Neapolitan language

Neapolitan
Napulitano
Spoken in:Italy
Total speakers:7.5 million 
Ranking:75-85
Language family:}}}
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Italo-Dalmatian
     Neapolitan}}}
Language codes
ISO 639-1:none
ISO 639-2:nap
ISO 639-3:nap


Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: napoletano) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); dialects of Neapolitan are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, the southern part of Marche and Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and central Apulia. As of 1976, there were 7,047,399 "theoretical" native speakers of this group of dialects [1]. The use of dialects in Italy has been rapidly decreasing in recent decades, so these numbers must be seen as overestimated.

Distribution

"Neapolitan" is the name given to the varied Italiano meridionale-interno group of dialects in southern Italy, historically united during the reigns of the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The many dialects of this language group include Neapolitan proper (as spoken in and around Naples), Irpino, Cilentano, Laziale Meridionale, Marchigiano Meridionale, Teramano, Abruzzese Orientale Adriatico, Abruzzese Occidentale, Molisano, Dauno-Appenninico, Garganico, Apulo-Barese, Lucano, and Cosentino. The dialects are part of a strong and varied continuum, so the various dialects in Marche, Abruzzo, Molise, Apulia, Lucania and Calabria can typically be recognizable as regional dialects. Many would argue that the term "Neapolitan" is only used for the dialect of Naples and its vicinity. In northern Abruzzo and southern Lazio, the dialects gives way to Italian dialects such as Romanesco. In central Calabria and southern Puglia, the dialects give way to Sicilian dialects.

The Language

Neapolitan is generally considered an Italo-Dalmatian, although some postulate a southern Romance classification. There are notable differences among the various dialects, but they are all generally mutually intelligible. The language as a whole has often fallen victim of its status as a "language without prestige".

Standard Italian and Neapolitan are generally mutually comprehensible, though with notable grammatical differences such as nouns in the neuter form and unique plural formation. Its evolution has been similar to that of Italian and other Romance languages from their roots in Vulgar Latin. It has also developed with a pre-Latin Oscan influence, which is noticeable in the pronunciation of the d sound as an r sound (rhotacism), but only when "d" is at the beginning of a word, or between two vowels (e.g.- "doje" or "duje" (two, respectively feminine and masculine form), pronounced, and often spelled, as "roje"/"ruje", vedé (to see), pronounced as "veré", and often spelled so, same for cadé/caré (to fall), and Madonna/Maronna). Some think that the rhotacism is a more recent phenomenon, though. Other Oscan influence (more likely than the previous one) is considered the pronunciation of the group of consonants "nd" (of Latin) as "nn" (this generally is reflected in spelling more consistently) (e.g.- "munno" (world, compare to Italian "mondo"), "quanno" (when, compare to Italian "quando"), etc.), and the pronunciation of the group of consonants "mb" (of Latin) as "mm" (e.g.- tammuro (drum), cfr. Italian tamburo), also consistently reflected in spelling. Other effects of the Oscan substratum are postulated too. In addition, the language was also affected by the Greek language. Naples was largely Greek-speaking prior to the Eighth Century, and the Greek language remained dominant in much of Southern Italy for many further centuries before finally being fully supplanted by Italian dialects (see: Griko language for remnant traces of Greek on the Italian peninsula). There have never been any successful attempts to standardize the language (eg.- consulting three different dictionaries, one finds three different spellings for the word for tree, arbero, arvero and àvaro).

Neapolitan has enjoyed a rich literary, musical and theatrical history (notably Giambattista Basile, Eduardo de Filippo, Salvatore di Giacomo and Totò).

The language has no official status within Italy and is not taught in schools. The Università Federico II in Naples offers (from 2003) courses in Campanian Dialectology at the faculty of Sociology, whose actual aim is not teaching students to speak the language, but studying its history, usage, literature and social role. There are also ongoing legislative attempts at the national level to have it recognized as an official minority language of Italy. It is however an officially recognized ISO 639 Joint Advisory Committee language with the language code of NAP.

For comparison, The Lord's Prayer is here reproduced in the Neapolitan spoken in Naples and in a northern Calabrian dialect, in contrast with a variety of southern Calabrian (part of Sicilian language), Italian and Latin.

Neapolitan (Naples) Northern Calabrian Southern Calabrian Italian Latin
Pate nuoste ca staje 'ncielo,Patre nuorru chi sta ntru cielu,Patri nostru chi' sini nt'o celu,Padre Nostro, che sei nei cieli,Pater noster, qui es in caelis
santificammo 'o nomme tuojechi sia santificatu u nume tuoio,m'esti santificatu u nomi toi,sia santificato il tuo nome.sanctificetur nomen tuum:
faje vení 'o regno tuoje,venisse u riegnu tuoio,Mù veni u rregnu toi,Venga il tuo regno,Adveniat regnum tuum.
sempe c' 'a vuluntà toja,se facisse a vuluntà tuoia,ù si facissi a voluntàsia fatta la tua volontà,Fiat voluntas tua
accussí 'ncielo e 'nterra.sia nto cielu ca nterra.com'esti nt'o celu, u stessa sup'a terra.come in cielo, così in terra.sicut in caelo et in terra
Fance ave' 'o ppane tutt' 'e juorneRanne oje u pane nuorro e tutti i juorni,Dùnandi ped oji u pani nostru e tutti i jornaDacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano,Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie.
lèvece 'e dièbbeteperdunacce i rebita nuorri,e' perdùnandi i debiti,e rimetti a noi i nostri debiti,Et dimitte nobis debita nostra,
comme nuje 'e llevamme all'ate,cumu nue perdunammu i rebituri nuorri.comu nù nc'i perdunamu ad i debituri nostri.come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori.sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris.
nun 'nce fa spanteca',Un ce mannare ntra tentazione,Non nci dassari nt'a tentazioni,E non ci indurre in tentazione,Et ne nos inducas in temptationem;
e llevace 'o mmale 'a tuorno.ma liberacce e ru male.ma liberandi d'o malima liberaci dal male.sed libera nos a malo.
Ammèn.Ammèn.Ammèn.Amen.Amen.

