Osteodontornis

Osteodontornis
Fossil range: Early Oligocene - Pliocene
Conservation status
Extinct (fossil)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Aves
Order:Pelecaniformes
Family:Pelagornithidae
Genus:Osteodontornis
Howard, 1957
Species:O. orri
Binomial name
Osteodontornis orri
Howard, 1957


Osteodontornis is an extinct genus of pelecaniform bird. It contains a single described species, O. orri ("Orr's Bony-toothed Bird"), which was the first of the Pelagornithidae or "pseudo-tooth birds" to become known to science. The arrangement of serrations of the bill - one small "tooth", sometimes flanked by small points, between each 2 larger ones - is characteristic for this genus. This species is well documented (although usually by much fragmented remains due to the thin and tender bones it had) from various locations, between Early Oligocene and Pliocene in age, in Europe, Western North America and Japan. Most importantly, it was found in Early and Middle Miocene sites on both sides of the North Pacific. It is not certain whether all Osteodontornis remains belong to a single species; size differences suggest that some evolution took place during the considerable timespan in which the genus existed. Thus, some fossils are referred to Osteodontornis only, without further assigning them to this species.

With a wingspan of 5,5-6 m (c.18-20 ft) and a height of 1,20 m (4 ft) when on the ground (Olson, 1985), Osteodontornis orri was the second-largest flying bird ever, surpassed only by Argentavis. It had a robust, but extremely light-boned body, procellariiform-like legs and a long beak with teeth-like serrations (not unlike the saw-billed ducks) that ended in a hooked tip. This beak was so heavy the creature probably held it between its shoulders while in flight, just like modern pelicans do.

Osteodontornis' wings were long and narrow. Due to its size, the creature is presumed to have built its nest on high plateaus where it could easily take flight. It was a seabird that apparently lived mainly off squid; the "teeth" were less saw-like than in the fish-eating saw-billed ducks, pointing straight downwards instead. This arrangement would have helped to hold on to such soft-bodied prey. In general lifestyle, it was probably most similar to the albatrosses, tropicbirds and frigatebirds of today, with long slender winds adapted for soaring vast distances over the open seas.

The species was named after then-recently deceased naturalist Ellison Orr.

References

  • Howard, Hildegarde (1957): A gigantic "toothed" marine bird from the Miocene of California. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Bulleting (Geology Department) 1: 1-23.
  • Matsuoka, Hirosige; Sakakura, Fujio & Ohe, Fumio (1998): A Miocene pseudodontorn (Pelecaniformes: Pelagornithidae) from the Ichishi Group of Misato, Mie Prefecture, Central Japan. Paleontological Research 2(4): 246-252. HTML abstract
  • Olson, Storrs L. (1985): The fossil record of birds. In: Farner, D. S.; King, J. R. & Parkes, K. C. (eds.): Avian Biology 8: 79-252.
  • Rincón, Ascanio D. & Stucchiu, Marcelo (2003): Primer registro de la familia Pelagornithidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes) para Venezuela. Bol. Soc. Venezolana Espel. 37(37): 27-30. [Article in Spanish with English abstract] HTML fulltext
  • Stidham, Thomas A. (2004): New skull material of Osteodontornis orri (Aves: Pelagornithidae) from the Miocene of California. PaleoBios (Berkeley) 24(1): 7-12 HTML abstract
The Rupelian (also known as Stampian, Tongrian, Latdorfian, Vicksburgian, or Early Oligocene) is the first of two stages of the Oligocene Epoch. It spans the time between 33.9 ± 0.1 Ma and 28.4 ± 0.1 Ma (million years ago).
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The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.332 million to 1.806 million years before present.

The Pliocene is the second epoch of the Neogene period in the Cenozoic era.
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conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing the conservation status of a species: not simply the number remaining, but the
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For other uses of the term, see Fossil (disambiguation)


FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under the DOS operating system.
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Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Chordata
Bateson, 1885

Typical Classes

See below

Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates.
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Aves
Linnaeus, 1758

Orders

About two dozen - see section below

Birds (class Aves) are bipedal, warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrate animals.
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Pelecaniformes
Sharpe, 1891

Families
  • Fregatidae
  • Pelecanidae
  • Sulidae
  • Phalacrocoracidae
  • Anhingidae
  • Phaethontidae
For prehistoric families, see article text.
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Pelagornithidae
Fürbringer, 1888

Genera

Gigantornis
Cyphornis
Osteodontornis
Pelagornis
Odontopteryx
Caspiodontornis
Dasornis
Palaeochenoides

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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1920s  1930s  1940s  - 1950s -  1960s  1970s  1980s
1954 1955 1956 - 1957 - 1958 1959 1960

Year 1957 (MCMLVII
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binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. The system is also called binominal nomenclature (particularly in zoological circles), binary nomenclature (particularly in botanical circles), or the binomial classification system.
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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1920s  1930s  1940s  - 1950s -  1960s  1970s  1980s
1954 1955 1956 - 1957 - 1958 1959 1960

Year 1957 (MCMLVII
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extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa, reducing biodiversity. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point).
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genus (plural: genera) is part of the Latinized name for an organism. It is a name which reflects the classification of the organism by grouping it with other closely similar organisms.
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Aves
Linnaeus, 1758

Orders

About two dozen - see section below

Birds (class Aves) are bipedal, warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrate animals.
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species is one of the basic units of biological classification. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
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Pelagornithidae
Fürbringer, 1888

Genera

Gigantornis
Cyphornis
Osteodontornis
Pelagornis
Odontopteryx
Caspiodontornis
Dasornis
Palaeochenoides

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The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period that extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present. As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the period are slightly
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The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.332 million to 1.806 million years before present.

The Pliocene is the second epoch of the Neogene period in the Cenozoic era.
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The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23.03 to 5.332 million years before the present. As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the period are uncertain.
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Earth's oceans
(World Ocean)
  • Arctic Ocean
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Indian Ocean
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Southern Ocean


The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum
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Argentavis
Campbell & Tonni, 1980

Species: A. magnificens

Binomial name
Argentavis magnificens
Campbell & Tonni, 1980


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Short-tailed Albatross
showing tubenose structure]]
Short-tailed Albatross
showing tubenose structure


Scientific classification

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:
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The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young.
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Teeth (singular, tooth) are structures found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates that are used to tear, scrape, and chew food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or defense. The roots of teeth are covered by gums.
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Merginae

Genera

Chendytes (extinct)
Polysticta
Somateria
Histrionicus
Camptorhynchus (extinct)
Melanitta
Clangula
Bucephala
Mergellus
Lophodytes
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WING

City of license Dayton, Ohio
Broadcast area Dayton
Branding "ESPN 1410"
Slogan Same as branding
First air date 1921
Frequency 1410 KHZ
Format Sports Talk
ERP 5,000 watts-D/N
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