Nakaz

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The title page of the Nakaz.


Nakaz, or Instruction, of Catherine the Great (Russian: Наказ комиссии о составлении проекта нового уложения) was a statement of legal principles authored by Catherine II of Russia, and permeated with the ideas of the French Enlightenment. It was compiled as a guide for the All-Russian Legislative Commission convened in 1767 for the purpose of replacing the mid-17th-century Muscovite code of laws with a modern law code. Catherine belived that to strengthen law and institutions was above all else to strengthen the monarchy.[1]

The Instruction proclaimed the equality of all men before the law and disapproved of death penalty and torture, thus anticipating some of the issues raised by the later United States Constitution and the Polish Constitution. Although the ideas of absolutism were emphatically upheld, the stance towards serfdom is more blurry: the chapter about peasants was retouched a number of times, as Catherine's views on the subject evolved.

Catherine worked on the Instruction for two years. In 1766, she showed the manuscript to her closest advisors, Nikita Panin and Grigory Orlov, asking them to make changes as they thought necessary. In its final version, the Instruction consists of 22 chapters and 655 articles, which embrace various spheres of state, criminal, and civil law and procedure. More than 400 articles are copied verbatim from the works of Montesquieu, Beccaria, and other contemporary thinkers.

In 1767, Catherine sent the German edition to Frederick II of Prussia and the French one to Voltaire. She wrote to one of her correspondents that "for the benefit of my Empire I pillaged President Montesquieu, without naming him in the text. I hope that if he had seen me at work, he would have forgiven this literary theft if only for the good of 20 million people which it may bring about. He loved the humanity too much to be offended; his book was my breviary".

The extant manuscript of the Instruction was written by Catherine in French. There is also a Russian translation by herself. On 10 August 1767 the Russian and German editions were printed in Moscow. The Latin and French editions followed in 1770. It should be noted that in 1769 Duc de Choiseul had the Instruction officially prohibited in France as a "libertarian book".

The Instruction generated much discussion among Russian intellectuals and exerted considerable influence on the course of the Russian Enlightenment. It was in this document that the basic tenets of the French Enlightenment were articulated in Russian for the first time. Catherine's work had little practical value however: the Legislative Commission failed to outline the new code of laws and the Instruction never circulated in Russia outside Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Denis Diderot, who visited Russia in 1774, penned an extensive critique of the Nakaz — Observations sur le Nakaz — which opens with a famous contention: "There is no true sovereign except the nation; there can be no true legislator except the people".

Notes

1. ^ Geoffrey Hosking, Russia: People and Empire(Harvard, 1997) p.98

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Catherine the Great
Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias
Catherine II of Russia
Reign June 28, 1762 – 15 November, 1796
Full name Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst
Born May 2 1729
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The Sobornoye Ulozheniye was a legal code promulgated in 1649 by the Zemsky Sobor under Ivan IV of Russia as a replacement for the Sudebnik of 1497 introduced by Ivan III of Russia.
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Constitution of May 3, 1791 (Polish: Konstytucja Trzeciego Maja; Lithuanian: Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija
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Absolutism can mean:
  • Absolute truth, the contention that in a particular domain of thought, all statements in that domain are either absolutely true or absolutely false

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Serfdom is the socio-economic status of peasants under feudalism, and specifically relates to Manorialism. It was a condition of bondage or modified slavery seen primarily during the Middle Ages in Europe.
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Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin (Russian: Ники́та Ива́нович Па́нин) (September 29 [O.S.
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Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Br̬de et de Montesquieu (before January 18, 1689 in Bordeaux РFebruary 10, 1755), was a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Era of the Enlightenment.
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Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana (March 15, 1738 – November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments
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Frederick II
King of Prussia, Elector of Brandenburg

Frederick II, aged 68, by Anton Graff
Reign 1740 - 1786
Titles Frederick II of Prussia
Frederick IV of Brandenburg
Born January 24 1712
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Fran̤ois-Marie Arouet (21 November, 1694 Р30 May, 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher known for his wit, philosophical sport, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and
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Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Br̬de et de Montesquieu (before January 18, 1689 in Bordeaux РFebruary 10, 1755), was a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Era of the Enlightenment.
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The Spirit of Laws (French: De l'esprit des lois) is a treatise on political theory first published anonymously by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu in 1748.
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August 10 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.
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Москв? (Russian)

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Étienne-François, duc de Choiseul (June 28, 1719 — May 8, 1785) was a French military officer, diplomat and statesman.

He was the eldest son of François Joseph de Choiseul, marquis de Stainville (1700—1770), and bore in early life the title of comte de Stainville.
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Motto
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"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
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Russian Age of Enlightenment was a period in the eighteenth century in which the government began to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences. This time gave birth to the first Russian university, library, theatre, public museum, and relatively independent press.
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Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 РJuly 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. He was a prominent figure in the Enlightenment, and editor-in-chief of the famous Encyclop̩die.
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