Pancasila (politics)

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Pancasila, (pronounced IPA: [panʧaˈsiːla]), is the philosophical basis of the Indonesian state. Pancasila consists of two Sanskrit words, "panca" meaning five, and "sila" meaning principle. It comprises five principles held to be inseparable and interrelated, and is to some extent modeled on the original Pancasila, a Buddhist code of ethics. It was the inspiration for a similar statement of principles in neighbouring Malaysia, the Rukunegara.

History

In 1945, facing the need to pull together the diverse archipelago, the future President Sukarno promulgated Pancasila as a recipe for Indonesian patriotism. The ideology was announced in a speech known as "The Birth of the Pancasila", in which Sukarno gave to the Independence Preparatory Committee on 1 June 1945 (Saafroedin Bahar et al 1992:65-72). He thus helped solve the conflict between Muslims, nationalists and Christians. The 1945 Constitution then set forth the Pancasila as the embodiment of basic principles of an independent Indonesian state.

The Five Principles

(1) Belief in the one and only God (Ketuhanan yang Maha Esa)

This principle reaffirms the Indonesian people’s belief that God does exist. It also implies that the Indonesian people believe in life after death. It emphasizes that the pursuit of sacred values will lead the people to a better life in the hereafter. The principle is embodied in the 1945 Constitution and reads: "The state shall be based on the belief in the one and only God".

(2) Just and civilized humanity (Kemanusiaan yang Adil dan Beradab)

This principle requires that human beings be treated with due regard to their dignity as God’s creatures. It emphasizes that the Indonesian people do not tolerate physical or spiritual oppression of human beings by their own people or by any other nation.

(3) The unity of Indonesia (Persatuan Indonesia)

This principle embodies the concept of nationalism, of love for one’s nation and motherland. It envisages the need to always foster national unity and integrity. Pancasila nationalism demands that Indonesians avoid feelings of superiority on the grounds of ethnicity, for reasons of ancestry and skin color. In 1928 Indonesian youth pledged to have one country, one nation and one language, while the Indonesian coat of arms enshrines the symbol of "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" which means "unity in diversity".

(4) Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives (Kerakyatan yang Dipimpin oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan dalam Permusyawaratan/Perwakilan)

Pancasila democracy calls for decision-making through deliberations, or musyawarah, to reach a consensus, or mufakat. It is democracy that lives up to the principles of Pancasila. This implies that democratic right must always be exercised with a deep sense of responsibility to God according to one’s own conviction and religious belief, with respect for humanitarian values of man’s dignity and integrity, and with a view to preserving and strengthening national unity and the pursuit of social justice.

(5) Social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia (Keadilan Sosial bagi Seluruh Rakyat Indonesia)

This principle calls for the equitable spread of welfare to the entire population, not in a static but in a dynamic and progressive way. This means that all of the country’s natural resources and the national potentials should be utilized for the greatest possible good and happiness of the people. Social justice implies protection of the weak. But protection should not deny them work. On the contrary, they should work according to their abilities and fields of activity. Protection should prevent willful treatment by the strong and ensure the rule of justice.

Development

Since its inception, Pancasila has been in the center of differences of opinion. One prime area of contention concerned the first of the five "pillars", the belief in the all-oneness of God (ketuhanan yang mahaesa). During the negotiations concerning this principle the nationalists were concerned that the formulation ought to promote religious freedom The Muslims wanted a formulation where the religion of Indonesia is Islam.

A historical anachronism is found in the Constitution. On August 18 1945, the group that ratified the Constitution unanimously agreed that the term "Allah" should be replaced by "Tuhan" (God), a more general term which was supported by the Hindus (Saafroedin Bahar et al 1992:305). The word 'Tuhan' is used in the preamble to the Constitution, but the term Allah appears in Article 9, which specifies the wording of the presidential oath of office. There is an alternative presidential 'promise' in the same article which does not mention God at all. Incidentally, the word 'Allah' is used in Indonesian language version of the Bible, but the pronunciation is different from that used by Indonesian Muslims.

Apparently many Muslims wanted an Islamic state where Muslims would be obliged to abide by sharia law. They therefore proposed an addition to the first principle: "…with obligation to follow sharia law for its adherents" (Jakarta Charter, 22 June 1945). This was turned down in 1945. Later this led to a deadlock in the "konstituante", the national assembly that in 1956 was elected to draft a new Constitution. In 1959 president Sukarno solved the problem by dissolving the "konstituante" and issuing the following decree: "We believe that Jakarta Charter of June 22, 1945 is the soul of the Constitution of 1945 and that it functions as a unit with this Constitution… therefore we, the President of Indonesia and Commander in Chief of the Indonesian forces, declare… that the 1945 Constitution is reinstated." Thus the Jakarta Charter has no legal status beyond its inspirational character. Indonesia's second president, Suharto, was a strong supporter of Pancasila. In his time Pancasila was made mandatory in the constitutions of social and religious organisations. Additionally, a one– or two–week course in Pancasila (P4) was made obligatory for all who wanted to take higher education.

