Muhammad Khilji

Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji (Persian اختيار الدين محمد بن بختيار الخلجي), (Bengali ইখতিয়ার উদ্দিন মুহম্মদ বখতিয়ার খলজী), also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyaru 'l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji, a member of the Muslim Pashtun Khilji or as it is known in Afghanistan Ghilzai tribe, who was head of the armies that conquered much of northeastern India.

He was one of the military generals of Qutb-ud-din Aybak. Muhammad Khilji conquered Bihar in 1193. His troops destroyed the famous Buddhist university at Nalanda (in modern Bihar State) in the year 1193. Later, he also brought Bengal’s ruler Lakshman Sen under his authority, and captured his capital in 1205. He is the founder of the Khilji dynasty and is considered to be the first muslim ruler of Bengal.

Early Life

Khalji came from todays Turkestan and moved to Punjab and todays NWFP. Later, when the ghaznavid Sebuetgin came to power he brought them to Ghazna where they became islamized and part of the ghaznavid army. After the ghaznavids the Ghalzais became slave of the persian Ghurids who moved them out of Khorasan (todays Afghanistan). Tradition has it that Khalji's conquest of Bengal at the head of 18 horsemen was foretold. It is held that he was of common birth, had long arms extending below his knees, a short physical stature and an unfavorable countenance. He was first appointed as the Dewan-i-ard at Ghor. But later he lost the job for irregularities in work. Then he approached India in about the year 1193 CE and tried to enter in the army of Qutb al-Din but failed. Then he went further eastward and took a job under Maklik Hizbar al-Din who was then the commander of the army of Badayun in northern India. After a short period he went to Oudh where Malik Husam al-Din, the governor, recognized him for his worth. Husam gave a landed estate in the south-eastern corner of modern Mirzapur District. He gathered some brave and adventurous Turks under his banner and soon consolidated his position, carrying out raids into neighboring territories.

Conquests

Khalji's career took flight with a stunning campaign which subjugated Bihar in 1203 CE. This effort earned him political clout in the court at Delhi.

But the greatest credit to his record was his conquest of Bengal in the following year which marks the beginning of muslim rule in this part of the globe. As he came upon the city of Nadia it is said that he advanced so rapidly that only 18 horsemen from his army could keep up. In the city they were mistaken for horsetraders, allowing them to surprise Raja Lakshman Sen in the middle of a meal. The latter fled out the palace's back door in bare feet.

Khalji went on to capture the capital Gaur and conquer much of Bengal. Rather than consolidating Bengal, however, he led a disastrous campaign into Tibet and died in 1206 CE on the retreat.

References

  • History of the Muslims of Bengal - Volume 1A: Muslim Rule in Bengal (600-170/1203-1757)
By- Muhammad Mohar Ali, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Department of Culture and Publications.
fɒːɾˈsiː in Perso-Arabic script (Nasta`liq style):  
Pronunciation: [fɒːɾˈsiː]
Spoken in: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and areas of Uzbekistan and Pakistan.
..... Click the link for more information.
Bengali}}} 
Writing system: Bengali script 
Official status
Official language of:
The template is . Please use instead.
This usage is deprecated. Please replace it with .
'''The template is deprecated. Please use instead.
..... Click the link for more information.
Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. The feminine form of 'Muslim' is Muslimah (Arabic: مسلمة).
..... Click the link for more information.
This page has been semi-protected from editing to deal with vandalism.
Semi-protection is not an endorsement of the current version. To see other versions, view the [ page history].
..... Click the link for more information.
Khilji or Khalji (Urdu / Pashto: خلجی خاندان) was a ruling dynasty that was made-up of Ghilzai Pashtuns.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Ghilzais (also known as Khiljis or Ghaljis) are one of two largest groups of Pashtuns, along with the Durrani tribe, found in Afghanistan with a large group also found in neighboring Pakistan.
..... Click the link for more information.
This page is currently protected from editing until disputes have been resolved.
Protection is not an endorsement of the current [ version] ([ protection log]).
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates:

Bihar (Hindi: िबहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: [bɪhaːr], pronunciation
..... Click the link for more information.
Buddhism is often described as a religion[1] and a collection of various philosophies, based initially on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, known as Gautama Buddha.
..... Click the link for more information.
Nālandā is the name of an ancient university in India.

The name is a Sanskrit word that means giver of knowledge, (possibly from nalam, lotus, a symbol of knowledge and da, to give).
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates:

Bihar (Hindi: िबहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: [bɪhaːr], pronunciation
..... Click the link for more information.
Lakshman Sen or Lakshman Sena (Bangla: লক্ষ্মণ সেন) (1179 – 1206 CE) was the fourth ruler of the Sena dynasty of Bengal.
..... Click the link for more information.
Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh
..... Click the link for more information.
Ghor or Ghowr (Persian: غور ) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. It is located in central Afghanistan, towards the north-west. The capital of Ghor is Chaghcharan.
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates:

Budaun (Hindi: बदायूँ, Urdu: بدایوں) is a city in the north-central Uttar Pradesh state of northern India.
..... Click the link for more information.
This page is currently protected from editing until disputes have been resolved.
Protection is not an endorsement of the current [ version] ([ protection log]).
..... Click the link for more information.
Awadh ( pronunciation  , Devanagari: अवध), also known in various British historical texts as Oudh, Oundh, or Oude
..... Click the link for more information.
Mirzapur district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, with Mirzapur town as the district headquarters. Mirzapur district is a part of Mirzapur division.
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates:

Bihar (Hindi: िबहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: [bɪhaːr], pronunciation
..... Click the link for more information.
Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh
..... Click the link for more information.
Nadia may refer to:

People

  • Nadia (name), a female given name
In sports:
  • Nadia Comăneci (born 1961), Romanian Olympic gold medal-winning gymnast
  • Nadia Petrova (born 1982), professional tennis player from Russia

..... Click the link for more information.
Lakshman Sen or Lakshman Sena (Bangla: লক্ষ্মণ সেন) (1179 – 1206 CE) was the fourth ruler of the Sena dynasty of Bengal.
..... Click the link for more information.

..... Click the link for more information.
Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a Plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. With an average elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft), it is the highest region on Earth and is commonly referred to as the "Roof of the World.
..... Click the link for more information.
Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was founded in 1953. In 1974 it was granted university status by royal decree. The university houses faculties teaching Arabic, Ulema, and Shari'ah, in addition to the social sciences and other curricula.
..... Click the link for more information.
Banglapedia

National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Author Professor Sirajul Islam (Chief Editor)
Country Bangladesh
Language English, Bengali
Genre(s) Encyclopedia
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.