See also

External links

References



Anthem
Il Canto degli Italiani
(also known as Fratelli d'Italia)


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This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. Languages are listed for secondary locations only when spoken by more than 1% of the population.
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A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language. As with biological families, the evidence of relationship is observable shared characteristics.
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Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. It includes the Romance languages (including Italian, Catalan, Occitan, French, Corsican, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish), and a number of extinct languages.
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Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprisies all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire.
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Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. It comprises 38 languages in 2 subsets: Italo-Dalmatian, and Western.
  • Italo-Dalmatian includes Italian, Neapolitan and the extinct Dalmatian.

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ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. It consists of 136 two-letter codes used to identify the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international shorthand for indicating languages.
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ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 language codes in the list.
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ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. It extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages. The standard was published by ISO on 5 February 2007[1].
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Italian}}} 
Official status
Official language of:  European Union
 European Union
 Switzerland
 San Marino
Vatican City
Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The template is . Please use instead.

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Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprisies all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire.
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Comune di Napoli

Flag
Seal
Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy.
Coordinates:
Region Campania
Province Province of Naples
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Regione Campania


Map highlighting the location of Campania in Italy

Capital Naples
President Antonio Bassolino
(DS-Union)
Provinces Avellino
Benevento
Caserta
Naples
Salerno
Comuni 551
Area 13,595 km
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Anthem
Il Canto degli Italiani
(also known as Fratelli d'Italia)


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Country Italy
Region Lazio
Province Latina (LT)
Mayor Antonio Raimondi (since June, 2007)

Area km
Population
 - Total (as of December 31, 2004)
 - Density /km
Time zone
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Sora may refer to:

Places

  • Sora, Barcelona, Spain
  • Sora, Italy
  • Sora river, Slovenia

People

  • Kawai Sora, a Japanese poet and Matsuo Basho's companion his journey to the north, Oku no Hosomichi

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Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. Lazio is notable for its history, art, architecture, archaeology, religion and culture.
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Regione Marche


Map highlighting the location of Marche in Italy

Capital Ancona
President Gian Mario Spacca
(DL-Union)
Provinces 5
Comuni 246
Area 9,694 km
 - Ranked 15th (3.2 %)
Population (2006 est.
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Regione Abruzzo


Map highlighting the location of Abruzzo in Italy

Capital L'Aquila
President Ottaviano Del Turco
(SDI-Union)
Provinces L'Aquila
Chieti
Pescara
Teramo
Comuni 305
Area 10,794 km
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Regione Molise


Map highlighting the location of Molise in Italy

Capital Campobasso
President Michele Iorio
(Forza Italia-CdL)
Provinces 2
Comuni 136
Area 4,438 km
 - Ranked 19th (1.5 %)
Population (2006 est.
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Regione Basilicata


Map highlighting the location of Basilicata in Italy

Capital Potenza
President Vito De Filippo
(DL-Union)
Provinces Matera
Potenza
Comuni 131
Area 9,995 km
 - Ranked 14th (3.
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Regione Calabria


Map highlighting the location of Calabria in Italy

Capital Catanzaro
President Agazio Loiero
(PDM-Union)
Provinces Catanzaro
Cosenza
Crotone
Reggio Calabria
Vibo Valentia
Comuni 409
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Regione Puglia


Map highlighting the location of Puglia in Italy

Capital Bari
President Nichi Vendola
(PRC-Union)
Provinces Bari
Brindisi
Foggia
Lecce
Taranto
Comuni 258
Area 19,366 km
 - Ranked 7th (6.
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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1940s  1950s  1960s  - 1970s -  1980s  1990s  2000s
1973 1974 1975 - 1976 - 1977 1978 1979

Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI
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first language a human being learns to speak is his/her native language. He/She is a native speaker of this language according to Leonard Bloomfield [1]

A first language or native language is a basis for sociolinguistic identity.
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Neapolitan}}}
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: nap
ISO 639-3: nap

Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: napoletano
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Southern Italy

Regional statistics
Largest city Naples
Regions of Italy Apulia, Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise, Sardinia and Sicily
Area
 - Total
47,504 mi² (123,036 km²)

Languages
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The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession of the island of Sicily from the old Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of
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The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples, I of the Two Sicilies bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era
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Calabrian (Italian: calabrese). In addition, there is a significant Calabrian version of the Griko language and pockets of Franco-Provençal and Arbëresh.

Calabrian (Calabrese)

Calabrian (it: Calabrese
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