Philosophies of Pancasila

Pancasila has been known by the world as a state philosophy of Indonesian Republic. In fact, the content of the philosophy has been changeably understood and interpreted by different philosophers. Pancasila has been an object of philosophical discourse since 1945 onwards. The Pancasila philosophers continually renewed the content, so that its meaning varied from time to time. The following are chronological analyses of the content of philosophies of Pancasila.

The Founding Fathers’ philosophy

It is the Pancasila that accepts much foreign influence of Western thought. The formulators of 'the first Pancasila' who gathered in a committee of preparation of Indonesian independence (BPUPKI), such as Mohamad Yamin, Soepomo, Soekarno, and Mohammad Hatta, were mostly inspired by Western concepts of humanism, rationalism, universalism, social-democracy, German national socialism, parliamentary democracy, republic, and nationalism. The original wording of Pancasila of 1945 showed the Western influence very clearly. 'Kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab' is Indonesian translation of English universal humanism, 'persatuan Indonesia' is inspired by German ein totaler Fuhrerstaat, 'kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat-kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan perwakilan' is Indonesian translation of parliamentary democracy lead by rationalism, and 'keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia' is inspired by socio-economic democracy (Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia 1995:8-84). In conclusion, Pancasila of 1945 is a philosophical synthesis done by Western-inspired Indonesian intellectuals.

Sukarno’s philosophy

This Pancasila philosophy had been formulated by Soekarno alone since 1955 to 1965. Soekarno always boasted during his visit abroad that Pancasila was original philosophy of Indonesian origin, which he found out of the philosophical tradition taking roots in Indonesian history, including indigenous philosophical tradition, Indian-Hindu, Western-Christian, and Arab-Islamic traditions. 'Ketuhanan', to him, was originally indigenous and he is true, while 'Kemanusiaan' was inspired by Hindu concept of Tat Twam Asi, Islamic concept of fardhukifayah, and Christian concept of Hebs U naasten lief gelijk U zelve, God boven alles. Soekarno never touched 'Persatuan'; he might admit silently that it was taken from Western concept of nationalism. He finally explained that 'Keadilan sosial' was inspired by Javanese concept of Ratu Adil (The Just Lord), a messianistic Javanese ruler who would set the people free from all kind of oppression. He found also some similarity of the concept in Western social-democracy thoughts of Fritz Adler, Liebknecht, and Juarez (Wawan Tunggul Alam 2001:56-57). It is very unfortunate, however, that even though Pancasila is widely acknowledged as the brainchild of Soekarno, and has substantially contributed to the unity of the ethnically heterogeneous Indonesia, nevertheless he has never written a truly philosophical, comprehensive, consistent, and coherent treatise of the principles.

Suharto’s philosophy

In Soeharto’s hands, philosophy of Pancasila underwent what be called ‘indigenization’. All Western elements subsumed within Pancasila since 1945 were eradicated systematically by some groups of Pancasila philosophers, sponsored by Soeharto through his Culture and Education Department (Depdikbud) in order to find out indigenous legacy (adat) which accords with Pancasila’s five basic teachings. There is no Western residues survived before those philosophers in Pancasila. ‘Ketuhanan’, ‘Kemanusiaan’, ‘Persatuan’, ‘Kerakyatan’, and ‘Keadilan Sosial’ were claimed by them as purely Indonesian notions of indigenous origin. They proved the teachings as indigenous by exploring and finding out adat legacies scattered out in provinces of Indonesia, such as adat social structure, adat literary products, adat religious teachings, and adat ethics. They succeeded enormously and their findings were used by Soeharto to unite Indonesian people. Among the Pancasila philosophers sponsored by Soeharto are Sunoto and R. Parmono. They both are also known as the pioneers of Indonesian philosophy studies. Without any slightest doubt, Soeharto's concept of Pancasila was deeply ingrained in Javanese highly feudalistic and mystical political culture, which to some extent is incompatible with the more egalitarian and pragmatic political culture of the Outer Islands.

