Mohammed Farah Aidid

Mohamed Farrah Aidid
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Mohamed Farrah Aidid

Preceded by
Succeeded by

NationalitySomali
Political partyUnited Somali Congress/Somali National Alliance (USC/SNA)

General Mohamed Farrah Aidid (Somali: Maxamed Faarax Caydiid; December 15 1934August 1 1996) was a controversial Somali leader, often described as a warlord[1]. He was the chairman of United Somali Congress (USC) and later Somali National Alliance (SNA) who drove Mohamed Siad Barre’s dictatorial regime from the capital, Mogadishu and eventually from Somalia altogether. Later he challenged the presence of United Nations and United States troops in the country. General Aidid was one of the main targets of Operation Restore Hope, the United Nations and United States military operation that came to the country to provide humanitarian aid and to break the military siege. He became president of Somalia for a short period after forcing UN forces to abandon the country in 1995.

Biography

Aidid was born in the Habar Gidir clan of the Mudug region of Somalia. He was educated in Rome and Moscow and served in the Italian colonial police force in the 1950s. Later he rose in the military of Mohamed Siad Barre to the rank of general and served in the 1977-78 Ogaden War with Ethiopia.[1] He also served in the Barre's government in several capacities; in the end as intelligence chief.

Somali Civil War

Barre suspected him of planning a coup d'état and had him imprisoned for six years. In 1991, the clan of General Aidid did indeed overthrow Barre, and General Aidid, as leader of the United Somali Congress, emerged as a major force in the ensuing civil war.
Further information: Somali Revolution (1986-1992)

Opposition to UN Intervention

As the civil war grew, with the breakdown of centralized government, and no single successor to Barre's regime emerging, the term "warlord" came into use in Somalia. The tribalism of clan-based rebel organizations, and a complex web of regional and local domination elevated warlords to be de facto rulers of the country. Aidid was considered chief amongst them.[3] However, he was defeated by a rival, which led to the opportunity for UN peace keepers to be brought in.[1]

General Aidid hindered international U.N. peacekeeping forces in 1992. As a result, the US put a $25,000 bounty on his head and attempted to arrest and try him for war crimes. On October 3, 1993 a force of United States Army Rangers and Delta Force operators set out to capture several officials of Aidid's militia in an area of the Somali capital city of Mogadishu, controlled by him. Although technically successful, with the capture of several "tier-one personalities", the operation did not completely go as planned, and between 500 and 1400 Somalis, as well as 18 American soldiers, died as a result in the First Battle of Mogadishu.

The United States withdrew its forces soon afterwards and the United Nations left Somalia in 1995.
Further information: Operation Restore HopeOperation Provide ReliefUNOSOM I, UNITAF, UNOSOM II

President of Somalia

Aidid then declared himself President of Somalia in June 1995,[5] but his government was not internationally recognized. Indeed within Somalia, and even within Mogadishu, his control was fiercely fought over, especially by Ali Mahdi Muhammad.

Aidid died on August 2, 1996 as a result of gunshot wounds sustained a week earlier in a fight with competing factions.

There have been persistent rumors (including articles in the Los Angeles Times and USA Today), that US Special Operations forces, or CIA Special Activities Division officers, were directly or indirectly involved with General Aidid's death.

Heir

Hussein Mohamed Farrah, son of General Aidid, migrated to the United States when he was 14 years old. He stayed 16 years in the nation and became a naturalized citizen, and later a United States Marine who served in Somalia. Two days after his father's death, the Somali National Alliance selected him to become the new president of the Republic of Somalia.

He resigned his position in Cairo, Egypt following a peace process between the Salbalar administration and Soodare Group. Hussein Mohammed Farrah is seen by the West as a chance of improvement for the relationships between them and Somalia. When asked about his Marine days, he replied: "Once a Marine, always a Marine."[6]

Preceded by
Ali Mahdi Mohamed
President of Somalia
June 15, 1995August 1, 1996
Succeeded by
Hussein Mohamed Farrah Aidid

Footnotes

1. ^ Purvis, Andrew. "Wanted: Warlord No. 1", Time, June 28, 1993. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
2. ^ Purvis, Andrew. "Wanted: Warlord No. 1", Time, June 28, 1993. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
3. ^ Key Somali Warlord Scorns U.N., Postpones Peace Talks MIT The Tech, January 6, 1993
4. ^ Purvis, Andrew. "Wanted: Warlord No. 1", Time, June 28, 1993. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
5. ^ President Aidid's Somalia (September 1995). Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
6. ^ Kampeas, Ron. "From Marine to warlord: The strange journey of Hussein Farrah Aidid", Associated Press, 2 November 2002. Retrieved on 2007-02-28. 

