Muscat (grape and wine)

The muscat family of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera is widely grown for wine, raisins and table grapes. They range in color from white to almost black, but almost always have a pronounced sweet floral aroma. Muscat grapes are grown around the world in Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, Israel, France, Portugal, Greece, Spain, Australia, California, Hungary, Canada, Turkey and other places. The breadth and number of varieties of muscat suggest that it is very old, perhaps the oldest domesticated grape variety. There are theories that most families within the Vitis vinifera grape family are descended from the Muscat family.[1]

Muscat Wines

Muscat is widely grown in Portugal and Spain, where the grape and the wines produced from it are known as Moscatel or Muscatel. Among these wines is Moscatel de Setubal a sweet fortified wine from the Setúbal Peninsula in Portugal. Moscatel de Favaios is a Moscatel from the Douro Region. A Moscatel Madeira wine is also produced on the island of Madeira, although Moscatel has become increasingly rare there over the last century.

A variety of muscat is one of only three grapes allowed for making sherry.

In Australia, producers in Rutherglen use muscat grapes to make a highly regarded fortified wine of the same name using the solera system.[2] Muscat grapes are one of the major varieties grown for table wine in Chile, and is a minor variety in California and Italy.

In Lithuania it is used for sparkling wine like Alita.

Muscat wine is also the basis for the brandy like Pisco, made in Peru and Chile, and Metaxa, a liqueur made in Greece.

Muscat Ottonel is also successfully grown by a few vineyards in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, USA. Currently it is produced into a Alsatian styled wine by McGregor Vineyard Winery on Keuka Lake.

Muscat is also used to make a range of French and Italian wines, such as the famous 'Muscat de Beaumes de Venise' vin doux naturel wines from the Rhone Valley in France. In Italy, it is widely used in sweeter sparkling wines like Asti. Their 'grapey' quality makes many wines made from Muscat easy to identify.

"The French Paradox" that is the long-known fact that heart diseases are less common in France than in USA. It turns out that grapes grown without fungicides develop fungi-protecting chemicals, which happen to have heart-beneficial properties. Muscat grapes have been found to have concentrations of beneficial chemicals, such as antioxidant flavonoids, in quantities as high as many varieties of red grapes.[3]

Moscato d'Asti

Moscato d'Asti is a lightly sparkling (frizzante) variety of Muscat, made from the Moscato Bianco (Muscato Canelli) grape of the Piedmont region of Italy. This region has a DOCG designation, and is also known for the production of Barbera d'Asti, Dolcetto d’Asti, and Asti Spumante.

Muscat Wines by Country

Australia

Brown Muscat has pride of place in north-east Victoria's Rutherglen district, and is generally regarded to be one of the world's greatest fortified wines. High quality Muscats are also produced in other mainland states. Riverina producer Miranda makes a raisined Muscat in passito style.

Bulgaria

Muscat Ottonel is grown in the Black Sea region and in the Danubian Plain, while Muscatel is a well-known style in the Rose Valley.

South Africa

Muscat is known as Muscadel or Hanepoort, and can be either red or white. Like Australian Muscats, these can be high-quality fortified wines while Constantia is known for late-harvest Muscat of great standing.

United States

Muscat wines produced in California include the Muscat de Beaulieu, a fortified wine from the Napa Valley; the Conundrum wine, which is a blend of Muscat, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay; and Vin de Glaciere, which is an artificial icewine made from late harvest Muscat grapes. In California's Central Valley the Muscat cross Black Muscat is used to make dessert wine. Carlo Rossi, a popular brand of wine produced by E&J Gallo, has its own Red Muscat.

France

Muscat is best known for producing
  • Vins Doux Naturels (Natural Sweet Wines) in Frontignan, Lunel, Mireval, St Jean De Minervois, Rivesaltes, Beaumes de Venise and Cap Corse.
  • Alsace Muscat is primarily dry, but can also be made in sweeter styles (Vendange Tardive and Selection de Grains Nobles)

Italy

Muscat (Moscato) grows throughout Italy in various forms. In dessert form it is either passito or fortified, but it also appears in sparkling wines (Asti spumante and Moscato d'Asti) . One of the best is the Moscato di Trani, made on Adriatic in the town of the same name in Apulia.

