Minneapolis, Minnesota

Minneapolis, Minnesota
Enlarge picture
Downtown seen from the North Loop
Downtown seen from the North Loop

Flag

Seal
Nickname: City of Lakes, Mill City
Motto: En Avant (French: 'Forward')
Location in Hennepin County and the state of Minnesota
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Minnesota
County Hennepin
Government
 - Mayor R.T. Rybak (DFL)
Area
 - City  58.4 sq mi (151.3 km)
 - Land  54.9 sq mi (142.2 km)
 - Water  3.5 sq mi (9.1 km)
Elevation  830 ft (264 m)
Population (2006)[1] [2]
 - City 387,970
 - Density 7,067/sq mi (2728/km)
 - Metro 3,502,891
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 612
FIPS code 27-43000GR2
GNIS feature ID 0655030GR3
Website: [1]
Minneapolis (pronounced IPA: /ˌmɪniˈæpəlɪs/) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota and is the county seat of Hennepin County. The city lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital. Known as the Twin Cities, these two cities form the core of Minneapolis-St. Paul, the fifteenth largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.5 million residents. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the population of the city of Minneapolis at 372,811 people in 2005.[3] The Metropolitan Council estimate for 2006 was 387,970.[3]

Abundantly rich in water, the city has twenty lakes and wetlands, the Mississippi riverfront, creeks and waterfalls, many connected by parkways in the Chain of Lakes and the Grand Rounds Scenic Byway. Once the world's flour milling capital and a hub for timber, Minneapolis is the primary business center between Chicago, Illinois, and Seattle, Washington.[3] Regional theater was pioneered at the Guthrie Theater, one of many cultural organizations that draw creative people and audiences to Minneapolis for theater, visual art, writing and music. A diverse population, the community has a long tradition of charitable support through progressive public social programs and through private and corporate philanthropy. Public park systems are modeled after Minneapolis where a park is within one-half mile (800 m) of every home.

The name Minneapolis is attributed to the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, the Dakota word for water, and polis, the Greek word for city.[4] Minneapolis is nicknamed the City of Lakes and the Mill City.[5]

History

Enlarge picture
Taoyateduta was among the 121 Sioux leaders who from 1837 to 1851 ceded what is now Minneapolis.[6]


Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents until explorers arrived from France in about 1680. Nearby Fort Snelling, built between 1820 and 1825 by the United States Army spurred growth in the area. Circumstances pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the east to settle there. The Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized present day Minneapolis as a town on the Mississippi's west bank in 1856. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, and joined with the east bank city of St. Anthony in 1872.[7]

Enlarge picture
Loading flour, Pillsbury, 1939. Photo by John Vachon
Minneapolis grew up around Saint Anthony Falls, the only waterfall on the Mississippi. Millers have used hydropower since the 1st century B.C.,[8] but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has ever seen."[9] In early years, forests in northern Minnesota were the source of a lumber industry that operated seventeen saw mills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes, and planing wood.[10] The farmers of the Great Plains grew grain that was shipped by rail to the city's thirty-four flour mills where Pillsbury and General Mills became processors. By 1905 Minneapolis delivered almost 10% of the country's flour and grist.[11] At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for twelve million loaves of bread each day.[12]

Minneapolis made dramatic changes to rectify discrimination as early as 1886 when Martha Ripley founded Maternity Hospital for both married and unmarried mothers.[13] When the country's fortunes turned during the Great Depression, the violent Teamsters Strike of 1934 resulted in laws acknowledging worker's rights.[14] A lifelong civil rights activist and union supporter, mayor Hubert H. Humphrey helped the city establish fair employment practices and a human relations council that interceded on behalf of minorities by 1946.[15] Minneapolis contended with white supremacy, participated in desegregation and the African-American civil rights movement, and in 1968 was the birthplace of the American Indian Movement.[16]

During the 1950s and 1960s as part of urban renewal, the city razed about two hundred buildings across twenty-five city blocks—roughly 40% of downtown, destroying the Gateway District and many buildings with notable architecture including the Metropolitan Building. Efforts to save the building failed but are credited with jumpstarting interest in historic preservation in the state.[17]

Enlarge picture
Mississippi riverfront and Saint Anthony Falls in 1915. At left, Pillsbury, power plants and the Stone Arch Bridge. Today the Minnesota Historical Society's Mill City Museum is in the Washburn "A" Mill, across the river just to the left of the falls. At center left are Northwestern Consolidated mills. The tall building is Minneapolis City Hall. In the foreground to the right are Nicollet Island and the Hennepin Avenue Bridge.
Mississippi riverfront and Saint Anthony Falls in 1915. At left, Pillsbury, power plants and the Stone Arch Bridge. Today the Minnesota Historical Society's Mill City Museum is in the Washburn "A" Mill, across the river just to the left of the falls. At center left are Northwestern Consolidated mills. The tall building is Minneapolis City Hall. In the foreground to the right are Nicollet Island and the Hennepin Avenue Bridge.

Geography and climate

Enlarge picture
Glacial meltwaters formed Saint Anthony Falls near Fort Snelling about ten thousand years ago. Rushing water undercut sandstone and collapsed limestone, moving the falls eight miles (13 km) to the northwest.[18]
Minneapolis history and the city's economic growth are tied to water, the city's defining physical characteristic, which was sent to the region during the last ice age. Fed by receding glaciers and Lake Agassiz ten thousand years ago, torrents of water from a glacial river undercut the Mississippi and Minnehaha riverbeds, creating waterfalls important to modern Minneapolis.[19] Lying on an artesian aquifer[3] and otherwise flat terrain, Minneapolis has a total area of 58.4 mi² (151.3 km²) and of this 6% is water.[20] Water is managed by watershed districts that correspond to the Mississippi and the city's three creeks.[21] Twelve lakes, three large ponds and five unnamed wetlands are within Minneapolis.[22]

Enlarge picture
Lake Harriet frozen in winter. Ice blocks deposited in valleys by retreating glaciers created the lakes of Minneapolis.[23]
The city center is located just south of 45° N latitude.[24] The city's lowest elevation of 686 ft (209 m) is near where Minnehaha Creek meets the Mississippi River. The site of the Prospect Park Water Tower is often cited as the city's highest point[25] and a placard in Deming Heights Park denotes the highest elevation, but a spot at 974 ft (296.8 m) in or near Waite Park in Northeast Minneapolis is corroborated by Google Earth as the highest ground.

