Pargana

A pargana is a former administrative unit of the Indian Subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.

Parganas were introduced by the Delhi Sultanate, and the word is of Persian origin. As a revenue unit, a pargana consists of several mouzas, which are the smallest revenue units, consisting of one or more villages and the surrounding countryside. Under the reign of Sher Shah Suri, administration of parganas was strengthened by the addition of other officers, including a shiqdar (police chief), an amin or munsif (a civil arbitrator and revenue official who assessed and collected revenue) and a karkun (record keeper).

The Mughal emperor Akbar organized the empire into sarkars, roughly the equivalent of districts, and sarkars were organized into subahs, or provinces. In the Mughal system, parganas served as the local administrative units of a sarkar. The chief administrator of a pargana was a parganait or parganadar; other pargana officials were the shiqdar (magistrate), amil (assessor and collector of revenue), bitikchi (chief accountant and registrar), qanungo (keeper of revenue records), and the fotahdar or khazinadhar (treasurer). Individual parganas observed common customs regarding land rights and responsibilities, which were known as the pargana dastur, and each pargana had its own customs regarding rent, fees, wages, and weights and measures, known as the pargana nirikh.

As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favor of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh. British administration consisted of districts, which were divided into tehsils or taluks. Parganas remained important as a geographical term, persisting in land surveys, village identification, court decrees, etc.

The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior. Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.

References

  • Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908-1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Markovits, Claude (ed.) (2004). A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Anthem Press, London.

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Indian subcontinent is a large section of the Asian continent consisting of countries lying substantially on the Indian tectonic plate. These include countries on the continental crust— India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and parts of Afghanistan, Nepal and Bhutan, island countries
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The Delhi Sultanate (Urdu:دلی سلطنت), or Sultanat-e-Hind (Urdu: سلطنتِ هند) / Sultanat-e-Dilli (Urdu:
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fɒːɾˈsiː in Perso-Arabic script (Nasta`liq style):  
Pronunciation: [fɒːɾˈsiː]
Spoken in: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and areas of Uzbekistan and Pakistan.
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Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 1545) (Pashto / Urdu: شیر شاہ سوری) also known as Sher Khan or Lion King was the founder of the Sur Dynasty in the middle of the 16th century in India.
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The Mughal Empire (Persian: سلطنت مغولی هند,
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'Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (Persian: جلال الدین محمد اکبر Jalāl ud-Dīn Moḥammad Akbar
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Sarkar could mean:
  • Government in Urdu/Persian/Hindi. Colloquially in India, it is a Metonymy for the incumbent government. The Persian wordSarkar is derived from two words; 'Sar' meaning Head and 'Kar' meaning Work.

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A Subah is a province of the former Mughal Empire. The governor of a subah was known as a subahdar, which later became subedar to refer to an officer in the Indian Army.
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British Raj (rāj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) or British India, officially the British Indian Empire, and internationally and contemporaneously, India
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Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh
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Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805, in Ghazipur, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India) was a British military commander and colonial governor.
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The Permanent Settlement - also known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal (Bangla: চিরস্থায়ী বন্দোবস্ত, Chirosthayi Bandobasto
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Zamindar (Devnagari: ज़मींदार), also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, Jomidar or the Zamindari System
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district is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. Districts are further subdivided, in some cases into Sub-Divisions, and otherwise directly into tehsils or talukas.
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A tehsil (or tahsil, tahasil, taluka, taluk, taluq) is a unit of government in some countries of South Asia.

Generally, a tehsil consists of a city or town that serves as its headquarters
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A tehsil (or tahsil, tahasil, taluka, taluk, taluq) is a unit of government in some countries of South Asia.

Generally, a tehsil consists of a city or town that serves as its headquarters
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A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. The term refers not only to sovereign nations ruled by monarchs but also to lower polities ruled by various high nobles (often vassals in a feudal system).
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Coordinates:

Tonk is a town in Rajasthan state, India. The town of Tonk is situated 1462 ft. above sea-level, 100 km (60 miles) by road south from Jaipur, near the right bank of the Banas River.
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Gwalior State was an Indian kingdom ruled by the Sindhia dynasty. The state took its name from the old town of Gwalior, which, although never the actual capital, was an important place because of its strategic location and the strength of its fort.
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Motto
اتحاد، تنظيم، يقين محکم
Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam   (Urdu)
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Coordinates: North 24 Parganas is a district of West Bengal, India. This district is also written as 24 Parganas(North). The administrative center of this district is Barasat.
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South 24 Parganas is an important district of West Bengal State with its district headquarters in Alipore. It has the urban fringe of Calcutta on one side and the remote riverine villages in the Sundarbans.
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Coordinates: West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India.
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