Niger Delta

The Niger Delta, the delta of the Niger River in Nigeria, is a densely populated region sometimes called the Oil Rivers because it was once a major producer of palm oil. The area was the British Oil Rivers Protectorate from 1885 until 1893, when it was expanded and became the Niger Coast Protectorate.

Enlarge picture
View of the Niger Delta from space. North is on the left.


The Niger Delta, as now defined officially by the Nigerian Government, extends over about 70,000 km² and makes up 7.5% of Nigeria’s land mass. Historically and cartographically, it consists of present day Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers States. In the year 2000, however, Obansanjo's regime expanded it's definition to include Abia State, Akwa Ibom State, Cross River State, Edo State, Imo State and Ondo State. Some 20 million people of more than 40 ethnic groups, speaking some 250 dialects live in the Delta; the Ijaw being in the majority. Their livelihoods are primarily based on fishing and farming.

Coincidentally, Nigeria has become Africa's biggest producer of petroleum, including many oil wells in the Oil Rivers. Some 2 million barrels a day are extracted in the Niger Delta. Since 1975, the region has accounted for more than 75% of Nigeria's export earnings. Much of the natural gas extracted in oil wells in the Delta is immediately burned, or flared, into the air at a rate of approximately 70 million m³ per day. This is equivalent to 40% of African natural gas consumption, and forms the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions on the planet. The environmental devastation associated with the industry and the lack of distribution of oil wealth have been the source and/or key aggravating factors of numerous environmental movements and inter-ethnic conflicts in the region, including recent guerilla activity by the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND).

Oil revenue derivation

Oil revenue allocation has been the subject of much contention well before Nigeria gained its independence. allocations have varied from as much as 50%, owing to the First Republic's high degree of regional autonomy, and as low as 10% during the military dictatorships.

Oil revenue sharing formula
Year Federal State* Local Special Projects Derivation Formula**
195840%60%0%0%50%
196880%20%0%0%10%
197775%22%3%0%10%
198255%32.5%10%2.5%10%
198950%24%15%11%10%
199548.5%24%20%7.5%13%
200148.5%24%20%7.5%13%


* State allocations are based on 5 criteria: equality (equal shares per state), population, social development, land mass, and revenue generation.

**The derivation formula refers to the percentage of the revenue oil producing states retain from taxes on oil and other natural resources produced in the state. World Bank Report

Recent Destabilisation

Enlarge picture
Map of Nigeria numerically showing states typically considered part of the Niger Delta region: 1. Abia, 2. Akwa Ibom, 3. Bayelsa, 4. Cross River, 5. Delta, 6. Edo, 7.Imo, 8. Ondo, 9. Rivers Click to view


Activities of local indigenous people against commercial oil refineries and pipelines has resulted in the destabilisation of the region. Recently hostages of western oil workers for Shell, the primary corporation in operation in the region, were taken by outraged local people. Such activities have also resulted in greater governmental concern with the area, and the mobilisation of the Nigerian army and coastguard into the region.

In April, 2006, a bomb exploded near an oil refinery in the Niger Delta region, a warning against Chinese expansion in the region. MEND stated: “We wish to warn the Chinese government and its oil companies to steer well clear of the Niger Delta. The Chinese government by investing in stolen crude places its citizens in our line of fire.”[1]

Government and Private initiatives geared towards developing the Niger delta region has been introduced recently. Some of these include the Niger Delta Development Commission NDDC [2] a Government Initiative. Another organisation is Development Initiative (DEVIN) [3] a community development Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) based in Port Harcourt in the Niger Delta. Uz and Uz Transnational [4] a company with strong commitment to the Niger Delta has introduced ways of developing the poor in Niger delta especially in rivers State.

It should not be confused with the Inner Niger Delta, also known as the Niger Inland Delta, in Mali.