The climate of Minneapolis is typical of the Upper Midwestern United States. Winters can be cold and dry, while summer is comfortably warm although at times it can be hot and humid. On the Köppen climate classification, Minneapolis falls in the warm summer humid continental climate zone (Dfa). The city experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events, including snow, sleet, ice, rain, thunderstorms, tornadoes, and fog. The warmest temperature ever recorded in Minneapolis was 108 °F (42.2 °C) in July 1936, and the coldest temperature ever recorded was -41 °F (-40.6 °C), in January 1888. The snowiest winter of record was 1983–84, when 98.4 in (2.5 m) of snow fell.[26]

Because of its northerly location in the United States and lack of large bodies of water to moderate the air, Minneapolis is sometimes subjected to cold Arctic air masses, especially during late December, January & February. The average annual temperature of 45.4 °F (7 °C) gives the Minneapolis–St.Paul metropolitan area the coldest annual mean temperature of any major metropolitan area in the continental U.S.[27]

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures[28]
°Fahrenheit °Celsius
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High586183959610210510298907768Rec High141628353639413937322520
Norm High222841577079838071584026Norm High-6-25142126282722144-3
Norm Low41224364958636151392511Norm Low-16-11-429141716114-4-7
Rec Low-34-32-322183443392613-17-29Rec Low-37-36-36-17-8164-3-11-27-34 ! Precip (in) | 1 | 1 | 2 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 3 | 2 | 2 | 1 ! Precip (mm) | 26 | 20 | 47 | 59 | 82 | 110 | 103 | 103 | 68 | 54 | 49 | 25

Demographics

Enlarge picture
Midsummer dance. Immigrants from Europe arrived beginning in the 1860s.
During the 1850s and 1860s, new settlers arrived in Minneapolis from New England and New York, and during the mid-1860s, Scandinavians from Sweden, Norway, and Denmark began to call the city home. Later, immigrants came from Germany, Italy, Greece, Poland, and southern and eastern Europe. Jews from Russia and eastern Europe settled primarily on the north side of the city before moving in large numbers to the western suburbs in the 1950s and 1960s.[29] Asians came from China, the Philippines, Japan, and Korea. Two groups came for a short while during U.S. government relocations, Japanese during the 1940s, and Native Americans during the 1950s. From 1970 onward, Asians arrived from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Beginning in the 1990s, a large Latino population arrived, along with refugees from Africa, especially from Somalia.[30]

Into the 21st century, Minneapolis continues its heritage of welcoming newcomers. The metropolitan area is an immigrant gateway with a 127% increase in foreign-born residents between 1990 and 2000.[31]

Enlarge picture
Ashley Rukes GLBT Pride Parade. Minneapolitans have ancestors from five continents.
U.S. Census Bureau estimates in 2005 show the population of Minneapolis to be 372,811, a 2.6% drop since the 2000 census.[31] The Metropolitan Council estimates the population at 387,711 in 2005,[32] and 387,970 in 2006.[3] The population grew until 1950 when the census peaked at 521,718, and then declined as people moved to the suburbs until about 1990. The number of African-Americans, Asians, and Hispanics is growing. Non-whites are now about one fifth of the city's residents.[33]

Compared to the U.S. national average in 2005, the city has fewer white, Hispanic, senior, and unemployed people, while it has more people aged over 18 and more with a college degree.[34]

Compared to a peer group in 2000, the metropolitan area is decentralizing, with a high churn rate and a large young and white population and low unemployment. Racial and ethnic minorities lag behind white counterparts in education, with 15% of black and 13% of Hispanic people holding bachelor's degrees compared to 42% of the white population. The standard of living is on the rise, with incomes among the highest in the Midwest, but median household income among black people is below that of white by over $17,000. Home ownership among black and Hispanic residents is half that of white, and one-third of the Asian population lives below the poverty line.[34]
U.S. Census Population Estimates
Year1860187018801890190019101920193019401950196019701980199020002005
Population 3,00013,00046,887164,738202,718301,408380,582464,356492,370521,718482,872434,400370,951368,383382,618372,811
U.S. Rank[35]--381819181815161725323442--

Economy

Main article: Economy of Minnesota
Enlarge picture
Target Corporation's 350,000 employees operate about 1,500 retail stores in 47 U.S. states.[36]
The economy of Minneapolis today is based in commerce, finance, rail and trucking services, health care, and industry. Smaller components are in publishing, milling, food processing, graphic arts, insurance, and high technology. Industry produces metal and automotive products, chemical and agricultural products, electronics, computers, precision medical instruments and devices, plastics, and machinery.[37]

Enlarge picture
White U.S. Bancorp towers reflected in 225 South Sixth
Five Fortune 500 headquarters are in Minneapolis proper: Target Corporation, U.S. Bancorp, Xcel Energy, Ameriprise Financial and Thrivent Financial for Lutherans. Fortune 1000 companies in Minneapolis include PepsiAmericas, Valspar Corporation and Donaldson Company.[38] Apart from government, the city's largest employers are Target, Wells Fargo, Ameriprise, Marshall Field's, Star Tribune, U.S. Bancorp, Xcel Energy, IBM, Piper Jaffray, RBC Dain Rauscher, ING Group and Qwest.[39]

Availability of Wi-Fi, transportation solutions, medical trials, university research and development expenditures, advanced degrees held by the work force, and energy conservation are so far above the national average that in 2005, Popular Science named Minneapolis the "Top Tech City" in the U.S.[40] Minneapolis ranked the country's second best city in a 2006 Kiplinger's poll of Smart Places to Live and one of the Seven Cool Cities for young professionals.[41]

The Twin Cities contribute 63.8% of the gross state product of Minnesota. The area's $145.8 billion gross metropolitan product and its per capita personal income rank fourteenth in the U.S. Recovering from the nation's recession in 2000, personal income grew 3.8% in 2005, though it was behind the national average of 5%. The city returned to peak employment during the fourth quarter of that year.[42]

The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, with one branch in Helena, Montana, serves Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, and parts of Wisconsin and Michigan. The smallest of the twelve regional banks in the Federal Reserve System, it operates a nationwide payments system, oversees member banks and bank holding companies, and serves as a banker for the U.S. Treasury.[43] The Minneapolis Grain Exchange founded in 1881 is still located near the riverfront and is the only exchange for hard red spring wheat futures and options.[44]

Arts

Enlarge picture
Founded in 1883, the Minneapolis Institute of Arts is one of America's few major art museums with free admission (except special exhibits).[45]


The region is second only to New York City in live theater per capita[45] and is the third-largest theater market in the U.S., supporting the Theatre de la Jeune Lune, Illusion, Jungle, Mixed Blood, Penumbra, the Brave New Workshop, the Minnesota Dance Theatre, Theater Latté Da, In the Heart of the Beast Theatre, and the Children's Theatre Company.[46] French architect Jean Nouvel designed a new three stage complex[46] for the Guthrie Theatre, the prototype alternative to Broadway founded in Minneapolis in 1965.[47] Minneapolis purchased and renovated the Orpheum, State, and Pantages Theatre vaudeville and film houses on Hennepin Avenue now used for concerts and plays.[48] In 2007, a fourth renovated theater will join the Hennepin Center for the Arts to become the Minnesota Shubert Performing Arts and Education Center, a home to twenty performing arts groups and a provider of Web-based art education.[49]

The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, built in 1915 in south central Minneapolis is the largest art museum in the city with 100,000 pieces in its permanent collection. A new wing designed by Michael Graves was completed in 2006 for contemporary and modern works and more gallery space.[50] The Walker Art Center near downtown doubled its size with an addition in 2005 by Herzog & de Meuron and is continuing its expansion to 15 acres (.06 km²) with a park designed by Michel Desvigne across the street from the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden.[51] The Weisman Art Museum, designed by Frank Gehry for the University of Minnesota, opened in 1993. An addition, also designed by Gehry, is expected to open in 2009.[52]

