National War Labor Board

In 1918 President Woodrow Wilson established the National War Labor Board (NWLB) which was composed of representatives from business and labor. It was chaired by former President William Howard Taft. Its purpose was to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers. Capitalizing on labor shortages during America's entrance into World War I, unions led by Samuel Gompers under the American Federation of Labor organized mass strikes for tangible gain. With more than 1200 cases heard the board ruled in favor of labor more often than not.

In response the AFL issued a 'no strike' pledge. Wilson then instructed the NWLB to uphold the right of labor to organize and bargain collectively. In one instance, Wilson dispatched Federal Agents to commandeer a Smith & Wesson factory that violated WIB regulations. The WIB also constructed low-income housing around war factories and shipyards to ensure an adequate labor pool. It also encouraged a living wage. Union membership almost doubled after the formation of the WIB. Of note the AFL rose from 2 million in 1916 to 3.2 million in 1919. By the end of the decade, 15% of the nonagricultral work force was unionized. The NWLB was abolished August 12, 1919.The biggest setback in the process of creating the program was the exclusion of the up-and-coming African-American Citizens of the United States. Much dispute had arisen from the situation.

New National War Labor Board

The National War Labor Board, was reestablished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, on January 12, 1942. It became a tripartite body and was charged with acting as an arbitration tribunal in labor-management dispute cases, thereby preventing work stoppages which might hinder the war effort. It administered wage control in national industries such as automobiles, shipping, railways, airlines, telegraph lines, and mining. The Board was originally divided into 12 Regional Administrative Boards which handled both labor dispute settlement and wage stabilization functions for specific geographic regions. The National Board further decentralized in 1943, when it established special tripartite commissions and panels to deal with specific industries on a national base. It ceased operating in 1946, and thereafter labor disputes were handled by the National Labor Relations Board, originally set up in 1935.

References

  • Atleson, James B. Labor and the Wartime State: Labor Relations and Law During World War II. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1998. ISBN 025206674X
  • Foner, Philip S. History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Vol. 7: Labor and World War I, 1914-1918. New York: International Publishers, 1987. Cloth ISBN 0717806383; Paperback ISBN 0717806278
  • Montgomery, David. The Fall of the House of Labor: The Workplace, the State, and American Labor Activism, 1865-1925. New York: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1987. ISBN 0521225795
  • Taft, Philip. The A.F. of L. in the Time of Gompers. Hardback reprint. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1957. ISBN 0-374-97734-8

External links

President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. Etymologically, a "president" is one who presides , who sits in leadership (from Latin prae- "before" + sedere "to sit"; giving the term
..... Click the link for more information.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. A devout Presbyterian and leading intellectual of the Progressive Era, he served as president of Princeton University then became the reform governor of New
..... Click the link for more information.
William Howard Taft (September 15 1857 – March 8 1930) was an American politician, the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early 20th century,
..... Click the link for more information.
Clockwise from top: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.
..... Click the link for more information.
A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members ("rank and file" members) and negotiates labor contracts with employers.
..... Click the link for more information.
Samuel Gompers (January 27, 1850[1] - December 13, 1924) was an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and held the position as president of the organization for all but one year from
..... Click the link for more information.
Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by employees to perform work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances.
..... Click the link for more information.
A.F. of L.
American Federation of Labor
Founded December 8, 1886
Date dissolved December 4, 1955
Merged into AFL-CIO
Country United States
Office location New York City; later, Washington, D.C.
..... Click the link for more information.
19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1880s  1890s  1900s  - 1910s -  1920s  1930s  1940s
1913 1914 1915 - 1916 - 1917 1918 1919

Year 1916 (MCMXVI
..... Click the link for more information.
19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1880s  1890s  1900s  - 1910s -  1920s  1930s  1940s
1916 1917 1918 - 1919 - 1920 1921 1922

Year 1919 (MCMXIX
..... Click the link for more information.
A decade is a set or a group of ten, commonly a period of 10 years in contemporary English, or a period of 10 days in the French revolutionary calendar.
..... Click the link for more information.
A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members ("rank and file" members) and negotiates labor contracts with employers.
..... Click the link for more information.
Lêre).
  • 1806 - Santiago de Liniers re-takes the city of Buenos Aires after the first British invasion.
  • 1833 - Chicago was founded.
  • 1851 - Isaac Singer granted a patent for his sewing machine.
  • 1877 - Asaph Hall discovers Deimos.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
  • 19th century - 20th century - 21st century
    1880s  1890s  1900s  - 1910s -  1920s  1930s  1940s
    1916 1917 1918 - 1919 - 1920 1921 1922

    Year 1919 (MCMXIX
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. Etymologically, a "president" is one who presides , who sits in leadership (from Latin prae- "before" + sedere "to sit"; giving the term
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    January 12 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

    Events


    ..... Click the link for more information.
    19th century - 20th century - 21st century
    1910s  1920s  1930s  - 1940s -  1950s  1960s  1970s
    1939 1940 1941 - 1942 - 1943 1944 1945

    Year 1942 (MCMXLII
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    automobile (from Greek auto, self and Latin mobile moving, a vehicle that moves itself rather than being moved by another vehicle or animal) or motor car (usually shortened to just car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Shipping is physical process of transporting goods and cargo. Virtually every product ever made, bought, or sold has been affected by shipping. Despite the many variables in shipped products and locations, there are only three basic types of shipments: land, air, and sea.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Rail transport is the transport of passengers and goods by means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run along railways or railroads. Rail transport is part of the logistics chain, which facilitates the international trading and economic growth in most countries.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight, generally with a recognized operating certificate or license. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Telegraphy (from the Greek words (τηλη) = far and (γραφειν) = write) is the long-distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally by changing something that could
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    worldwide view of the subject.
    Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page.


    Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein, or (coal) seam.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action. It occurs in a great many contexts in engineering, management science, political science, political economy, sociology and economics—each of which could be said to study
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    19th century - 20th century - 21st century
    1910s  1920s  1930s  - 1940s -  1950s  1960s  1970s
    1940 1941 1942 - 1943 - 1944 1945 1946

    Year 1943 (MCMXLIII
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    19th century - 20th century - 21st century
    1910s  1920s  1930s  - 1940s -  1950s  1960s  1970s
    1943 1944 1945 - 1946 - 1947 1948 1949

    Year 1646 (MCMXLVI
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    The National Labor Relations Board (or NLRB) is an independent agency of the United States Government charged with conducting elections for labor union representation and with investigating and remedying Unfair labor practices.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    19th century - 20th century - 21st century
    1900s  1910s  1920s  - 1930s -  1940s  1950s  1960s
    1932 1933 1934 - 1935 - 1936 1937 1938

    Year 1935 (MCMXXXV
    ..... Click the link for more information.


    This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.