Ohlone mythology

The mythology of the Ohlone (Costanoan) Native American people of Northern California can be defined as the creation stories as well as other ancient narratives that contain elements of their spiritual and philosophical belief systems, and their conception of the world order. Their myths describe supernatural anthromorphic beings with the names of regional birds and animals, notably the eagle, the Coyote who is mankind's ancestor and a trickster spirit, and a hummingbird.

The Chochenyo (Chocheño) mythology of the San Francisco Bay Area has a strong culture hero figure named Kaknu, coyote's grandson, who is an anthromorphic and closely resembles a peregrine falcon.

Creation Stories

Rumsen (Coyote, Eagle, Hummingbird)

One Ohlone creation myths begins with the demise of a previous world: When it was destroyed, the world was covered entirely in water, apart from a single peak, Pico Blanco (north of Big Sur) in the Rumsien version (or Mount Diablo in the northern Ohlone's version) on which Coyote, Hummingbird, and Eagle stood. "When the water rose to their feet" the eagle carried them all to Sierra de Gabilin (near Fremont) where they waited "for the water to go down" and the world to dry out. Coyote was sent to investigate and found it was dry now. [1]

After the flood, the eagle led Coyote to a beautiful girl inside or in the river and instructed him "she will be your wife in order that people may be raised again." Eagle gave Coyote instruction how to make her pregnant in her belly. This first wife became pregnant by eating one of Coyote's lice, but she was afraid and started running. Coyote could not persuade her or slow her down, she ran to the ocean with Coyote chasing her and she jumped into the ocean and turned into a sand flea or shrimp.[2]

Coyote married a second wife and this time had children who became the Ohlone people. This is how "people raised again". The Coyote taught mankind the arts of survival.

Rumsen (Eagle and Hawk)

Another creation myth begins with the earth flooded in water. Eagle tells Hawk to dive into the floodwaters to find some earth. Hawk dives but fails to find any earth the first day. He tries again the next morning, this time holding a feather plucked from the middle of Eagle's head. The feather grows longer and helps Hawk to reach some earth under the waters. The water eventually receded. [3]

Chochenyo (Coyote and grandson Kaknu)

The Chochenyo myths describe the "First People" or "Early People" as supernatural anthromorphic beings with the names of regional birds and animals. Of the fragmented myths that are recorded, the Coyote was the supreme being:
"The Coyote was 'wetes', the one who commanded. He was our God, the God of all the world."
Coyote was the grandfather, companion and advisor to the Chochenyo's mythical hero, the Kaknu. Kaknu was another anthromorphic being, described to be like a predatory bird, most closely resembling a peregrine falcon.[4]

Making the World Safe

Chochenyo (Kaknu fights Body of Stone)

"Finally when Kaknu didn't want to fight anymore with anyone, he turned into a dove and entered into the earth". Kaknu dived into the earth by folding his wings, and went to confront the "Body of Stone" called Wiwe. Body of Stone was the underground lord of the earth, described as a man with a stone body, who fed people to his servants. His terrain was scattered with bones. The Body of Stone held many of Kaknu's "people" in captivity and they assisted Kaknu in an epic battle. When Kaknu shot the Body of Stone in the neck and navel with all his arrows, the Body of Stone died and burst into pieces, and became all the rocks scattered across the world. Kaknu makes peace with the people in this once hostile underground.[5]

Death and After-Life Stories

Chochenyo (Land of the Dead)

According to the Chochenyo, death was created by Coyote so that people would have enough to eat, but this meant. "Kaknu had to take the road to the land of the dead...the people followed his example."<ref name="115-116" />

According to the Chochenyo, the Land of the Dead had only one road and a man who receives the incoming spirits. There is white foam like the sea, before this are two pieces of smoking and burning wood and two hollowed stones, one filled with water, and the other with a sugary substance, where the spirits can drink and eat, before they plunge into the foam. The burning wood is a warning, the type of warning not elaborated.[6]