The son of a jazz musician and a singer, Prince is Minneapolis' most famous musical progeny.[54] With fellow local musicians, many of whom recorded at Twin/Tone Records,[55] he helped make First Avenue and the 7th Street Entry venues of choice for both artists and audiences.[56] The Minnesota Orchestra plays classical and popular music at Orchestra Hall under music director Osmo Vänskä who has set about making it the best in the country.[57] The Minnesota Opera produces both classic and new operas.[58] Celebrating its 100th year, the MacPhail Center for Music is building a new facility near the riverfront.[59]

Tom Waits released two songs about the city, Christmas Card from a Hooker in Minneapolis (Blue Valentine 1978) and 9th & Hennepin (Rain Dogs 1985). Home to the MN Spoken Word Association, the city has garnered notice for rap and hip hop and its spoken word community.[60] The underground hip-hop group Atmosphere frequently comments in song lyrics on the city and Minnesota.[61]

Sports

Main article: Sports in Minnesota
Professional sports are well-established in Minneapolis. First playing in 1884, the Minneapolis Millers baseball team produced the best won-lost record in their league at the time and contributed fifteen players to the Baseball Hall of Fame. During the 1940s and 1950s the Minneapolis Lakers basketball team, the city's first in the major leagues in any sport, won six basketball championships in three leagues before moving to Los Angeles.[61] The American Wrestling Association, formerly the NWA Minneapolis Boxing & Wrestling Club, operated in Minneapolis from 1960 until the 1990s.[62]

The Minnesota Vikings and the Minnesota Twins arrived in the state in 1961. The Vikings were an NFL expansion team and the Twins were formed when the Washington Senators relocated to Minnesota. Both teams played outdoors in open air Metropolitan Stadium in the suburb of Bloomington for twenty years before moving to the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, where the Twins won the World Series in 1987 and 1991. The Minnesota Timberwolves brought NBA basketball back to Minneapolis in 1989, followed by the Minnesota Lynx WNBA team in 1999. They play in Target Center. The NHL ice hockey team Minnesota Wild and USL-1 soccer team Minnesota Thunder play in St. Paul.[61]

Enlarge picture
Golden Gophers basketball
The downtown Metrodome, opened in 1982, is the largest sports stadium in Minnesota. The three major tenants are the Vikings, the Twins and the university's Golden Gophers football team. The Metrodome is the only stadium in the country to have hosted a Major League Baseball All-Star Game, the Super Bowl, the World Series, and NCAA Basketball Men's Final Four. Runners, walkers, inline skaters, coed volleyball teams, and touch football teams all have access to "The Dome". Events from sports to concerts, community activities, religious activities, and trade shows are held more than three hundred days per year, making the facility one of the most versatile stadiums in the world.[63]

Gifted amateur athletes have played in Minneapolis schools, notably starting in the 1920s and 1930s at Central, De La Salle, and Marshall high schools. Since the 1930s, the Golden Gophers have won national championships in men's baseball, boxing, football, golf, gymnastics, ice hockey, indoor and outdoor track, swimming and wrestling and women's gymnastics, ice hockey, indoor track and swimming.[64][65]

Professional Sports in Minneapolis
Club Sport League Venue Championships
Minnesota LynxBasketballWomen's National Basketball Association Western ConferenceTarget Center
Minnesota TimberwolvesBasketballNational Basketball Association Western ConferenceTarget Center
Minnesota TwinsBaseballMajor League Baseball American LeagueMetrodomeWorld Series 1987 and 1991
Minnesota VikingsAmerican footballNational Football League National Football ConferenceMetrodome

Parks and recreation

The Minneapolis park system has been called the best-designed, best-financed and best-maintained in America.[66] Foresight, donations and effort by community leaders enabled Horace Cleveland to create his finest landscape architecture, preserving geographical landmarks and linking them with boulevards and parkways.[67] The city's Chain of Lakes is connected by bike, running, and walking paths and used for swimming, fishing, picnics, boating, and ice skating. A parkway for cars, a bikeway for riders, and a walkway for pedestrians run parallel paths along the 52 mile (83 km) route of the Grand Rounds Scenic Byway.[68]

Theodore Wirth is credited with the development of the parks system that brought a playground within the reach of most children, the city's canopy of trees, and a park within six blocks of each home.[69] Today 15% of the city is parks and there are 770 square feet (71 m²) of parkland for each resident.[70]

Enlarge picture
Minnehaha Falls is part of a 193 acre (.78 km²) city park rather than an urban area, because the waterpower provided by the falls was overshadowed by that of St. Anthony Falls a few miles upriver and its popularity after Longfellow's poem Song of Hiawatha brought visitors to the falls.[71][72][72]
Parks are interlinked in many places and the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area connects regional parks and visitor centers. The country's oldest public wildflower garden, the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden and Bird Sanctuary is near Theodore Wirth Park which is shared with Golden Valley and is about 60% the size of Central Park in New York City.[73] Site of the 53-foot (16 m) Minnehaha Falls, Minnehaha Park is one of the city's oldest and most popular parks, receiving over 500,000 visitors each year.[74] Henry Wadsworth Longfellow named Hiawatha's wife Minnehaha for the Minneapolis waterfall in his The Song of Hiawatha, a bestselling and often-parodied 19th century poem.[75]

Runner's World ranks Minneapolis America's sixth best city for runners.[76] The Twin Cities Marathon run in Minneapolis and St. Paul every October draws 250,000 spectators. The 26.2 mile (42 km) race is a Boston and USA Olympic Trials qualifier. The organizers sponsor three more races: a Kids Marathon, a 1 mile (1.6 km), and a 10 mile (16 km).[77] Minneapolis is home to more golfers per capita than any major U.S. city.[78] Five golf courses are located within the city, with nationally renowned Hazeltine National Golf Club, Bearpath Country Club, and Bunker Hills Golf Course in nearby suburbs.[79] The state of Minnesota has the nation's highest number of bicyclists, sport fishermen, and snow skiers per capita. Hennepin County has the second-highest number of horses per capita in the U.S.[80] While living in Minneapolis, Scott and Brennan Olson founded (and later sold) Rollerblade, the company that popularized the sport of inline skating.[81]

Government

Enlarge picture
Spring art party, North Commons Park, Willard-Hay, one of the eighty one neighborhoods of Minneapolis
Minneapolis is a stronghold for the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL), an affiliate of the Democratic Party. The Minneapolis City Council holds the most power and represents the city's thirteen districts called wards. The council has twelve DFL members and one from the Green Party. R.T. Rybak also of the DFL is the current mayor of Minneapolis. The office of mayor is relatively weak but has some power to appoint individuals such as the chief of police. Parks, libraries, taxation, and public housing are semi-independent boards and levy their own taxes and fees subject to Board of Estimate and Taxation limits.[82]

Citizens have a unique and powerful influence in neighborhood government. Neighborhoods coordinate activities under the Neighborhood Revitalization Program (NRP), funded in the 1990s by the city and state who appropriated $400 million for it over twenty years.[83] Minneapolis is divided into communities, each containing neighborhoods. In some cases two or more neighborhoods act together under one organization. Some areas are commonly known by nicknames of business associations.[84]

The organizers of Earth Day scored Minneapolis ninth best overall and second among mid-sized cities in their 2007 Urban Environment Report, a study based on indicators of environmental health and their effect on people.[85]