See also

References

Coordinates:
delta is a landform where the mouth of a river flows into an ocean, sea, desert, estuary, lake or another river. It builds up sediment outwards into the flat area which the river's flow encounters (as a deltaic deposit
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Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). It runs in a crescent through Guinea, Mali, Niger, on the border with Benin and then through Nigeria, discharging through a massive delta, known as the Niger Delta of the Oil Rivers,
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Capital Abuja

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Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Previously the second-most widely produced edible oil, after soybean oil, 28 million metric tons were produced worldwide in 2004[1].
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The Niger Coast Protectorate was a British protectorate in the Oil Rivers area of present-day Nigeria, originally established as the Oil Rivers Protectorate in 1891 and confirmed at the Berlin Conference the following year, renamed on 12 May 1893, and merged with the
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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1850s  1860s  1870s  - 1880s -  1890s  1900s  1910s
1882 1883 1884 - 1885 - 1886 1887 1888

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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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The Niger Coast Protectorate was a British protectorate in the Oil Rivers area of present-day Nigeria, originally established as the Oil Rivers Protectorate in 1891 and confirmed at the Berlin Conference the following year, renamed on 12 May 1893, and merged with the
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Bayelsa State is a state in southern Nigeria in the core Niger Delta region, between Delta State and Rivers State. Its capital is Yenagoa. The language spoken here is Ijaw; however, like the rest of Nigeria, English is the official language.
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Delta most commonly refers to:
  • Delta (letter), the letter Δ or δ in the Greek alphabet, also used as a mathematical symbol
  • River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river
Delta also has the following meanings:

Abbreviations


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river is a natural waterway that transits water through a landscape from higher to lower elevations. It is an integral component of the water cycle. The water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge (as seen at baseflow
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Abia State is a state in southeastern Nigeria. The capital is Umuahia, although the major commercial city is Aba, formerly a British colonial government outpost. The state was created in 1991 from part of Imo State and its citizens are predominantly Igbo.
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Akwa Ibom is a state in Nigeria. It is located in the south-east of the country, lying between latitudes 4°321 and 5°331 North, and longitudes 7°251 and 8°251 East. The State is bordered on the east by Cross River State, on the west by Rivers State and Abia State, and on the South
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Cross River State is a coastal state in southeastern Nigeria, bordering Cameroon to the east. Its capital is at Calabar, and it is named for the Cross River, which passes through the state. Ejagham and Efik are major languages of this state.
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Edo State is an inland state in central southern Nigeria. Its capital is Benin City. It was formed in 1991 by the split of Bendel State into Edo and Delta State. Tourist attractions include the Emotan statue in Benin City and the Somorika hills in Akoko Edo.
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Imo State is a state in Nigeria. It is located in the southeast region of the country, with Owerri as it capital and largest city. Ikedi Godson Ohakim is the current governor.
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Ondo State, Nigeria was created on 3 February 1976 from the former Western State. It originally included what is now Ekiti State, which was split off in 1996. Akure is the state capital.
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The Ijaw (also known by the subgroups "Ijo" or "Izon") are a collection of peoples indigenous mostly to the forest regions of the Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers States within the Niger Delta in Nigeria. Some are natives of Akwa Ibom, Edo and Ondo states also in Nigeria.
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Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. By extension, the term fishing is applied to pursuing other aquatic animals such as various types of shellfish, squid, octopus, turtles, frogs, and some edible marine invertebrates.
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Agriculture (from Agri Latin for ager ("a field"), and culture, from the Latin cultura "cultivation" in the strict sense of "tillage of the soil". A literal reading of the English word yields "tillage of the soil of a field".
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Petroleum (Latin Petroleum derived from Greek πέτρα (Latin petra) - rock + έλαιον (Latin oleum) - oil) or crude oil
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An oil well is a term for any perforation through the Earth's surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons.

History


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barrel is the name of several units of volume:
  • Oil barrel: 42 U.S. gallons, 158.9873 litres,[1] or 34.97231575 Imperial (UK) gallons.
  • UK beer barrel: 36 UK gallons (163.7 litres).
  • US beer barrel: 31½ U.S. gallons (117.

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In economics, an export is any good or commodity, transported from one country to another country in a legitimate fashion, typically for use in trade.
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gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as electricity. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo extensive processing to remove almost all materials other than methane.
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Greenhouse gases are components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Without the greenhouse effect the Earth would be uninhabitable;[1] in its absence, the mean temperature of the earth would be about -19 °C (-2 °F, 254 K) rather than the present
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The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta ("MEND") is a militant indigenous people's movement dedicated to armed struggle against the exploitation and oppression of the people of Niger Delta and the degradation of the natural environment by foreign multinational
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