Nursultan Nazarbayev

Nursultan Nazarbayev
Нұрсұлтан Назарбае?

Preceded by
Succeeded by

Political partyNur-Otan
SpouseSara Alpysovna Nazarbayeva
ReligionIslam[1]

Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishyevic Nazarbayev] (born 6 July 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the Fall of the Soviet Union and the nation's independence in 1991.

In 1984 Nazarbayev became the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, working under Dinmukhamed Kunayev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan.[2] He served as First Secretary of the Kazakh Communist Party from 1989 to 1991. While previously having atheistic views in the Soviet era, Nazarbayev has exerted effort to highlight his Muslim heritage by traveling on a hajj[3] and supporting mosque renovations[4] and at the same time attempting to combat Islamic terrorism in Kazakhstan.[5]

Rise to power

Main article: Zheltoqsan


Nazarbayev criticized Askar Kunayev, head of the Academy of Sciences, at the 16th session of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan in January 1986 for not reforming his department. Dinmukhamed Kunayev, Nazarbayev's boss and Askar's brother, felt deeply angered and betrayed. Kunayev went to Moscow and demanded Nazarbayev's dismissal while Nazarbayev's supporters campaigned for Kunayev's dismissal and Nazarbayev's promotion. Mikhail Gorbachev ignored them both, firing Kunayev but replacing him with Gennady Kolbin, an ethnic Russian, triggering three days of riots known as the Zheltoqsan.

Nazarbayev replaced Kolbin, who despite his office had little authority in Kazakhstan, in September 1989.[2] He won the 1991 presidential election on 1 December, winning 95% of the vote in an election in which no other candidate ran against him.[6]

Presidency

Nazarbayev renamed the State Defense Committee's to the Ministry of Defense and appointed Sagadat Nurmagambetov Defense Minister on 7 May 1992. The Supreme Council, under the leadership of Speaker Serikbolsyn Abdilin, began debating over a draft constitution in June 1992.

The constitution created a strong executive branch with limited checks on executive power. Opposition political parties Azat, Zheltoqsan, and the Republican Party, held demonstrations in Almaty from 10 June-17 calling for the formation of a coalition government and the resignation of the government of Prime Minister Sergey Tereshchenko and the Supreme Council. Kazakh security personnel forcibly put down the protest on 18 June 1992. The Parliament of Kazakhstan, comprised of Communist Party legislators who had yet to stand in an election since the country gained its independence, adopted the constitution on 28 January 1993.[7]

An April 1995 referendum extended his term until 2000. He was re-elected in January 1999 and again in December 2005. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe criticized the last presidential election as falling short of international democratic standards.[8] On May 18, 2007, the Parliament of Kazakhstan approved a constitutional amendment which would allow Nazarbayev to seek re-election as many times as he wishes. This amendment applies specifically and only to Nazarbayev: the original constitution's proscribed maximum of two presidential terms will still apply to all future presidents of Kazakhstan.[9]

Nazarbayev appointed Altynbek Sarsenbayev, who at the time served as the Minister of Culture, Information, and Concord, the Secretary of the Kazakh Security Council, replacing Marat Tazhin, on 4 May 2001. Tazhin became the Chairman of the National Security Council, replacing Alnur Musayev. Musayev became the head of the Guards' Service of the President.[10]

His government's policies are considered moderate and maintain a balance between the United States and Russia. Notwithstanding Kazakhstan's membership in the Organization of the Islamic Conference, under Nazarbayev the country has had good relations with Israel. Diplomatic relations were established in 1992 and President Nazarbayev paid official visits to Israel in 1995 and 2000.[1][2][3] Bilateral trade between the two countries amounted to $724 million in 2005.[4] He initiated the move of the administration from Almaty to Astana.

