Narmada River

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The Narmada River in central India


The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada)) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India, and is a total of 1,289 km (801 mi) long. It is one of only three major rivers in pensinsular India that run from east to west, along with the Tapti and the Mahi river. It is the only river in India that flows in a rift valley. It rises on the summit of Amarkantak Hill inmadhya pradesh state, and for the first 320 kilometres (200 miles) of its course winds among the Mandla Hills, which form the head of the Satpura Range; then at Jabalpur, passing through the 'Marble Rocks', it enters the Narmada Valley between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges, and pursues a direct westerly course to the Gulf of Cambay. It flows through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat, and empties into the Arabian Sea in the Bharuch District of Gujarat.

The Narmada Valley is a graben, a layered block of the earth's crust that dropped down relative to the blocks on either side due to ancient spreading of the earth's crust. Two normal faults, known as the Narmada North fault and Narmada South fault, parallel the river's course, and mark the boundary between the Narmada block and the Vindhya and Satpura blocks or horsts which rose relative to the Narmada Graben. The Narmada's watershed includes the northern slopes of the Satpuras, and the steep southern slope of the Vindhyas, but not the Vindhyan tableland, the streams from which flow into the Ganges and Yamuna. The Narmada valley is considered extremely important for paleontological studies in India. Several dinosaur fossils have been found in the area including Titanosaurus indicus found in 1877 by Richard Lydekker and the recently discovered Rajasaurus narmadensis.

The Narmada river is considered extremely holy by Hindus. It is said that just the sight of the river is enough to wash away all sins. The river has beautiful ghats built on its banks in Hoshangabad. Its longest tributary is the Tawa, which joins the Narmada at Bandra Bhan in Hoshangabad District, Madhya Pradesh. After leaving Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, the river widens out in the fertile district of Bharuch. Below Bharuch city it forms a 20 kilometre wide estuary where it enters the Gulf of Cambay. The Narmada river is not only used for irrigation, but for navigation. In the rainy season boats of considerable size sail about 100 kilometres above Bharuch city. Seagoing vessels of about 70 tons frequent the port of Bharuch, but they are entirely dependent on the tide.

Sardar Sarovar Project

The Sardar Sarovar Project was first conceived in the 1940s by India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, but the project didn't begin to become a reality until 1979. The goal of the project is to create around 3200 small, medium and large dams along the length of the river, with the Sardar Sarovar dam being the largest.

Proponents of the dam project argue that the dam will provide hydroelectric power to the entire region, as well as helping to irrigate the arid regions of Gujarat, namely north Gujarat, Saurashtra, and Kachchh (also sometimes spelled Kutch). The combined benefits would reach some 50 million people.

Those who oppose the dam counter that the damage caused by the dam will far outweigh any potential benefits. The group Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save the Narmada Movement) leads the opponents of the dam's construction, and maintains that besides causing serious damage to the region's natural ecology (a recognized consequence of large-scale dam construction), will cause the displacement of millions of poor peasants and tribal members, causing not only a loss of livelihood, but a loss of an historical way of life. Some scientists have also claimed that building the dam will make the region more prone to earthquakes, and there are concerns over whether or not the state could adequately maintain the dam. Furthermore, the river supplies water to residents in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, and Rajasthan, and there are fears that the dam will block the flow of water to these regions, causing widespread devastation in some of the most arid parts of India. Over the past decade, major international organizations such as the World Bank have withdrawn funding for the project, citing such concerns.

The dam has caused such controversy that in 1999, a case against its construction went to the Indian Supreme Court, which ruled in favour of the state, criticizing the actions of Narmada Bachao Andolan. The court set the height of the dam at 90 [metres] until an environmental task-force had examined the issue. However, the Supreme Court also ordered rehabilitation for all those affected by the dam's construction, and in March 2005 ruled to halt construction on the dam until this had happened. Construction of the dam is now halted at 110.6 metres, a figure that is much higher than the 88 metres proposed by the activists, and lower than the 130 metres that the dam is eventually supposed to reach. It is unclear at this point what the final outcome of the project will be or when it will be completed, though the entire project is meant to be finished by 2025.

The conflict over the dam is presented in a 2002 documentary called Drowned Out, which features members of the Adivasi people, and activist Arundhati Roy.

Major Towns and Cities along the river

Narmada in Indian history

Chalukya emperor Pulakeshin II defeated emperor Harshavardhana of Kannauj on the banks of Narmada.

The Narmada in Hinduism

The Narmada River is one of the most important sacred rivers, believed to have descended from the sky by the order of Lord Shiva. It is said that the mere sight of the river will make a pilgrim pure because of its sanctity. As a result, the river represents an important pilgrimage site, and one of the highest acts a pilgrim can perform is to walk from the sea to the source of the river, in the Maikal Mountains and back along the opposite bank, a process that can take one to two years to complete. The town of Maheshwar is a particularly important pilgrimage site along the route of the river.

