
Augustin Louis Cauchy

Augustin Louis Cauchy
Born 21 July 1789
Dijon, France
Died 23 May 1857 (aged 69)
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