Personal wealth

Enlarge picture
Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev (left) with billionaire Alexander Mashkevich


Transparency International ranked Kazakhstan 124th in its list of countries by corruption in 2004 with a score of 2.2 (on a scale of 0-10 with 0 indicating a "highly corrupt" state).[5]. Nazarbayev himself has been called one of "ultimate oligarchs" of the post-Soviet central Asia states.[11] He is believed to have transferred at least $1 billion worth of oil revenues to his private bank accounts in other countries and his family controls many other key enterprises in Kazakhstan.[11] He is also said to have benefitted financially from his "special relations" with Kazakh-Israeli billionaire Alexander Mashkevich, who, as of 2004, was believed to control as much as one-fourth of Kazakhstan's economy.[12][13][14]

Family

He is married to Sara Alpysovna Nazarbayeva, with whom he has had three daughters; Dariga, Dinara and Aliya. Dariga was married to Rakhat Aliyev, son of a former minister of healthcare, who served as the First Deputy Foreign Minister and twice as the Kazakh Ambassador to Austria. Dinara is married to Timur Kulibayev, son of a former Minister of Construction, who serves as the First Deputy Chairman of the national holding company Samruk which manages several state-owned companies and, formerly, as the first Vice President of the state-owned petroleum company KazMunaiGas. Aliya is a prominent businesswoman. She was married to Aidar Akayev, the son of former Kyrgyz President, Askar Akaev.

On 4 December 2005 new Presidential elections were held and President Nazarbayev won by an overwhelming majority of 91.15% (from a total of 6,871,571 eligible participating voters) as reported by the Central Electoral Commission of Kazakhstan, an estimation criticized by the OSCE and other election watchdog organizations. Nazarbayev was sworn in for another seven-year term on 11 January 2006.

Other

Views on Iran

In a speech given on 15 December 2006 marking the 15th anniversary of Kazakhstan's independence Nazarbayev criticized actions taken by the Iranian government, saying Iran had become a center of growing insecurity in Asia by engaging in international terrorism, fundamentalism, the spread of weapons of mass destruction, illegal immigration, and weapons and drug trafficking. The Kazakh Foreign Ministry however, released a statement on 19 December, saying his remarks were not "what he really meant," and his comments were "mistakes."[15] In a recent announcement of a railway link, Nazarbayev expressed religious solidarity with Iran, as he was quoted as saying, "Today I will pay a visit to Turkmenistan where we will agree on the construction of a railway through Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan to Iran with access to the Persian Gulf. This will bring us closer to our Muslim brothers."[16]

2007 presidential address

Nazarbayev delivered his annual presidential address on 28 February 2007. He advocated membership in the World Trade Organization, the establishment of a Eurasian Customs Union, and discussed cooperation with foreign states in the "fight against terrorism and fight against epidemics and environmental disasters."[17]

See also

References

1. ^ Ideology and National Identity in Post-Communist Foreign Policies By Rick Fawn, pg. 147
2. ^ Power and Change in Central Asia, pages 59-61 Google books
3. ^ Ideology and National Identity in Post-Communist Foreign Policies By Rick Fawn, pg. 147
4. ^ [6]
5. ^ Kazakstan - Government Mongabay
6. ^ Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, page 136 Google books
7. ^ Russia and the New States of Eurasia: The Politics of Upheaval, pages 317-318 Google books
8. ^ Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights - Elections
9. ^ Kazakhstan lifts president's term limit LA Times
10. ^ Brassey's International Intelligence Yearbook: 2003 Edition, page 272 Google books
11. ^ Guriev, Sergei (October, 2006). The Evolution of Personal Wealth in the Former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe (PDF). www.wider.unu.edu. United Nations University - World Institute for Development Economics Research. Retrieved on 2006-02-17.
12. ^ Kazhegeldin, Akezhan (December 24, 2004). The end of the "controlled" democracy (HTML). "Respublika". International Eurasian Institute for Economic and Political Research. Retrieved on 2006-02-17.
13. ^ Rozen, Sami (March 9, 2006). Kazakh Historian Turned Deputy Minister After Stay in Israel (HTML). www.axisglobe.com. Axis. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
14. ^ Krichevsky, Lev (18 October 2004). Wealthy Kazakh businessman looks to make mark on Jewish world (HTML). www.ncsj.org. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
15. ^ Kazakhstan dismisses alleged anti-Iran comments from president IRNA
16. ^ [7]
17. ^ Kazakh leader outlines development priorities in annual address BBC News

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Bayken Ashimov
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR
1984 – 1989
Succeeded by
Uzaqbay Qaramanov
New titlePresident of Kazakhstan
1991 (1990) – present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Gennady Kolbin
First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan
1989 – 1991
Title abolished
Kazakhstan