Early Minneapolis experienced a period of corruption in local government and crime was common until an economic downturn in the mid 1900s. Since 1950 the population decreased and much of downtown was lost to urban renewal and highway construction. The result was a "moribund and peaceful" environment until the 1990s.[86] Along with economic recovery the murder rate climbed. The Minneapolis Police Department imported a computer system from New York City that sent officers to high crime areas despite accusations of racial profiling; the result was a drop in major crime. Since 1999 the number of homicides increased during four years, and to its highest in recent history in 2006.[87] Politicians debate the causes and solutions, including increasing the number of police officers, providing youths with alternatives to gangs and drugs, and helping families in poverty. For 2007, the city invested in public safety infrastructure, hired over forty new officers, and has a new police chief, Tim Dolan.[88]

Education

Minneapolis Public Schools enroll 36,370 students in public primary and secondary schools. The district administers about one hundred public schools including forty-five elementary schools, seven middle schools, seven high schools, eight special education schools, eight alternative schools, nineteen contract alternative schools and five charter schools. With authority granted by the state legislature, the school board makes policy, selects the superintendent, and oversees the district's budget, curriculum, personnel, and facilities. Students speak ninety different languages at home and most school communications are printed in English, Hmong, Spanish, and Somali.[89] Besides public schools, the city is home to more than twenty private schools and academies and about twenty additional charter schools.[90]

Minneapolis' collegiate scene is dominated by the main campus of the University of Minnesota where more than 50,000 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students attend twenty colleges, schools, and institutes. Created in 1851 as a preparatory school, the university is noted for engineering, applied mathematics, management, health, and economics and administers more than 140 research facilities.[91] A Big Ten school and home of the Golden Gophers, the U of M is the fourth largest campus in the U.S. in terms of enrollment.[92]

Minneapolis Community and Technical College, the private Dunwoody College of Technology, and Art Institutes International Minnesota provide career training. Augsburg College, Minneapolis College of Art and Design, North Central University, and University of St. Thomas are private four-year colleges. Capella University, Minnesota School of Professional Psychology, and Walden University are headquartered in Minneapolis and some others including the public four-year Metropolitan State University have campuses there.[93]

The Minneapolis Public Library system operates the city's public libraries. It faced a severe budget shortfall for 2007, and has been forced to close three of its neighborhood libraries.[94] A merger with Hennepin County Library is proposed but not funded.[95] The new downtown Central Library designed by César Pelli opened in 2006.[96] Ten special collections hold over 25,000 books and resources for researchers, including the Minneapolis Collection and the Minneapolis Photo Collection.[97] At recent count 1,696,453 items in the system are used annually and the library answers over 500,000 research and fact-finding questions each year.[98]

Transportation

Enlarge picture
Main article: I-35W Mississippi River bridge

The collapse of the eight-lane Interstate 35W bridge over the Mississippi on 2007-08-01 killed thirteen people and injured about one hundred. The tragedy revealed that seventy thousand or 12% of the bridges in the U.S. had the same deficiency rating in 2006.[99]
Half of Minneapolis-Saint Paul residents work in the city where they live.[100] Most residents drive cars but 60% of the 160,000 people working downtown commute by means other than a single person per auto.[101] Alternative transportation is encouraged. The Metropolitan Council's Metro Transit, which operates the light rail system and most of the city's buses, provides free travel vouchers through the Guaranteed Ride Home program to allay fears that commuters might otherwise be occasionally stranded if, for example, they work late hours.[102] The Hiawatha Line LRT serves 34,000 riders daily and connects the Minneapolis-St. Paul International airport and Mall of America to downtown.[103] The planned Central Corridor LRT will connect downtown with the University of Minnesota and downtown St. Paul via University Avenue. Expected completion is in 2014.[104]

Seven miles (11 km) of enclosed pedestrian bridges called skyways link eighty city blocks downtown. Second floor restaurants and retailers connected to these passageways are open weekdays.[105]

The taxicab ordinance requires 10% wheelchair accessibility by 2009 and some use of alternative fuel or fuel efficient vehicles. Starting in 2011 the city's limit of 343 taxis will be lifted.[106]

Enlarge picture
Hiawatha Line LRT bicycle rack
Ten thousand cyclists use the bike lanes in the city each day, and many ride in the winter. The Public Works Department expanded the bicycle trail system from the Grand Rounds to 56 miles (90 km) of off-street commuter trails including the Midtown Greenway, the Light Rail Trail, Kenilworth Trail, Cedar Lake Trail and the West River Parkway Trail along the Mississippi. Minneapolis also has 34 miles (54 km) of dedicated bike lanes on city streets and encourages cycling by equipping transit buses with bike racks and by providing online bicycle maps.[107] Many of these trails and bridges, such as the Stone Arch Bridge, were former railroad lines that have now been converted for bicycles and pedestrians.[108] In 2007 citing the city's bicycle lanes, buses and LRT, Forbes identified Minneapolis the world's fifth cleanest city.[109]

Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport (MSP) sits on 3,400 acres (13.7 km²) [110] southeast of the city between Minnesota State Highway 5, Interstate 494, Minnesota State Highway 77, and Minnesota State Highway 62. The airport serves three international, twelve domestic, seven charter and four regional carriers[111] and is a hub and home base for Northwest Airlines, Mesaba Airlines, Sun Country Airlines and Champion Air.[112]

Amtrak's Empire Builder between Chicago and Seattle stops once daily in each direction at nearby Midway Station in St. Paul.[113] Expected to open in 2009, a commuter rail line, the Northstar Corridor between downtown and Big Lake, Minnesota has been funded. It will utilize existing railroad tracks and will serve a projected 5,000 daily commuters.[114]

Media

Enlarge picture
WCCO-TV satellite dishes
Four major newspapers are published in Minneapolis: the daily Minneapolis Star Tribune, the Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder, Finance and Commerce, and the university's The Minnesota Daily. A fifth newspaper, MinnPost.com is expected to open later in 2007.[115] Other publications are the City Pages weekly, the Mpls.St.Paul, Minnesota Monthly, and The Rake monthlies, and Utne magazine.[116] Minneapolis is a center for printing and publishing and was a natural place for artists to build the Loft Literary Center and the Minnesota Center for Book Arts.[116] The city is ranked America's second most literate.[117] The New York Times said in 1996, "Now there are T-shirts that read, 'Murderapolis,'" a name for the city that members of the local media have mistakenly attributed to the paper.[118]

Enlarge picture
KFAI radio, Cedar-Riverside, is a public access station.
Minneapolis has a mix of radio stations and healthy listener support for public radio but in the commercial market, a single organization Clear Channel Communications operates seven stations. Listeners support three non-profit stations, the Minneapolis Public Schools and the University of Minnesota each operate a station, the networks broadcast on affiliate stations, and religious organizations run two stations.[119]

The city's first television was broadcast by the St. Paul station and ABC affiliate KSTP-TV. The first to broadcast in color was WCCO-TV, the CBS affiliate which is located in downtown Minneapolis.[116] The city also receives FOX, NBC, PBS, MyNetworkTV and The CW through their affiliates and one independent station.[120] Twins Brandon and Brenda Walsh were from Minneapolis on the TV series Beverly Hills, 90210.[121] American Idol held auditions for its sixth season in Minneapolis in 2006[122] and Last Comic Standing held auditions for its fifth season in Minneapolis in 2007.[123] A statue of Mary Tyler Moore downtown on the Nicollet Mall commemorates the 1970s television situation comedy fictionally based in Minneapolis, Mary Tyler Moore. It was awarded three Golden Globes and thirty-one Emmy Awards.[124]