The Narmada is closely associated with Lord Shiva. Naturally formed smooth stones called banas, made of cryptocrytalline quartz, are found in Narmada which are known as Shivalingas; the rare and unique markings on them are regarded by shaivaites as very auspicious. The Brihadeeswara Temple in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, constructed by Rajaraja Chola, has one of the biggest Bana Shivalingas. Adi Shankara met his guru Govinda Bhagavatpada on the banks of river Narmada.

The Narmada River is also worshipped as mother goddess by Narmadeeya Brahmins.Reva is another name of Narmada River.

References

  • Sardar Sarovar, the Report of the Independent Review, Bradford Morse and Thomas Berger, Edited by The Independent Review, 1992.
  • Tapo Bhoomi Narmada, in Six Volumes,in Bengali, by Pandit Shailendra Narayan Ghosal Shastri,Journal of pilgrimage on the shores of Narmada,1948 - 1950.
  • The most important pace on narmada bank is omkareshwar shiv temple,it is among the twelve jyotirligas spred throught india,

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Gujarati or Gujrati may refer to:
  • Gujarati language, spoken in India in the western state of Gujarat
  • Gujarati script, the script used for writing Gujarati language
  • Gujarati people, the people native to the state of Gujarat

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river is a natural waterway that transits water through a landscape from higher to lower elevations. It is an integral component of the water cycle. The water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge (as seen at baseflow
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Indian subcontinent is a large section of the Asian continent consisting of countries lying substantially on the Indian tectonic plate. These include countries on the continental crust— India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and parts of Afghanistan, Nepal and Bhutan, island countries
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Northern India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India which approximately corresponds to the northern region of the Indian subcontinent. In traditional Indian geography, India is divided into five major zones: North India, North-East India, East India, West India
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South India is a commonly used term that is used in India to refer to the South-of-India or Southern India. The Southern part of the Indian peninsula is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu
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The Tapti River (original name Tapi River) is a river in central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with a length of around 724 km. It is one of only three rivers - the others being the Narmada River and the Mahi River that runs fro East to west
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The Mahi is a river in western India. It rises in Madhya Pradesh and, after flowing through the Vagad region of Rajasthan, enters Gujarat and falls into the sea by a wide estuary near Cambay. Its total length is 500 km. and its estimated drainage area 40,000 sq. km.
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rift valley in geology is a valley created by the formation of a rift. The Great Rift Valley, located in the Middle East and Africa, is the most famous of the world's rift valleys. Rift valleys are produced by tensional tectonic forces which occur at divergent plate boundaries.
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Amarkantak (Devanagari: अमरकंटक) is a pilgrim town and a nagar panchayat in Anuppur District in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.
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Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP) pronunciation  
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1 kilometre =
SI units
0 m 0106 mm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 mi
A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer, symbol km
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The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. The range rises in eastern Gujarat state near the Arabian Sea coast, running east through Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh to Chhattisgarh.
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Jabalpur (Hindi: जबलपुर) is a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. It is located in the Mahakoshal region in the geographic center of India.
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The Marble Rocks are a gorge on the Narmada River in central India where the river narrows to a width of 10 meters and carves through a large area of white marble, creating a beautiful gorge of about 3 km in length.
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Vindhyan tableland is a plateau that lies to the north of the central part of the range. The cities of Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh, and Indore lie on the tableland, which rises higher than the Indo-Gangetic plain to its north.
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Gulf of Khambhat (formerly known as the Gulf of Cambay) is an inlet of the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India, in the state of Gujarat. It is about 80 miles in length, and divides the Kathiawar peninsula to the west from the eastern part of Gujarat state on the east.
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Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP) pronunciation  
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Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र
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Gujarat (Gujarati: ગુજરાત
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The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-'Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately,
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Bharuch (also known as Broach) in India, is a district in the southern part of the Gujarat peninsula on the west coast of state of Gujarat with a size and population comparable to that of Greater Boston.
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graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults. Graben is German for ditch.

A graben is the result of a block of land being downthrown producing a valley with a distinct scarp on each side. Grabens often occur side-by-side with horsts.
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horst is the raised fault block bounded by normal faults. The raised block is a portion of the Earth's crust that has remained stationary while the land has sunk on either side of it or has been crushed by a mountain range against it.
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plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat rural area.

Genesis

A plateau is a large and highland area of fairly level land separated from surrounding land by steep slopes (as in the Tibet),
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Ganges (Ganga)

The Ganges at Haridwar


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Yamuna (Sanskrit: यमुना, sometimes called Jamuna or Jumna) is a major tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India. With a total length of around  km ( mi), it is the largest tributary of the Ganges (Ganga).
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Palaeontology redirects here. For the scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal).


Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos
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Dinosauria *
Owen, 1842

Orders & Suborders
  • Ornithischia
  • Cerapoda
  • Thyreophora
  • Saurischia

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For other uses of the term, see Fossil (disambiguation)


FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under the DOS operating system.
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