Spain

Fortified Muscat (Moscatel) is produced in Catalonia, Valencia, Alicante, Andalucia and the Canary Islands.

Portugal

Muscat (Moscatel) makes the much-revered Moscatel de Setubal and Moscatel de Favaios among others.

Austria and Hungary

In both Austria and Hungary, Muscat wines ranging from dry to very sweet are produced. Muscat is one of the varieties grown in the Tokaj region of Hungary.

Romania

Romania has Muscat plantings for various dry and sweet styles.

Greece

Muscat dessert wines are produced on Samos, Rhodes, Patras and Cephalonia. Dry Muscat table wine is produced on Lemnos.

Turkey

Muscat grapes are produced in Ankara and Central Anatolian Region.

Cyprus

Muscat dessert wines are also produced in Cyprus, analogous to those produced in Greece.

Ukraine

The Crimea region is home to dessert wines of reverence, with white, pink and black Muscat being given pride of place.

North Africa

Fortified Muscat wines are produced in Tunisia and Morocco.

New Zealand

Muscat is used for dessert wines.

Varieties of Muscat Grapes

  • Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains (also called Muscat Blanc, Muscat Canelli, Muscat Frontignan, Moscato Bianco, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat d'Alsace, Muskateller, Muscatel de Grano Menudo, Moscatel Rosé, Sárgamuskotály and Yellow Muscat). This grape is used for the wines: Asti, clairette de die, and muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise. It is also used for some Tokaji wines.
  • Moscato Giallo (or Goldmuskateller) and Moscato Rosa (or Rosenmuskateller) are thought to be closely related colored versions of Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains.
  • Moscatel de Setúbal and Moscatel de Favaios are the most widely consumed varieties in Portugal, usually served in bars or as an aperitif at restaurants.
  • Muscat of Alexandria (also called Moscatel, Moscatel Romano, Moscatel de Málaga, Gordo Blanco, Hanepoot, Lexia, Moscatel Gordo, and Zibibbo) This grape is used for sherry, moscatel or muscatel wines, Muscatel de Valencia, Muscatel Passito and other Muscatel liqueurs and also as a raisin and table grape.
  • Muscat Ottonel (also called Moskately) Used for dessert wines in Austria and Croatia, and dry wines in Alsace and Hungary.
  • Muscat Hamburg (also called Black Muscat, Moscato di Amburgo) Used for some Eastern European wine but mainly for table grapes in Italy and Australia.
  • Orange Muscat. Used for dessert wines in California and Australia. Not surprisingly, has something of an orange aroma.
  • Muscat Crocant. Used for dessert wine of the same name (Muskat Krokan) in Serbia, where it grows only on Pearl Island (Biserno Ostrvo) on Tisza River.

References

1. ^ J. Robinson Vines Grapes & Wines pg 183 Mitchell Beazley 1986 ISBN 1-85732-999-6
2. ^ Rutherglen Muscat ClassificationSolera system
3. ^ Researchers Develop White Wine with Cholesterol-Lowering Benefits. Science Daily (2001-04-13). Retrieved on 2007-03-30.
"Madame, I never eat muscatel grapes." The Count of Monte Cristo. Alexandre Dumas.

"Out in front of the Terminal bar there's a Thunderbird moving in a Muscatel sky". 'Nighthawk Postcards (From Easy Street)'. Tom Waits.

External links

Muscat may refer to:

People with the surname Muscat:
  • Kevin Muscat (born 1973), Australian footballer (soccer)
  • Joseph Muscat (born 1974), Maltese politician
  • Angelo Muscat (1930–1971), Maltese actor

..... Click the link for more information.
For the Tokyo University supercomputer, see Gravity Pipe.