Context

These myths have been called incomplete story fragments on the creation of the world. They share some elements with the neighboring people in Central and Northern California, such as Miwok mythology. The Bay Miwok people also believed that the world started with water surrounding the tallest mountain in the region Mount Diablo. The Ohlone myths contain numerous similarities to Yokuts mythology and cosmogony.[7]

External links

Sources

  • Gifford, Edward Winslow, and Gwendoline Harris Block. 1930. California Indian Nights. Arthur H. Clark, Glendale, California. (Two previously published narratives, pp. 100-102, 302-303.)
  • Kroeber, Alfred L. 1907. "Indian Myths of South Central California". University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 4:167-250. Berkeley (Six Rumsien Costanoan myths, pp. 199-202); available at Sacred Texts Online.
  • Kroeber, Alfred L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D.C. (Notes on origins myths, pp. 472-473.)
  • Ortiz, Beverly R. 1994. "Chocheño and Rumsen Narratives: A Comparison". In The Ohlone: Past and Present, edited by Lowell John Bean, pp. 99-163. Ballena Press, Menlo Park, California. (Myths, mostly fragmentary and some of uncertain ethnolinguistic affiliation, collected by Alfred L. Kroeber in 1902, John P. Harrington in the 1920s and 1930s, and Alex Ramirez in 1991.)

Notes

1. ^ Rumsen narratives recorded by Alfred L. Kroeber in the 1902. Printed by Kroeber, 1907 full text; Kroeber 1925, pages 472-473 summary; Bean pages 124-127 summary.
2. ^ Kroeber, 1907 full text; Bean pages 124-127 summary.
3. ^ Rumsen narratives of both Isabelle Meadows and Manuel Onesimo, as recorded by John P. Harrington in the 1920s; Bean, 1994, p. 130 summary.
4. ^ Origin of Death, Chochenyo narrative as recorded by John P. Harrington in the 1920s; Bean, 1994, p. 105-106, 115-116.
5. ^ Making the World Safe, Chochenyo narrative as recorded by John P. Harrington in the 1920s; Bean, 1994, p. 107-111.
6. ^ Land of the Death, Chochenyo narrative as recorded by John P. Harrington in the 1920s; Bean, 1994, p. 118.
7. ^ Kroeber, 1925, page 472.


The word mythology (from the Greek μύθολογία mythología, from μυθολογείν mythologein
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Ohlone people, also known as the Costanoan and as the Muwekma, are the indigenous people of Northern California who have lived in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay areas since 500 AD, spanning south into the Salinas Valley.
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American Indian and Alaska Native
One race: 2.5 million[1]
In combination with one or more other races: 1.6 million[2]
Regions with significant populations  United States

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Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. The region contains the San Francisco Bay Area, the state capital, Sacramento; as well as the substantial natural beauty of the redwood forests, the northern
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This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
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Eagles are large birds of prey which mainly inhabit Eurasia and Africa. Outside this area, just two species (the Bald and Golden Eagles) are found in North America north of Mexico, with a few more species in Central and South America, and three in Australia.
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Coyote is a mythological character common to many Native American cultures, based on the coyote (Canis latrans) animal. This character is usually male and is generally anthropomorphic although he may have some coyote-like physical features such as fur, pointed ears, yellow
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trickster is a god, goddess, spirit, human, or anthropomorphic animal who plays pranks or otherwise disobeys normal rules and norms of behaviour.