Religion and charity

The Dakota believed in the Great Spirit and were surprised that not all European settlers were religious.[125] Over fifty denominations and religions and some well known churches have since been established in Minneapolis. Those who arrived from New England were for the most part Christian Protestants, Quakers, and Universalists.[125] The oldest continuously used church in the city, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church in the Nicollet Island/East Bank neighborhood was built in 1856 by Universalists and soon afterward was acquired by a French Catholic congregation.[126] Formed in 1878 as Shaarai Tov, in 1902 the first Jewish congregation in Minneapolis built the synagogue in East Isles known since 1920 as Temple Israel.[126] St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral was founded in 1887, opened a missionary school in 1897 and in 1905 created the first Russian Orthodox seminary in the U.S.[127] The first basilica in the U.S., the Roman Catholic Basilica of Saint Mary near Loring Park was named by Pope Pius XI.[125]

Enlarge picture
Westminster Presbyterian Church (right). The Minneapolis Foundation is located in the IDS Center (center left).
The Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, Decision magazine, and World Wide Pictures film and television distribution were headquartered in Minneapolis for about forty of the years between the late 1940s into the 2000s.[128] Jim Bakker and Tammy Faye met while attending the Pentecostal North Central University and began a television ministry that by the 1980s reached 13.5 million households.[129] Today, Mount Olivet Lutheran Church in southwest Minneapolis has 6,000 active members and is the world's largest Lutheran congregation.[130] Christ Church Lutheran in the Longfellow neighborhood is among the finest work by architect Eliel Saarinen. The congregation later added an education building designed by his son Eero Saarinen.[131]

Philanthropy and charitable giving are part of the community.[132] More than 40% of adults in Minneapolis-St. Paul give time to volunteer work, the highest percent in the U.S.[133] Catholic Charities is one of the largest providers of social services locally.[134] The American Refugee Committee helps one million refugees and displaced persons in ten countries in Africa, the Balkans and Asia each year.[135] Although no Minneapolis businesses are top corporate citizens, Business Ethics was based in Minneapolis and was the predecessor of CRO magazine for corporate responsibility officers.[136] The oldest foundation in Minnesota, the Minneapolis Foundation invests and administers over nine hundred charitable funds and connects donors to nonprofit organizations.[137] The metropolitan area gives 13% of its total charitable donations to the arts and culture. The majority of the estimated $1 billion recent expansion of arts facilities was contributed privately.[138]

Health and utilities

Minneapolis has five hospitals, three ranked among America's best by U.S. News & World Report—Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC) and the University of Minnesota Medical Center.[139] All three were founded under other names during the 1800s and early 1900s.[140] The Britton Center for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Children's Hospitals and Clinics also serve the city. The Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota is a 75-minute drive away.[141]

Cardiac surgery was developed at the university's Variety Club Hospital, where by 1957, more than two hundred patients had survived open-heart operations, many of them children. Working with surgeon C. Walton Lillehei, Medtronic began to build portable and implantable cardiac pacemakers about this time.[142]

Enlarge picture
A Snow Emergency
HCMC opened in 1887 as City Hospital and was also known as General Hospital.[142] A public teaching hospital and Level I trauma center, the HCMC safety net sees 350,000 patient visits and 95,000 emergency room visits each year and in 2006 provided about 18% of the uncompensated care given in Minnesota.[143]

Utility providers are regulated monopolies: Xcel Energy supplies electricity, CenterPoint Energy supplies gas, Qwest is the landline telephone provider, and Comcast is the cable service.[143] In 2007 city-wide wireless is to begin, provided for 10 years by US Internet of Minnetonka to residents for about $20 per month and to businesses for $30.[144] The city treats and distributes water and requires payment of a monthly solid waste fee for trash removal, recycling, and drop off for large items. Residents who recycle receive a credit. Hazardous waste is handled by Hennepin County drop off sites.[145] After each significant snowfall, called a Snow Emergency, the Minneapolis Public Works Street Division plows over one thousand miles (1609 km) of streets and four hundred miles (643.7 km) of alleys—counting both sides, the distance between Minneapolis and Seattle and back. Ordinances govern parking on the plowing routes during these emergencies as well as snow shoveling throughout the city.[146]

Sister cities

Citizens maintain international connections with eight sister cities:[147]
And informal connections with:

See also

References

1. ^ Twin Cities Region Population and Household Estimates, 2006 (PDF). Metropolitan Council (2006-04-01). Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
2. ^ Table 2: Population Estimates for the 100 Most Populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas Based on July 1, 2006 Population Estimates: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau (2007-04-05). Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
3. ^ 2005 population estimate for Minneapolis city. Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau (August 21 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
4. ^ Dakota Dictionary Online. University of Minnesota Department of American Indian Studies (fmdb.cla.umn.edu). and A History of Minneapolis: Naming of Minneapolis. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us) (2001). Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
5. ^ Minneapolis. Emporis Buildings (emporis.com). Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
6. ^ Kappler, Charles J., Washington: Government Printing Office, ed. (1904), Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, vol. II (Treaties, 1778-1883), Oklahoma State University Library. and Treaty with the Sioux (1837-09-29). and Treaty with the Sioux—Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands (1851-07-23). and Treaty With the Sioux—Mdewakanton and Wapahkoota Bands (1851-08-05). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
7. ^ A History of Minneapolis: Mdewakanton Band of the Dakota Nation, Parts I and II. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us) (2001). and A History of Minneapolis: Minneapolis Becomes Part of the United States., and A History of Minneapolis: Governance and Infrastructure. and A History of Minneapolis: Railways. Retrieved on 2007-04-30..
8. ^ History of Technology. HistoryWorld (historyworld.net). Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
9. ^ Anfinson, Scott F. (1989). "Part 2: Archaeological Explorations and Interpretive Potentials: Chapter 4 Interpretive Potentials". The Minnesota Archaeologist 49. Retrieved on 2007-04-03. 
10. ^ Frame, Robert M. III, Jeffrey Hess (January 1990). West Side Milling District, Historic American Engineering Record MN-16 2. U.S. National Park Service (via U.S. Library of Congress). Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
11. ^ Salisbury, Rollin D., Harlan Harland Barrows, Walter Sheldon Tower (1912). The Elements of Geography. University of Michigan, reprinted by H. Holt and company, 441. Retrieved on 2007-06-27. 
12. ^ History. Mill City Museum. Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
13. ^ Atwater, Isaac (1893). History of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Munsell (via Google Books), 257–262. Retrieved on 2007-04-23. 
14. ^ 1934 Truckers' Strike (Minneapolis). Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
15. ^ Reichard, Gary W. (Summer 1998). "Mayor Hubert H. Humphrey". Minnesota History 56 (2): 50–67. Retrieved on 2007-05-06. 
16. ^ Harry Davis. Almanac (RealVideo). Twin Cities Public Television. and American Indian Movement. Encyclopaedia Britannica (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
17. ^ Hart, Joseph (1998-05-06). "Room at the Bottom". City Pages 19 (909). Retrieved on 2007-04-01. 
18. ^ Engineering the Falls: The Corps Role at St. Anthony Falls. US Army Corps of Engineers, Mississippi Valley Division, St. Paul District. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
19. ^ Mississippi: River Facts. U.S. National Park Service (2006-08-14). and Police Recruiting: About Minneapolis. City of Minneapolis (2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
20. ^ "Minneapolis". Encarta. (1993–2007).  and Minnesota—Place and County Subdivision. U.S. Census Bureau (2000). Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
21. ^ State of the City: Physical Environment (PDF). Minneapolis Planning Division (2003). Retrieved on 2007-04-27.
22. ^ State of the City (PDF). Planning Division of the Minneapolis Department of Community Planning and Economic Development (2003). Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
23. ^ Water Resources Report (PDF). Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board (2003). Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
24. ^ The 45th Parallel. Wurlington Bros. Press. Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
25. ^ Minnesota Preservation Planner IX (2) (PDF). Minnesota Historical Society (Spring 1998). Retrieved on 2007-03-21. and Bonham, Tim (10 June, 2001). email. Retrieved on 2007-01-12. and Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S. Department of the Interior — U.S. Geological Survey (April 29 2005). Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
26. ^ Fisk, Charles (March 3 2007). Links to Some of the More Interesting Years With Accompanying Notes. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
27. ^ 45.4 °F for 1971 through 2000 per U.S. Census who cites Normals 1971–2000. National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on 2007-03-25. or 44.6 °F per Fisk, Charles (March 3 2007). Minneapolis-St. Paul Area Daily Climatological History of Temperature, Precipitation, and Snowfall, A Year-by-Year Graphical Portrayal (1820–Present). Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
28. ^ Minneapolis-St.Paul Weather. US Travel Weather (ustravelweather.com). Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
29. ^ Nathanson, Iric. Jews in Minnesota (PDF). Jewish Community Relations Council. Retrieved on 2007-04-14.
30. ^ A History of Minneapolis: Residents of the City. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us) (2001). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
31. ^ Minneapolis/St. Paul in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000. Metropolitan Policy Program, The Brookings Institution (November 2003). Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
32. ^ Twin Cities Region Population and Household Estimates, 2005 (PDF). Metropolitan Council (2005-04-01). Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
33. ^ "Minneapolis History". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-24. 
34. ^ American Fact Finder. U.S. Census Bureau (2005). Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
35. ^ Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). Table 1. Rank by Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790-1990. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
36. ^ Company Overview. Target Corporation (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
37. ^ "Minneapolis: The contemporary city". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-24. 
38. ^ Fortune 500: Minnesota. Cable News Network LP, LLLP, Time Warner Company (2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
39. ^ Black, Sam. "Top employer in downtown Minneapolis: Target", Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal, American City Business Journals, Inc., 2006-01-26. Retrieved on 2007-09-19. 
40. ^ Pacella, Rena Marie. "Top Tech City: Minneapolis, MN", Popular Science, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-01-18. 
41. ^ Jane Bennett Clark. "Seven Cool Cities", Kiplinger's Personal Finance, The Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc., October 2005. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.  and 50 Smart Places to Live: #2 Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn.. The Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc. (Kiplinger.com) (June 1 2006). Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
42. ^ The Role of Metro Areas in the U.S. Economy (PDF). Global Insight (2006). Retrieved on 2007-02-12. and Personal Income and Per Capita Personal Income by Metropolitan Area, 2003–2005. Bureau of Economic Analysis (September 6 2006). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
43. ^ Levy, David (December 1992). Interview with Paul Volcker. The Region. and Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
44. ^ Buyers & Processors. North Dakota Wheat Commission. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
45. ^ Charity report about: Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts d/b/a Minneapolis Institute of Arts (PDF). Charities Review Council. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
46. ^ Horwich, Jeff. "Council moves closer to theater deal, but concerns remain", Minnesota Public Radio, April 6 2005. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.2005">  and Music & Theater. City of Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
47. ^ Guthrie Theater. Minnesota Historical Society. and Theater History. Guthrie Theater. Retrieved on 2007-04-23.
48. ^ Theatre History. Hennepin Theatre Trust. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
49. ^ Minnesota Shubert Performing Arts and Education Center (PDF). Artspace Projects, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
50. ^ Joubert, Claire (May 2006). Boom Town (PDF). Mpls.St.Paul (via Meet Minneapolis). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
51. ^ Minneapolis Sculpture Garden. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
52. ^ Abbe, Mary. "A twist in the tinfoil—Gehry doing Weisman addition", Star Tribune, Avista Capital Partners, March 8 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.2007"> 
53. ^ Palmer, Caroline (2000-04-26). "Footsteps". City Pages 21 (1012).  and Minneapolis Arts Commission et al. (June 2005). The Minneapolis Plan for Arts & Culture (PDF). City of Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
54. ^ Matos, Michaelangelo in Brackett, Nathan (2004-11-02). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide, 4, Fireside. ISBN 0-74320-169-8. Retrieved on 2007-04-30. 
55. ^ The Twin/Tone catalog. Twin/Tone Records (1978–1998). Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
56. ^ First Avenue & 7th Street Entry Band Files. Minnesota Historical Society (1999–2004). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
57. ^ Oestreich, James R.. "MUSIC; A Most Audacious Dare Reverberates", The New York Times, The New York Times Company, December 17 2006. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.2006"> 
58. ^ History. Minnesota Opera. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
59. ^ Press. MacPhail Center for Music. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
60. ^ Minnesota Spoken Word Association. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
61. ^ Atmosphere (January 4 2005). "I Wish Those Cats @ Fobia Would Give Me Some Free Shoes" and "Sep Seven Game Show Them" and "7th St. Entry" on remastered. Rhymesayers, ASIN: B0006SSRXS [Explicit lyrics].
62. ^ About The AWA. AWA Wrestling Entertainment (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
63. ^ History of the Metrodome. Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission (2006). and Hubert H. Humphrey MetroDome. Ticket King. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
64. ^ A History of Minneapolis: Amateur Sports. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us) (2001). and A History of Minneapolis: Professional Sports. Minneapolis Public Library (2001). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
65. ^ Summary: National Collegiate/Division I Men's (PDF). National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) (through 2005–2006). and Summary: National Collegiate/Division I Women's (PDF). NCAA (through 2005–2006). Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
66. ^ Garvin, Alexander (June 19 2002). The American City : What Works, What Doesn't, 2, McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07137-367-5.2002&rft.edition=2&rft.pub=McGraw-Hill%20Professional"> 
67. ^ Loring, Charles M. (1915, read 11 November 1912). History of the Parks and Public Grounds of Minneapolis. Minnesota Historical Society, University of Michigan (via Google Books), 601–602. Retrieved on 2007-04-11.1912&rft.pub=Minnesota%20Historical%20Society,%20University%20of%20Michigan%20%28via%20Google%20Books%29&rft.pages=601%26%238211%3B602&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fvid%3D0DBNDCIwwq1_LSUCWrdOEG2%26id%3DRDMC_Qw899IC%26pg%3DPA599%23PPA601,M1">  and Nadenicek, Daniel J. and Neckar, Lance M. in Cleveland, H. W. S. (April 2002). Landscape Architecture, as Applied to the Wants of the West; with an Essay on Forest Planting on the Great Plains. University of Massachusetts Press, ASLA Centennial Reprint Series. ISBN 1-55849-330-1. 
68. ^ Grand Rounds Scenic Byway. National Scenic Byways Online (byways.org).
