Nicolae Milescu

Enlarge picture
Travels through Siberia to the Chinese Borders, published in St. Petersburg in 1882.
Nicolae Milescu or Neculai Milescu (16361708), also known as Spătarul Milescu-Cârnu - Chancellor Milescu the Snub-nosed (in Russian: Николай Гаврилович Спафарий - Nikolai Gavrilovich Spathari or Николае Гаврилович Милеску - Nikolaye Gavrilovich Milescu), was a Moldavian writer, traveler, geographer, and diplomat. Milescu spoke Romanian, Latin, Greek, and Russian.

Early life

A boyar born in Vaslui, he studied at the Patriarchate College of Istanbul and after returning to Iaşi, was appointed Chancellor for the Moldavian Prince Gheorghe Ştefan. In 1660-1664, he acted as representative of his country with its Ottoman overlord, and then as envoy to Berlin and Stockholm.

He followed Gheorghe Ştefan in his exile to Stockholm and Szczecin (1664-1667), and visited Louis XIV's France (attempting to get the King to assist him in his wish for the creation of an anti-Ottoman alliance).

Exile

Milescu had ambitions of his own, and conspired against Prince Ştefăniţă Lupu. As punishment, Ştefăniţă ordered for Milescu's nose to be cut off (the reason for Milescu's moniker). According to the unlikely account of chronicler Ion Neculce: "After [being mutilated], Nicolae the Snub-nosed fled to the German Land and found himself a doctor there, who repeatedly drew blood out of his cheeks and sculptured his nose, and thus day by day the blood coagulated, leading to his healing".[1]

Milescu again left for Istanbul, where he received a letter from the Russian Tsar Aleksey I, who appointed him translator of the Foreign Ministry in 1671. Milescu arrived in Russia together with Dositheus II, the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem. In 1674, he is shown as leading negotiations with both Wallachia and Moldavia, trying to rally them in the Russian-led anti-Ottoman projects. In 1695, Milescu took part in Peter the Great's Azov Campaigns.

In China

Enlarge picture
Kalgan, the northern gate to China, in 1698.
In 1675, he was named ambassador of the Russian Empire to Beijing, the capital of Qing China, returning in 1678. At the head of a 150-strong expedition that had a military component (meant to fend off possible attacks by hostile indigenous population), Milescu had as his main tasks the settlement of several border incidents between Russia and China, the establishment of permanent trade relations with China, and the survey of the newly-incorporated Russian lands along the Amur River. The previous Muscovite embassy to China, led by Fyodor Baykov in 1656-56, had failed to achieve these objectives.

Upon reaching Yeniseysk, Milescu sent one of his men, Ignatiy Milovanov, to the Chinese court in order to inform the Kangxi Emperor about the purpose of their embassy. Milovanov was the first European known to have crossed the Amur River, reaching Beijing by the shortest route possible. Milescu followed the same route to the Chinese border, and established his camp on the Nonni River (in Manchuria) waiting for news from Milovanov. The latter returned to the camp on February 18 and, taking Milescu's report to the Tsar with him, proceeded to Moscow. Milescu, on the other hand, crossed Manchuria and arrived to Beijing in the middle of May. His diplomacy proved unsuccessful, and he returned to Siberia by the same route in Spring 1677. Nicolae Milescu died in Moscow.

Achievements

In his road journal - later published under the title Travels through Siberia to the Chinese borders, Milescu correctly described the middle course of the Ob, Irtysh, and Angara. He assumed the Ob to have its source in Lake Teletskoye (in the Altay Mountains). He was also the first person to describe Lake Baikal and all the rivers feeding the lake, and the first to point out the Baikal's unfathomable depth.

On his way through Siberia, Milescu used the astrolabe to establish coordinates of some setlements. His materials were later used by the Jesuits who took considerable interest in China. Upon returning to Moscow, he submitted to the Foreign Ministry three volumes of notes: Travel notes and Description of China, alongside the Travels.

In his narratives, Milescu summed up the knowledge that Russian explorers had gathered about East Siberia. Although he believed that the Amur was the largest river in the world, he listed its main tributaries without mistake. His idea that there was a vast mountain range stretching from the Baikal to the Okhotsk Sea, although fundamentally wrong, was given credit by many geographers until the mid-20th century. He also heard rumours about Sakhalin, which he supposed to be the same island as the Hokkaidō, thus considerably exaggerating its dimensions.

