nasal cavity

Head and neck.
Conducting passages
Latincavum nasi
subject #223 994
MeSH Nasal+Cavity
The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.

Function

The nasal cavity conditions the air to be received by the areas of the respiratory tract. Owing to the large surface area provided by the conchae, the air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed or cooled to within 1 degree of body temperature. In addition, the air is humidified, and dust and other particulate matter is removed by the fine hairs present in the nostril. The cilia of the respiratory epithelium move the particulate matter towards the pharynx where it is swallowed.

Borders

The lateral wall of the nasal cavity is mainly made up by the maxilla, however there is a deficiency that is compensated by: the perpendicular plate of the palatine bone, the medial pterygoid plate, the labyrinth of the ethmoid and the inferior concha. The nasal cavity is enclosed by the nasal bone above. The floor of the nasal cavity, which forms the roof of the mouth, is made up by the bones of the hard palate: the horizontal plate of the palatine bone posteriorly and the palatine process of the maxilla anteriorly. To the front of the nasal cavity is the nose, while the back is continuous with the pharynx. The paranasal sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity through small orifices called ostia.

The nasal cavity is divided in two by a vertical fin called the nasal septum. On the sides of the nasal cavity are three horizontal outgrowths called turbinates or conchae (singular "concha"). These turbinates disrupt the airflow, directing air toward the olfactory epithelium on the surface of the turbinates and the septum. The vomeronasal organ is located at the back of the septum and has a role in pheromone detection.

Cilia and mucus along the inside wall of the nasal cavity trap and remove dust and pathogens from the air as it flows through the nasal cavity. The cilia move the mucus down the nasal cavity to the pharynx, where it can be swallowed.

Blood and nerve supply

There is a rich blood supply to the nasal cavity. In some animals, such as dogs, the capillary beds flowing through the nasal cavity help cool the blood flow to the brain.

Blood supply comes from branches of both the internal and external carotid artery, including branches of the facial artery and maxillary artery. The named arteries of the nose are:

Innervation

Innervation of the nasal cavity responsible for the sense of smell is via the olfactory nerve, which sends microscopic fibers from the olfactory bulb through the cribiform plate to reach the top of the nasal cavity.

General sensory innervation is by branches of the trigeminal nerve (V1 & V2): The entire nasal cavity is innervated by autonomic fibers. Sympathetic innervation to the blood vessels of the mucosa causes them to constrict, while parasympathetic innervation of the mucosa controls secrection by mucous glands.

Diseases

Diseases of the nasal cavity include viral infections and nasal cavity cancer.

Empty nose syndrome.

Additional images


Nose and nasal cavities

Normal Nose CT Front cross section

Coronal section of nasal cavities.

Anatomy of the nasal cavity

The skull from the front.

Left orbicularis oculi, seen from behind.

Lateral wall of nasal cavity.

Nerves of the wall of the nasal cavity


See also

External links

Latin}}} 
Official status
Official language of: Vatican City
Used for official purposes, but not spoken in everyday speech
Regulated by: Opus Fundatum Latinitas
Roman Catholic Church
Language codes
ISO 639-1: la
ISO 639-2: lat
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Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed
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In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration.

The respiratory tract is divided into 3 segments:
  • Upper respiratory tract: nose and nasal passages, paranasal sinuses, and throat or pharynx

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Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. This process is one aspect of homeostasis: a dynamic state of stability between an animal's internal environment and its
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cilium (plural cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are thin, tail-like projections extending approximately 5–10 micrometers outwards from the cell body.
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Respiratory epithelium is a type of epithelium found lining the upper and lower respiratory tracts, where it serves to moisten and protect the airways. It also functions as a barrier to potential pathogens and foreign objects, preventing infection by action of the
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The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. This is similar to the mandible, which is also a fusion of two halves at the mental symphysis.
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The palatine bone is a bone in the palate (Latin palatum; unrelated to palatium 'palace', from which other senses of palatine derive).

Anatomy

It is situated at the back part of the nasal cavity between the maxilla and the pterygoid process of the
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The medial pterygoid plate (or medial pterygoid lamina) of the sphenoid is narrower and longer than the lateral pterygoid plate; it curves lateralward at its lower extremity into a hook-like process, the pterygoid hamulus, around which the tendon of the Tensor veli palatini
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The Labyrinth or Lateral Mass of the ethmoid bone consists of a number of thin-walled cellular cavities, the ethmoidal cells, arranged in three groups, anterior, middle, and posterior, and interposed between two vertical plates of bone; the lateral plate forms part of the
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The inferior nasal concha (Inferior Turbinated Bone) is one of the turbinates in the nose. It extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal cavity [Fig. 1] and consists of a lamina of spongy bone, curled upon itself like a scroll.
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The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, "the bridge" of the nose.

Each has two surfaces and four borders.
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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea.
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Paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces, communicating with the nasal cavity, within the bones of the skull and face. Humans possess a number of paranasal sinuses, divided into subgroups that are named according to the bones within which the sinuses lie:

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The nasal septum separates the left and right airways in the nose, dividing the two nostrils.

It is depressed by the Depressor septi nasi muscle.

Composition

The fleshy external end of the nasal septum is sometimes also called columella.
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In anatomy, a turbinate (or nasal concha) is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) which protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose.
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The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell. In humans, it measures about 1 inch wide by 2 inches long (about 2 cm by 5 cm) and lies on the roof of the nasal cavity about 3 inches (about 7 cm) above and behind the
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The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobson's organ[1] is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. It is the first processing stage of the accessory olfactory system. In adults, it is located in the vomer bone, between the nose and the mouth.
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pheromone is a chemical that triggers a natural behavioral response in another member of the same species. There are alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, sex pheromones, and many others that affect behavior or physiology.
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cilium (plural cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are thin, tail-like projections extending approximately 5–10 micrometers outwards from the cell body.
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highly specialized aspect of its associated subject.
Please help [ improve this article] by adding more general information.


Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of the mucous membranes in the body.
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C. l. familiaris

Trinomial name
Canis lupus familiaris
(Linnaeus, 1758)

The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora.
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capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. See capillary action for details.


Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels, measuring 5-10 μm, which connect arterioles and venules, and are
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In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for "in the skull"), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. The brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing,
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In human anatomy, the internal carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that helps supply blood to the brain.

Classification

Terminologia Anatomica currently breaks the artery into four parts: "cervical", "petrous", "cavernous", and "cerebral".
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In human anatomy, the external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. It arises from the common carotid artery when it bifurcates into an internal and external branch.
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The facial artery (external maxillary artery in older texts) is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the face.

Structure

The facial artery arises in the carotid triangle from the external carotid artery a little above the lingual
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The maxillary artery (or internal maxillary artery in older texts) is an artery that supplies deep structures of the face.

Structure



The maxillary artery, the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery, arises behind the neck of the
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The sphenopalatine artery (nasopalatine artery) is an artery of the head.

Course

It passes through the sphenopalatine foramen into the cavity of the nose, at the back part of the superior meatus.
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The anterior ethmoidal artery, also anterior ethmoid artery is an artery of the head.

Course

It accompanies the nasociliary nerve through the anterior ethmoidal canal, supplies the anterior and middle ethmoidal cells and frontal sinus, and enters the cranium


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