69. ^ Theodore Wirth (1863–1949). National Recreation and Park Association. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
70. ^ Magnusson, Jemilah (March/April 2005). "The Top 10 Green Cities in the U.S.". The Green Guide 107.  and Minneapolis Local Surface Water Management Plan (PDF). Minneapolis Public Works & Engineering (undated, refers to 2000 census). Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
71. ^ Cairn, Rich and Susan (2003). History of Minnehaha Creek Watershed. Minnehahacreek.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
72. ^ Atwater, Isaac (1893). History of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Munsell, Harvard University via Google Books, 407, 508. Retrieved on 2007-08-11. 
73. ^ Theodore Wirth Park, MN. National Scenic Byways Online (byways.org). and FAQs. Central Park Conservancy (centralparknyc.org) (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
74. ^ Minnehaha Park. Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
75. ^ "Henry Wadsworth Longfellow". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-30. 
76. ^ Adams, Lori; Gorin, Amy; Rennie, Doug; Rushlow, Amy; Sayago, Joanna. The 25 Best Running Cities in America. Runner's World. Rodale. Retrieved on 2007-04-14.
77. ^ Twin Cities Marathon. Twin Cities Marathon (mtcmarathon.org). Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
78. ^ What's Happening in the Area. Mall of America. Retrieved on 2007-03-30.
79. ^ Recreational activities. Minneapolis.org (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
80. ^ Newspapers: Star Tribune. The McClatchy Company. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
81. ^ Inventor of the Week Archive: Scott & Brennan Olson (spelling corrected per rowbike.com). Lemelson-MIT, MIT School of Engineering (August 1997). Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
82. ^ City Council. City of Minneapolis. and . E-Democracy (e-democracy.org) (October 26 2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-24. and Anderson, G.R. Jr. (2002-07-10). "The Compulsiveness of the Long-Distance Runner". City Pages 23 (1127). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.  and Board of Estimate and Taxation. City of Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
83. ^ Fagotto, Elena, Archon Fung (February 15 2005). The Minneapolis Neighborhood Revitalization Program: An Experiment in Empowered Participatory Governance (PDF). Institute of Development Studies, LogoLink (ids.ac.uk). Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
84. ^ City of Minneapolis. Neighborhoods & Communities (PDF). GIS Business Services, City of Minneapolis (2004, updated January 2006). and City of Minneapolis Business Associations (PDF). Minneapolis Community Planning and Economic Development (CPED) Department (November 17 2005). Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
85. ^ Urban Environment Report, City Environment Data: Minneapolis, Minnesota. Earth Day Network. Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
86. ^ Moskowitz, Dara (1995-10-11). "Minneapolis Confidential". City Pages 16 (775). Retrieved on 2007-03-21. 
87. ^ Uniform Crime Reports. Minneapolis Police Department, CODEFOR Unit. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
88. ^ Williams, Brandt. "Homicide problem awaits Minneapolis' new police chief", Minnesota Public Radio, January 9 2007.2007">  and Scheck, Tom. "Sparks fly at Minneapolis mayoral debate", Minnesota Public Radio, August 25 2005. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.2005"> 
89. ^ MPS Facts 2006–2007. Minneapolis Public Schools. and About MPS. and Board of Education. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
90. ^ Alphabetical List of Nonpublic Schools. Minnesota Department of Education (2005). and Charter Schools (2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
91. ^ "Minnesota, University of". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-24. 
92. ^ NCES Digest of Education Statistics (2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
93. ^ Post-Secondary Schools. Minnesota Department of Education (2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
94. ^ Frequently Asked Questions: Library Board Decisions and Libraries Closing. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us) (2006-10-26). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
95. ^ Oder, Norman (2007-06-07). "Minneapolis, Hennepin Library Merger Hits Another Hump". Library Journal. Retrieved on 2007-06-22. 
96. ^ Arts at MPL: Cesar Pelli (February 2 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
97. ^ Unique Collections. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us) (March 15 2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
98. ^ MPL Annual Report (PDF) (2004). Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
99. ^ Pugmire, Tim. "Bush declares federal emergency at Minn. bridge collapse", Minnesota Public Radio, 2007-08-21.  and Jackson, Henry C. (Associated Press). "Minn. Bridge Toll Far Less Than Feared", Guardian Online, Guardian News and Media Limited, 2007-08-03. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. 
100. ^ Minneapolis/St. Paul in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000 (PDF). Brookings Institution, Living Cities Census Series (2003). Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
101. ^ Cati Vanden Breul (September 28 2005). Downtown Minneapolis named one of 17 best commuting districts. The Minnesota Daily. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
102. ^ Guaranteed Ride Home. Metro Transit. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
103. ^ APTA Transit Ridership Report (PDF). American Public Transportation Association (Third Quarter, 2006). and Hiawatha Line. Metro Transit (2006). Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
104. ^ Central Corridor next steps and timeline. Metropolitan Council (April 2 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-11.
105. ^ Skyways. Meet Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-03-21. and Gill, N.S.. Skyways: Downtown Minneapolis and St. Paul Skyways. About.com. About, Inc., The New York Times Company. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
106. ^ Amending ordinance relating to Taxicabs (PDF). Minneapolis City Council (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
107. ^ Where to Ride in Minneapolis. City of Minneapolis (1997–2004). Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
108. ^ Stone Arch Bridge. Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
109. ^ Malone, Robert (2007-04-16). Which Are The World's Cleanest Cities?. Forbes. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
110. ^ History and Mission. Metropolitan Airports Commission. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
111. ^ A History of Minneapolis: Air Transportation. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us) (2001). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
112. ^ Pilot Groups. Air Line Pilots Association. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
113. ^ St. Paul-Minneapolis, MN (MSP). Amtrak. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
114. ^ Facts and Figures. Minnesota Department of Transportation and Northstar Corridor Development Authority. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
115. ^ "Former 'Star Tribune' Publisher Launches Major Site for Twin Cities", Editor & Publisher, The Nielsen Company, 2007-08-27. Retrieved on 2007-08-27. 
116. ^ A History of Minneapolis: News, Media and Publishing. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us) (2001). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
117. ^ American's Most Literate Cities. Central Connecticut State University (2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
118. ^ Anderson, G.R. Jr. (2007-03-21). "The Human Shield". City Pages 28 (1372).  and Shortal, Jana. "Gang violence on the rise? Some veteran officers say Yes.", KARE-11, April 6 2007.2007">  and Johnson, Dirk. "Nice City's Nasty Distinction: Murders Soar in Minneapolis", The New York Times, The New York Times Company, June 30 1996. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.1996"> 
119. ^ December, John (March 1 2007). Media - Radio - Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. and HD Radio: Minneapolis-St. Paul. iBiquity Digital Corporation. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
120. ^ Weeks, John (2003). Minneapolis / St. Paul: Minnesota Twin Cities Area: Digital TV & HDTV Cheat Sheet. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
121. ^ Sparling, David A., Internet Movie Database. Plot summary for "Beverly Hills, 90210". Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
122. ^ Gary Levin. "Idol tryouts begin Aug. 8", USA Today, Gannett Company, Inc., July 10 2006. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.2006"> 
123. ^ NBC's "Last Comic Standing" Live Tour. North Shore Music Theatre. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
124. ^ Mary Tyler Moore statue. Meet Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.and Awards for "Mary Tyler Moore" (1970). Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
125. ^ A History of Minneapolis: Religion. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
126. ^ Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church. Yahoo! Travel. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
127. ^ FitzGerald, Thomas E. (1998). The Orthodox Church. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-27596-438-8.  and About St. Mary's. St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
128. ^ Billy Graham and the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association - Historical Background. Billy Graham Center (November 11 2004). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
129. ^ Camhi, Leslie. "FILM; The Fabulousness Of Tammy Faye", The New York Times, The New York Times Company, July 23 2000. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.2000"> 
130. ^ Vaughan, John N. (January 2005). Growth Trends. Church Report. Christy Media, LLC. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
131. ^ "Eliel Saarinen". Encyclopaedia Britannica.  and Koulun sijainti / School location. Finnish Language School of Minnesota. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
132. ^ A History of Minneapolis: Social Services. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us) (2001). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
133. ^ Ohlemacher, Stephen. "Detroit area has volunteer spirit", Detroit Free Press, July 9 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.2007"> 
134. ^ Catholic Charities of St. Paul & Minneapolis. Charity Navigator (2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
135. ^ American Refugee Committee International. Charity Navigator (2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
136. ^ History. Business Ethics (business-ethics.com) (2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-19. and 100 Best Corporate Citizens Repeat Performers. CRO (thecro.com) (2006–2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
137. ^ The Minneapolis Foundation. Charity Navigator (2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
138. ^ Cohen, Burt (May 2006). The Spirit of Giving (PDF). Mpls.St.Paul (via Meet Minneapolis). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
139. ^ "Best Hospitals 2006", U.S.News & World Report, U.S.News & World Report, L.P.. Retrieved on 2007-03-22. 
140. ^ A History of Minneapolis: Medicine. Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us) (2001). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
141. ^ Rochester, Minnesota Campus. Mayo Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
142. ^ Jeffrey, Kirk (2001). Machines in Our Hearts: The Cardiac Pacemaker, the Implantable Defibrillator, and American Health Care. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-80186-579-4. 
143. ^ Verified Trauma Centers. American College of Surgeons (March 9 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-29. and About HCMC. and HCMC Governance. Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
144. ^ Wireless Minneapolis Frequently Asked Questions. City of Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-04-07.
145. ^ Utilities. City of Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-04-07.
146. ^ Snow and Ice Control. City of Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
147. ^ International Connections. City of Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.