References

United Somali Congress (USC) is one of the major political and paramilitary organizations of Somalia. Formed in 1989, it played a key role in the ouster of the government of Siad Barre, and became a major target of the so-called Operation Restore Hope campaign in 1993.
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The Somali National Alliance (SNA) was a political alliance formed in June, 1992 with Mohamed Farrah Aidid as its head. Its constituents included Aidid's breakaway United Somali Congress faction, the Somali Patriotic Movement and other southern factions.
..... Click the link for more information.
Somalia

This article is part of the series:
Culture of Somalia

  • Islam in Somalia
  • Somali language
  • History of Somalia
  • Cinema of Somalia
  • Music of Somalia
  • Somali literature
  • Cuisine of Somalia
  • Economy of Somalia

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Battle of Baia.
  • 1791 - The United States Bill of Rights becomes law when ratified by the Virginia legislature.
  • 1818 - Irwin County, Georgia is created.
  • 1891 - James Naismith introduces the first version of basketball, with thirteen rules, a peach basket nailed to either
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  • 19th century - 20th century - 21st century
    1900s  1910s  1920s  - 1930s -  1940s  1950s  1960s
    1931 1932 1933 - 1934 - 1935 1936 1937

    Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV
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    August 1 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

    Events


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    19th century - 20th century - 21st century
    1960s  1970s  1980s  - 1990s -  2000s  2010s  2020s
    1993 1994 1995 - 1996 - 1997 1998 1999

    Year 1996 (MCMXCVI
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    Anthem
    Soomaaliyeey Toosoow
    Somalia, Wake Up


    Capital
    (and largest city) Mogadishu

    ..... Click the link for more information.
    A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. The term can also mean one who espouses the ideal that war is necessary, and has the means and authority to
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    United Somali Congress (USC) is one of the major political and paramilitary organizations of Somalia. Formed in 1989, it played a key role in the ouster of the government of Siad Barre, and became a major target of the so-called Operation Restore Hope campaign in 1993.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    United Somali Congress (USC) is one of the major political and paramilitary organizations of Somalia. Formed in 1989, it played a key role in the ouster of the government of Siad Barre, and became a major target of the so-called Operation Restore Hope campaign in 1993.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    The Somali National Alliance (SNA) was a political alliance formed in June, 1992 with Mohamed Farrah Aidid as its head. Its constituents included Aidid's breakaway United Somali Congress faction, the Somali Patriotic Movement and other southern factions.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    The Somali National Alliance (SNA) was a political alliance formed in June, 1992 with Mohamed Farrah Aidid as its head. Its constituents included Aidid's breakaway United Somali Congress faction, the Somali Patriotic Movement and other southern factions.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Mohamed Siad Barre (Somali: Maxamed Siyaad Barre) (1919 – January 2, 1995) was the Head of State of Somalia from 1969 to 1991. Prior to his presidency he was an army commander under the democratic government of Somalia which had been in place since independence in June
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Mogadishu
    مقديش?

    Mogadishu Skyline
    Nickname: Xamar
    Mogadishu's location in Somalia
    Coordinates:
    Country Somalia
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    United Nations intervention in Somalia (code-named OPERATION RESTORE HOPE) was a United Nations–sanctioned United States military operation from 9 December 1992 to 4 May 1993.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. The term derives from the Latin word for "seat" or "sitting.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Habar Gedir (Somali: Habargidir) is a Somali clan, part of the larger Hawiye group.

    The Habar Gedir clan became very powerful in the middle of 1700, when the King of the Ajuran (Ajuuraan) controlled much of the coast of East
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Mudug (Somali: Mudug) is an administrative region (gobolka) in central Somalia. Bordered by Ethiopia, the Somali regions of Nugaal and Galguduud, and the Indian Ocean, its capital is the city of Gaalkacyo (population 250,000).
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Anthem
    Soomaaliyeey Toosoow
    Somalia, Wake Up


    Capital
    (and largest city) Mogadishu

    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Comune di Roma

    Flag
    Seal
    Nickname: "The Eternal City"
    Motto: "Senatus Populusque Romanus" (SPQR)   (Latin)
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    Москв? (Russian)

    Location of Moscow in Europe
    Coordinates

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    Mohamed Siad Barre (Somali: Maxamed Siyaad Barre) (1919 – January 2, 1995) was the Head of State of Somalia from 1969 to 1991. Prior to his presidency he was an army commander under the democratic government of Somalia which had been in place since independence in June
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Ethiopia:
    6,133 killed[9]
    10,563 wounded<ref name="EthSomCas" />
    3,867 captured or missing (including 1,362 deserters)<ref name="EthSomCas" />[10]
    400 Cubans<ref name="EthSom664" />
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Ethiopia (IPA: /i.θi.oʊ.pi.ə/) ( ʾĪtyōṗṗyā), officially the
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as "intelligence") by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    coup d'état (IPA: [kuːdeɪˈtɑː] or AHD: [ko͞o"dā tä]), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment —
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    19th century - 20th century - 21st century
    1960s  1970s  1980s  - 1990s -  2000s  2010s  2020s
    1988 1989 1990 - 1991 - 1992 1993 1994

    Year 1991 (MCMXCI
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    United Somali Congress (USC) is one of the major political and paramilitary organizations of Somalia. Formed in 1989, it played a key role in the ouster of the government of Siad Barre, and became a major target of the so-called Operation Restore Hope campaign in 1993.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power.

    Some civil wars are categorized as revolutions when major societal restructuring is a possible outcome of the conflict.
    ..... Click the link for more information.


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