Suharto’s philosophy and critical scope

Since Suharto’s presidency, the latest kind of Pancasila philosophy has been developing. Latest Pancasila philosophers like Sunoto, Gerson W. Bawengan, Wasito Poespoprodjo, Burhanuddin Salam, Bambang Daroeso, Paulus Wahana, Azhary, Suhadi, Kaelan, Moertono, Soerjanto Poespowardojo,Moerdiono and many others, contributed in this philosophical discourse. However, as this kind of philosophy developed under Suharto’s hegemonic tutelage, a doubt now can arise: does this latest kind of Pancasila philosophy have critical character? Or, at least, does this philosophy have a few criticizing elements if any to Soeharto’s political praxis? This question calls a deep analysis.

Criticisms

Principle 1 in particular has been criticized as denying the rights of believers in polytheistic religions which are practiced by a significant minority of Indonesians. On the other hand this principle also guarantees that the concept of God in Hinduism and Buddhism is equal to the concept of God in the Islam and the Christendom. It is also criticized by the small, still-existing minority of atheists, secular communists and socialists in Indonesia, which feel that their rights on what to believe in is being violated. The 1st principle of the Pancasila can also be seen to be against the UUD 1945, in which it is said that the people have the right to believe in what they wish to believe in.

In contrast, some conservative Muslims have criticized Pancasila for being too secular and inclusive, diluting the uniqueness of Islam by placing man-made precepts at a higher level than the Qur'an. For example, the Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) terror group is the latest anti-Pancasila manifestation. JI's precursor was the Darul Islam movement which in 1948 challenged the new secularist republic through civil war that claimed some 27,000 lives.[1]

External links

References

  • Saafroedin Bahar et al (eds) (1992), Risalah Sidang Badan Penyelidik Usaha-usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI) Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI) 2nd Ed. Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia
1. ^ Paul, Anthony, "Enduring the Other's Other", The Straits Times, 2003-12-04
Motto
"Bhinneka Tunggal Ika"   (Old Javanese)
"Unity in Diversity"
National ideology: Pancasila[1]
Anthem
Indonesia Raya
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Indonesia

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Politics and government of
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This is the list of the presidents of Indonesia.

Order of service



No. Name Took Office Left Office Party
1 Sukarno 18 August 1945 12 March 1967 [1] Indonesian National Party
2 Suharto 12 March 1967 21 May 1998 Golkar
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Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (born September 9, 1949 in Pacitan, East Java, Indonesia), is an Indonesian retired military general and statesman as well as the sixth President of Indonesia.
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Jusuf Kalla (born Watampone, South Sulawesi; May 15, 1942) is the current Vice President of Indonesia and Chairman of the Golkar Party.

Early life

Jusuf Kalla was born on 15th May 1942 in Watampone, South Sulawesi.
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Indonesia

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Politics and government of
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  • Pancasila
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Indonesia

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Politics and government of
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  • Pancasila
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Indonesia

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Politics and government of
Indonesia



  • Pancasila
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  • Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

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Indonesia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Indonesia



  • Pancasila
  • Constitution
  • President (List)
  • Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

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Indonesia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Indonesia



  • Pancasila
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  • Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

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Indonesia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Indonesia



  • Pancasila
  • Constitution
  • President (List)
  • Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

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Indonesia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Indonesia



  • Pancasila
  • Constitution
  • President (List)
  • Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

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Indonesia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Indonesia



  • Pancasila
  • Constitution
  • President (List)
  • Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

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Indonesia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Indonesia



  • Pancasila
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The Republic of Indonesia is divided into provinces (Indonesian: Provinsi). Provinces consist of regencies (Indonesian: Kabupaten) and cities (Indonesian: Kota).
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Indonesia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Indonesia



  • Pancasila
  • Constitution
  • President (List)
  • Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

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Indonesia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Indonesia



  • Pancasila
  • Constitution
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  • Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

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Philosophy is the discipline concerned with questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic).
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Motto
"Bhinneka Tunggal Ika"   (Old Javanese)
"Unity in Diversity"
National ideology: Pancasila[1]
Anthem
Indonesia Raya
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Sanskrit}}}  | style="padding-left: 0.5em;" | Writing system: | colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.5em;" | Devanāgarī and several other Brāhmī-based scripts  ! colspan="3" style="text-align: center; color: black; background-color: lawngreen;"|Official
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The Five Precepts (Pali: Pañcasīla, Sanskrit: Pañcaśīla Ch: 五戒,Cantonese: Ng Gye, Mandarin: wǔ jiè, Japanese: go kai
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Buddhism is often described as a religion[1] and a collection of various philosophies, based initially on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, known as Gautama Buddha.
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Ethics (via Latin ethica from the Ancient Greek ἠθική [φιλοσοφία]
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"Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu"
"Unity Is Strength" 1

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Negaraku
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The Rukunegara or sometimes Rukun Negara (Malay for "National Principles") is a philosophy and national ideology — the de facto Malaysian pledge of allegiance — was instituted by royal proclamation on Merdeka Day, 1970, in reaction to a
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