Further reading

  • Lileks, James (2003). Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  • The Rake. Rake Publishing, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  • Richards, Hanje (May 7 2002). Minneapolis-St. Paul Then and Now. Thunder Bay Press. ISBN 1-57145-687-2.2002&rft.pub=Thunder%20Bay%20Press"> 

External links

Visitors

Minneapolis is a city in the U.S. state of Minnesota. It can also refer to:

Cities:
  • Minneapolis, Kansas
  • Minneapolis, North Carolina
Metropolitan area:
  • Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota

..... Click the link for more information.
Downtown West is an official neighborhood in Minneapolis, part of the larger Central community. It is the heart of downtown Minneapolis (and Minneapolis as a whole), containing the bulk of high-rise office buildings in the city, and is what comes to mind when most Minneapolis
..... Click the link for more information.
North Loop is a neighborhood which is part of the larger Central community of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Although "North Loop" is the official name of the neighborhood many people still refer to it as the Warehouse District.
..... Click the link for more information.
The flag of the city of Minneapolis, Minnesota symbolizes the interests and characteristics of the City of Lakes. It was designed in 1955 by Louise Sundin as part of a contest. She received a $250 U.S. Savings Bond as her prize.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Seal of Minneapolis was adopted by the Minneapolis City Council on June 5, 1878. The seal consists of a shield centered on a round form. The shield contains a pictorial view of St.
..... Click the link for more information.
Coat of arms elements
A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization.
..... Click the link for more information.
Hennepin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Minnesota, named in honor of the 17th-century French explorer Father Louis Hennepin. As of 2000 the population was 1,116,200. Its county seat is Minneapolis6.
..... Click the link for more information.
State of Minnesota

Flag of Minnesota Seal
Nickname(s): North Star State,
The Land of 10,000 Lakes, The Gopher State

Motto(s): L'Étoile du Nord (French: The Star of the North)

Capital Saint Paul

..... Click the link for more information.
country, state, and nation can have various meanings. Therefore, diverse lists of these entities are possible. Wikipedia offers the following lists:

..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
..... Click the link for more information.
United States of America

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States




Federal government
Constitution
Taxation

President Vice President
Cabinet


Congress
Senate
..... Click the link for more information.
State of Minnesota

Flag of Minnesota Seal
Nickname(s): North Star State,
The Land of 10,000 Lakes, The Gopher State

Motto(s): L'Étoile du Nord (French: The Star of the North)

Capital Saint Paul

..... Click the link for more information.
This is a List of counties in Minnesota. There are 87 counties in the U.S. state of Minnesota. There are also several historical counties.

The original five Minnesota counties were Benton, Isanti, Ramsey, Wabasha, and Washington.
..... Click the link for more information.
Hennepin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Minnesota, named in honor of the 17th-century French explorer Father Louis Hennepin. As of 2000 the population was 1,116,200. Its county seat is Minneapolis6.
..... Click the link for more information.
This is a list of mayors of Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Minneapolis

List

Minneapolis
# Name Took office Left office Party
1 Dorilus Morrison February 26, 1867 April 14, 1868 Republican
2 Hugh G.
..... Click the link for more information.
neutrality is disputed.
* Its tone or style may not be appropriate for Wikipedia.
* It may require general cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.

Please help [ improve the article] or discuss these issues on the talk page.
R.T.
..... Click the link for more information.
Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL) is a major political party in the US state of Minnesota. It was created on April 15, 1944 when the Minnesota Democratic Party and Farmer-Labor Party merged. Hubert Humphrey was instrumental in this merger.
..... Click the link for more information.
Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object.

Units

Units for measuring surface area include:
square metre = SI derived unit

..... Click the link for more information.
city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
..... Click the link for more information.
square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
..... Click the link for more information.
elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, often the mean sea level. Elevation, or geometric height, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height
..... Click the link for more information.
1 foot =
SI units
0 m 0 mm
US customary / Imperial units
0 yd 0 in
A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes,
..... Click the link for more information.
1 metre =
SI units
1000 mm 0 cm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 in
The metre or meter[1](symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).
..... Click the link for more information.
city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
..... Click the link for more information.
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular.

Biological population densities


..... Click the link for more information.
metropolitan area is a large population centre consisting of a large metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence, or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central cities and their zone of influence.
..... Click the link for more information.
time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. Most adjacent time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time).
..... Click the link for more information.
Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC−6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC−5). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 90th degree meridian west of the Greenwich
..... Click the link for more information.

Areas using UTC−6

Single zone countries
  • Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
Multizoned countries
  • Canada, United States (Central Standard Time/Mountain Daylight Time)

..... Click the link for more information.
Daylight saving time (DST; also summer time in British English) is the convention of advancing clocks so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.