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Kazakhstan



  • President
  • Nursultan Nazarbayev
  • Prime Minister
  • Karim Masimov

..... Click the link for more information.
Sara Alpysqyzy Nazarbayeva (Kazakh: Сара Алпысқызы Назарбаева
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[1], natively Qazaq tili, Қазақ тілі,
..... Click the link for more information.
Russian}}} 
Writing system: Cyrillic (Russian variant)  
Official status
Official language of:  Abkhazia (Georgia)
 Belarus
 Commonwealth of Independent States (working)
 Crimea (de facto; Ukraine)
..... Click the link for more information.
Only public domain resources can be copied without permission—this does not include most web pages or images July 6 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.
..... Click the link for more information.
19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1910s  1920s  1930s  - 1940s -  1950s  1960s  1970s
1937 1938 1939 - 1940 - 1941 1942 1943

Year 1940 (MCMXL
..... Click the link for more information.
Chemolgan is a rural community near Almaty in Kazakhstan.

Coordinates:
..... Click the link for more information.
The Kazakh SSR (Kazakh: Қазақ Советтік Социалистік
..... Click the link for more information.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (abbreviated USSR, Russian: ; tr.
..... Click the link for more information.
Kazakhstan

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Kazakhstan



  • President
  • Nursultan Nazarbayev
  • Prime Minister
  • Karim Masimov

..... Click the link for more information.
chair, convener, or seat is a seat of office, authority, or dignity, such as a professorship at a college or university, or the holder of that office, such as the chair of a committee.
..... Click the link for more information.
Council of Ministers can refer to any cabinet of ministers in a government. In some countries and organizations there are (or were) official councils of ministers; they include:
  • Council of Ministers of Albania
  • Council of Ministers of Cuba

..... Click the link for more information.
Dinmukhamed (Dimash) Akhmeduly Konayev (Kazakh: Дінмұхаммед (Димаш) Ахметұлы
..... Click the link for more information.
First Secretary may refer to:
  • First Minister
  • General Secretary
  • 1st Secretary

..... Click the link for more information.
The Communist Party of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Kommunistik Partiyasi) is a political party in Kazakhstan.

Origin

Communist Party of Kazakhstan was founded 1936 when Kazakhstan was granted a Union Republic status.
..... Click the link for more information.
Atheism

Concepts
ReligionNontheism
AntireligionAntitheism
AgnosticismHumanism
Metaphysical naturalism
Weak and strong atheism
Implicit and explicit atheism

History
History of atheism
EnlightenmentFreethought


..... Click the link for more information.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (abbreviated USSR, Russian: ; tr.
..... Click the link for more information.
Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. The feminine form of 'Muslim' is Muslimah (Arabic: مسلمة).
..... Click the link for more information.
Hajj (Arabic: حج, transliteration: Ḥaǧǧ) is the pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam.
..... Click the link for more information.
mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. Muslims often refer to the mosque by its Arabic name, masjid Arabic: مسجد — pronounced: /ˈmæsʤɪd/ (pl.
..... Click the link for more information.
Kazakhstan

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Kazakhstan



  • President
  • Nursultan Nazarbayev
  • Prime Minister
  • Karim Masimov

..... Click the link for more information.
Jeltoqsan (Kazakh: Желтоқсан; English: December) riot of 1986 was a spontaneous nationwide[]
..... Click the link for more information.
Москв? (Russian)

Location of Moscow in Europe
Coordinates

..... Click the link for more information.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician.
..... Click the link for more information.
Gennady Kolbin (Геннадий Колбин, 1927-1998) was the first secretary of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Kazakh SSR from December 16, 1986 to June 22,1989.
..... Click the link for more information.
The term Russian diaspora refers to the global community of ethnic Russians. The largest number of Russians outside Russia itself can be found in former republics of the Soviet Union; sizeable Russian-speaking populations also exist in the USA, in the European Union and in Israel.
..... Click the link for more information.
Jeltoqsan (Kazakh: Желтоқсан; English: December) riot of 1986 was a spontaneous nationwide[]
..... Click the link for more information.
December 1 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican.

..... Click the link for more information.
'' Department of Defence redirects here. For the Department in the United States government, see United States Department of Defense.


A defence minister (or defense minister
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.