Northern European Lowlands



The Northern European Lowlands or North German Plain is an geomorphological region in Europe. They consist of the low plains between the Central European Highlands to the south and the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the north; their elevation is between 0 and 200 m (about 0 and 650 ft). While mostly used as farmland, the region also contains bogs, heath, and lakes. On the North Sea coast, one finds marshes and the Wadden Sea, a large tidal area.

Politically, the Northern European Lowlands are shared among Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, and Poland. Major rivers are, from west to east, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, and Vistula.

Historically, especially in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period, the western section has been known as the Low Countries.

The Northern European Lowlands are connected to East European Plain, which includes large plains of Russia, bounded to the east by the Ural Mountains. Together, they form the European Plain. The Northern European Plain is also called the "North German Plain" because over 80% of it was once ethnically Germanic. (see also German (disambiguation))

The modern German part of the Northern European Lowlands is also known as the North German Plain. Much of the North German Plain lies less than 100 meters above sea level. On the North Sea coast, the plain is very flat and composed mostly of marshes and mudflats. The offshore East Frisian Islands and North Frisian Islands are considered an extension of the North German Plain that was separated from the mainland after floods during the Middle Ages.

Along the Baltic coast, the plain meets the sea as jagged chalk cliffs that formed during periods of glaciation. The plain is sandy by the shoreline, and inland it is marked by bogs and heathlands. Off the coast near Stralsund lies Rügen, which is Germany's largest island.

The states of Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Bremen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Berlin, much of Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, and parts of Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia are located in this region.

During the Cold War, the North German Plain was considered a possible Warsaw Pact attack/invasion route into West Germany, across U.S. and U.K. supply routes originating from northern German ports, and ultimately into other western European nations. Another likely route for the Warsaw Pact forces to attack through would have been the Fulda Gap, between Kassel and Würzburg. Also, the "Northern European Lowlands", or "Northern European Plains" dominate the terrain of modern northern Germany.

The part in modern day Poland is called the "Polish Plain" (Polish: Niż Polski or Nizina Polska) and stretches from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Sudetes and Carpathians in the south.
Geomorphology (from Greek: γη, ge, "earth"; μορφή, morfé, "form"; and λόγος, logos
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Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Physically and geologically, Europe is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, west of Asia. Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea,
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plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. Plains may be more suitable for farming than plateaus or mountains. Plains are sometimes remnants of much larger features that are now largely eroded, such as mountains or volcanoes.
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The North Sea is marginal, epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European continental shelf between Norway and Denmark in the east, Scotland and England in the west, and Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France in the south.
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Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and the Little Belt.
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bog is a wetland type that accumulates acidic peat, a deposit of dead plant material. The term peat bog in common usage is not entirely redundant, although it would be proper to call these sphagnum bogs
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Heaths are shrubland habitats characterised by open, low growing woody vegetation, found on mainly infertile acidic soils. In the latter respect they are similar to moorland, but they differ in terms of climate – heathland is generally warmer and drier than moorland –
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lake (from Latin ligacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. A vast majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes.
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The North Sea is marginal, epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European continental shelf between Norway and Denmark in the east, Scotland and England in the west, and Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France in the south.
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marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland which is subject to frequent or continuous inundation.[1] Typically a marsh features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water.
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Wadden Sea (Vadehavet in Danish, Waddenzee in Dutch, Waadsee in Frisian, Wattensee in Low German, Wattenmeer in German) is the name for a body of water and its associated coastal wetlands lying between a section of the coast of
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Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of Earth's ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans. More generally, tidal phenomena can occur in any object that is subjected to a gravitational field that varies in time and space, such as the
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Motto
Eendracht maakt macht   (Dutch)
L'union fait la force"   (French)
Einigkeit macht stark
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Motto
"Je maintiendrai"   (French)
"Ik zal handhaven"   (Dutch)
"I shall stand fast"1

Anthem
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Anthem
"Das Lied der Deutschen" (third stanza)
also called "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit"
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Motto
none
(Royal motto: Guds hjælp, Folkets kærlighed, Danmarks styrke
"The Help of God, the Love of the People, the Strength of Denmark" )
Anthem
Der er et yndigt land  (national)
Kong Christian
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Motto
none1
Anthem
Mazurek Dąbrowskiego   (Polish)
Dąbrowski's Mazurek
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Origin Grisons, Switzerland

Basin countries Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, France, Netherlands
Length 1,320 km (820 mi)
Source elevation Vorderrhein: approx. 2,600 m (8,500 ft)
Hinterrhein: approx. 2,500 m (8,200 ft)

Avg.
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Origin Fulda and Werra
Mouth North Sea
Basin countries Germany
Length 452 km
Source elevation 117 m

Avg. discharge 327 m³/s
Basin area 46,306 km²

The Weser
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Elbe
Czech: Labe, German: Elbe, Low German: Ilv
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Oder River

Oder between Kienitz and Zollbrücke, Germany


Countries | Czech Republic,Poland,Germany

Length | 854 km (531 mi)
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Origin Barania Góra, Beskidy
Mouth Gdańsk Bay, Baltic Sea
Basin countries Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Slovakia
Length 1,047 km (651 mi)
Source elevation 1,106 m (3,629 ft)

Avg.
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Middle Ages form the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three "ages": the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages and Modern Times.
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The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that
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Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. The term is more appropriate to the era of the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Europe when strong centrally
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East European Plain (also Eastern-European Lowland, Eastern European Lowlands, Eastern European Plain, and Russian Plain) is a plain and series of broad river basins in Eastern Europe. It is the largest mountain-free part of the European landscape.
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Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation


Capital
(and largest city) Moscow

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The Ural Mountains

Countries | Russia,Kazakhstan
Regions | Sverdlovsk Oblast,Perm Krai,Chelyabinsk Oblast,Kurgan Oblast,Orenburg Oblast,Tyumen Oblast,Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug,Yamalo-Nenets
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European Plain or Great European Plain is a plain in Europe. It is the largest mountain-free landform in Europe, although a number of highlands are identified within.
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