Bogdan Petriceicu-Hasdeu believed that Milescu was the author of the first translation of the Bible into Romanian, the Bucharest edition (printed in 1688, during the rule of Prince Şerban Cantacuzino). However, Nicolae Iorga and other historians argued that there is no actual proof of this, and proposed Constantin Cantacuzino as the main translator.

References

1. ^ Ion Neculce, O samă de cuvinte, XLI
8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
Chancellor or chancellour (archaic) (Latin: cancellarius) is an official title used by most of the peoples whose civilization has arisen directly or indirectly out of the Roman Empire.
..... Click the link for more information.
Russian}}} 
Writing system: Cyrillic (Russian variant)  
Official status
Official language of:  Abkhazia (Georgia)
 Belarus
 Commonwealth of Independent States (working)
 Crimea (de facto; Ukraine)
..... Click the link for more information.
Moldavia (Romanian: Moldova) is a geographical and historical region in South-Eastern Europe, roughly corresponding to the territory of the historic principality of the same name.
..... Click the link for more information.
writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms.
..... Click the link for more information.
A geographer is a scientist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's physical environment and human habitat.

Though geographers are historically known as people who make maps, map making is actually the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography.
..... Click the link for more information.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making,
..... Click the link for more information.
Romanian}}} 
Official status
Official language of:  Moldova [2]
 Romania
 Vojvodina (Serbia)

 European Union
Regulated by: Academia Română
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ro
ISO 639-2: rum (B)
..... Click the link for more information.
Latin}}} 
Official status
Official language of: Vatican City
Used for official purposes, but not spoken in everyday speech
Regulated by: Opus Fundatum Latinitas
Roman Catholic Church
Language codes
ISO 639-1: la
ISO 639-2: lat
..... Click the link for more information.
Greek}}} 
Writing system: Greek alphabet 
Official status
Official language of:  Greece
 Cyprus
 European Union
recognised as minority language in parts of:
 European Union
 Italy
 Turkey
Regulated by:
..... Click the link for more information.
This article refers to the aristocratic title of boyar. For the Boyar caste of India, see Boyar (caste).


A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: boier
..... Click the link for more information.
Vaslui

County Vaslui County
Status County capital
Mayor Victor Cristea, Social Democratic Party, since 2000

Population (2002) 70,267

Geographical coordinates
..... Click the link for more information.
Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople (Greek: Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης
..... Click the link for more information.
State Party  Turkey
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv
Reference 356
Region Europe and North America

Inscription History
Inscription 1985  (9th Session)
..... Click the link for more information.
This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east pf the Carpathians until the union with Wallachia in 1862, leading to the creation of Romania.
..... Click the link for more information.
16th century - 17th century - 18th century
1630s  1640s  1650s  - 1660s -  1670s  1680s  1690s
1657 1658 1659 - 1660 - 1661 1662 1663

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
Ottoman Empire or Ottoman Caliphate (1299 to 1922) (Old Ottoman Turkish: دولت عالیه عثمانیه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish:
..... Click the link for more information.
In feudalism, an overlord was a lord having authority over other lords.

Overlord may also refer to:

In military history:
  • Operation Overlord

..... Click the link for more information.
Berlin

Flag Coat of arms

Details
Location of Berlin within Germany / EU

Coordinates
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Administration
Country
..... Click the link for more information.
City of Stockholm
Stockholms stad


Coat of arms
Location of Stockholm in northern Europe
Coordinates:
Country Sweden
Municipality
..... Click the link for more information.


Exile can be a form of punishment.[1] It means to be away from one's home (i.e.
..... Click the link for more information.
Szczecin
Oder River in Szczecin

Flag
Coat of arms
Motto: "Szczecin jest otwarty" ("Szczecin is open")

..... Click the link for more information.
Louis XIV (baptised as Louis-Dieudonn̩) (September 5, 1638 РSeptember 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre.

He acceded to the throne on May 14 1643, a few months before his fifth birthday, but did not assume actual personal control of the
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem
"La Marseillaise"


..... Click the link for more information.
original research or unverifiable claims.
* It needs additional references or sources for verification.
* It may require general cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.

Please help [ improve the article] or discuss these issues on the talk page.
..... Click the link for more information.
Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek χρονικά (from χρόνος
..... Click the link for more information.
list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire, as alphabetized in the adjacent template, at any time within the empire's existence between 962 and 1806.

In the 18th century the Holy Roman Empire consisted of over 1800 separate immediate territories governed by
..... Click the link for more information.
Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian: Pоссiйская Имперiя, Modern Russian: Российская империя,
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.