While the trickster crosses various cultural traditions, there are significant differences between tricksters in the traditions
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Trochilidae
Vigors, 1825

Subfamilies

Phaethornithinae
Trochilinae

For a taxonomic list of genera, see:
  • List of hummingbirds in taxonomic order
For an alphabetic species list, see:
  • Alphabetic species list



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Chochenyo (also called Chocheño, Chocenyo) are one of the divisions of the indigenous Ohlone (Coastanoan) people of Northern California. The Chochenyo resided on the east side of the San Francisco Bay (the "East Bay"), primarily in what is now Alameda County, and also Contra Costa
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San Francisco Bay Area, colloquially known as the Bay Area or The Bay, is a geographically and ethnically diverse metropolitan region that surrounds the San Francisco Bay in Northern California.
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A culture hero is a mythological hero specific to some group (cultural, ethnic, racial, religious, etc.) who changes the world through invention or discovery. A typical culture hero might be credited as the discoverer of fire, or agriculture, songs, tradition and religion, and is
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F. peregrinus

Binomial name
Falco peregrinus
Tunstall, 1771

Global range
(blue indicates presence)


Subspecies
17-19, see text
Synonyms


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Big Sur is a sparsely populated region of the central California, United States coast where the Santa Lucia Mountains rise abruptly from the Pacific Ocean. The terrain offers stunning views, making Big Sur a popular tourist destination.
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Mount Diablo is a mountain in Contra Costa County, California in the San Francisco Bay Area, located south of the town of Clayton and northeast of Danville. It is an isolated 3,849-foot (1,173 m) upthrust peak that is visible from most of the San Francisco Bay Area and much of
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Chochenyo (also called Chocheño, Chocenyo) are one of the divisions of the indigenous Ohlone (Coastanoan) people of Northern California. The Chochenyo resided on the east side of the San Francisco Bay (the "East Bay"), primarily in what is now Alameda County, and also Contra Costa
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This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
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F. peregrinus

Binomial name
Falco peregrinus
Tunstall, 1771

Global range
(blue indicates presence)


Subspecies
17-19, see text
Synonyms


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Distinct Ethnic Groups
• Valley & Sierra Miwok   • Coast Miwok   • Lake Miwok   • Bay Miwok
Regions Sierra Nevada & Central Valley | Marin & Sonoma County | Lake County | Contra Costa County  

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Miwok
  • Valley & Sierra Miwok
  • Coast Miwok
  • Lake Miwok


The Bay Miwok refers to a cultural and linguistic group of Miwok a Native American people in Northern California who lived in Contra Costa County.
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Mount Diablo is a mountain in Contra Costa County, California in the San Francisco Bay Area, located south of the town of Clayton and northeast of Danville. It is an isolated 3,849-foot (1,173 m) upthrust peak that is visible from most of the San Francisco Bay Area and much of
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Yokuts traditional narratives include myths, legends, tales, and oral histories preserved by the Yokuts people of the San Joaquin Valley and southern Sierra Nevada foothills of central California.
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Cosmogony, or cosmogeny, is any theory concerning the coming into existence or origin of the universe, or an origin belief about how reality came to be. The word comes from the Greek κοσμογονία (or
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Alfred Louis Kroeber (June 11, 1876–October 5, 1960) was one of the most influential figures in American anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century.

Kroeber was born in Hoboken, New Jersey.
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Ohlone people, also known as the Costanoan and as the Muwekma, are the indigenous people of Northern California who have lived in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay areas since 500 AD, spanning south into the Salinas Valley.
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Karkin (also called Los Carquines in Spanish) is a name of one sub-group of the indigenous Ohlone people of California, as well as the name of the language they spoke.
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Chochenyo (also called Chocheño, Chocenyo) are one of the divisions of the indigenous Ohlone (Coastanoan) people of Northern California. The Chochenyo resided on the east side of the San Francisco Bay (the "East Bay"), primarily in what is now Alameda County, and also Contra Costa
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Ramaytush were one of the major divisions of the Ohlone Native Americans of Northern California who inhabited the San Francisco Peninsula between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean in the area which is now San Francisco and San Mateo Counties.
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Tamyen (also spelled as Tamien, Thamien) are one of eight linguistic divisions of the Ohlone (Coastanoan) people groups of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. The Tamyen lived throughout the Santa Clara Valley.
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