GRAPE, or GRAphics Programming Environment is a software development environment for mathematical visualization, especially differential geometry and continuum mechanics.
..... Click the link for more information.
V. vinifera

Binomial name
Vitis vinifera
L.

Vitis vinifera (Common Grape Vine) is a species of Vitis
..... Click the link for more information.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of grape juice.[1] The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients.
..... Click the link for more information.
Raisins are dried grapes. They are produced in many regions of the world, such as the United States, Australia, Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Togo, Jamaica, South Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe. Raisins may be eaten raw or used in cooking and baking.
..... Click the link for more information.
Table grapes are grapes intended for consumption while they are fresh, as opposed to grapes grown for wine production, juice production, or for drying into raisins. Depending on the market for wine and table grapes, low quality wine may contain some grapes that could also be sold
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Съединението прави силата   (Bulgarian)
"Suedinenieto pravi silata"
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto

(each main institution has its own motto)
Anthem
Deşteaptă-te, române!


..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Il Canto degli Italiani
(also known as Fratelli d'Italia)


..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Hatikvah
The Hope


Capital
(and largest city) Jerusalem

Official languages Hebrew, Arabic
Demonym Israeli
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem
"La Marseillaise"


..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
"A Portuguesa"


Capital
(and largest city) Lisbon5

Official languages Portuguese1
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Ελευθερία ή θάνατος
Eleftheria i thanatos  
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Plus Ultra"   (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem
"Marcha Real" 1
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Advance Australia Fair [1]


Capital Canberra

Largest city Sydney
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
none
Historically Regnum Mariae Patronae Hungariae (Latin)
"Kingdom of Mary the Patroness of Hungary"
Anthem
Himnusz ("Isten, áldd meg a magyart")
..... Click the link for more information.
This page is currently protected from editing until disputes have been resolved.
Protection is not an endorsement of the current [ version] ([ protection log]).
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh
Peace at Home, Peace in the World
Anthem
İstiklâl Marşı
The Anthem of Independence
..... Click the link for more information.
fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, the most common additive being brandy (a spirit distilled from wine).

The original reason for fortification was to preserve wines, as the higher alcohol level and additional sweetness help to preserve the
..... Click the link for more information.
Setúbal

Municipal flag

Municipal coat of arms

Location  
 - Country Portugal  
 - Region Lisboa
 - Subregion Península de Setúbal
 - District or A.R.

..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
"A Portuguesa"


Capital
(and largest city) Lisbon5

Official languages Portuguese1
..... Click the link for more information.
Douro
Spanish: Duero, Portuguese: Douro


..... Click the link for more information.
Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Madeira Islands of Portugal, which is prized equally for drinking and cooking; the latter use including the dessert plum in madeira.
..... Click the link for more information.
State Party  Portugal
Type Natural
Criteria ix, x
Reference 934
Region Europe and North America

Inscription History
Inscription 1999  (23rd Session)
..... Click the link for more information.
Sherry is a fortified wine, made in and around the town of Jerez, Spain and hence in Spanish it is called "Vino de Jerez". According to some people, however, the city of Shiraz in midsouthern Iran was the birthplace of sherry.
..... Click the link for more information.
Rutherglen
Victoria

The heritage listed Victoria Hotel in Main Street

Population: 2502 (2006)[1]

Postcode: 3685

Elevation: 175 m

Location:
..... Click the link for more information.
fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, the most common additive being brandy (a spirit distilled from wine).

The original reason for fortification was to preserve wines, as the higher alcohol level and additional sweetness help to preserve the
..... Click the link for more information.
A solera is a series of barrels or other containers used for aging liquids such as Sherry, Madeira, Marsala, Mavrodafni (a dark-red fortified dessert wine from Greece), Muscat, Muscadelle, Balsamic and Sherry Vinegars.
..... Click the link for more information.
In the United States, table wine is used as a legal definition to differentiate standard wine from stronger (higher alcohol content) fortified wine or sparkling wine[1].
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.