Parity (medicine)

For other uses of the term in other fields, see parity.


In medicine, parity is a technical term that refers to the number of times a woman or female animal has given birth.

A woman who has never given birth is referred to as being nulliparous, a nullipara or para 0. A woman who has given birth a particular number of times is referred to as para 1, para 2, para 3 and so on. Biparous or bipara are sometimes used as synonyms for para 2.

A woman who has given birth two or more times is referred to as multiparous. The term multiparous can also be used to describe someone who has given birth to more than one offspring at once. Grand multipara refers to a woman who has given birth more than five times.

Parity is recorded in the format, T-P-A-L, where T is the number of full-term births, P, the number premature births, A, the number of abortions (spontaneous or induced) and L, the number of living children. For example, parity of a woman who has given birth to one full-term child and has had one miscarriage would be recorded as P 1-0-1-1.

See also

Parity is a concept of equality of status or functional equivalence. It has several different specific definitions.
  • parity (physics): In physics parity is the name of the symmetry of interactions under spatial inversion.

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Medicine is the science and "" of maintaining and/or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. The term is derived from the Latin ars medicina meaning the art of healing.
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worldwide view of the subject.
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A woman is a female human. The term woman (irregular plural: women
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Birth is the process in animals by which an offspring is physiologically expelled from the body of its mother. Different forms of birth are ovipary, vivipary or ovovivipary.

Two words used to describe human offspring while in utero are embryo and fetus.
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Premature birth
Classification & external resources

ICD-10 O 60.1
ICD-9 644

DiseasesDB 10589
MedlinePlus 001562
eMedicine ped/1889  

Premature birth (also known as a preterm birth
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Gravida

In medicine, gravidity refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant
  • A gravida is a pregnant woman.
  • A nulligravida or gravida 0 is a woman who has never been pregnant.

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TPAL is one of the methods to provide a quick overview of a female's obstetric history. Two other methods often used are gravida/para and '''GPA.

In TPAL, the T refers to term infants (after 37 weeks gestation), the P
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Gravida/para status is medical shorthand for a woman's obstetric history. Gravida indicates the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, regardless of whether they were carried to term. Para indicates the number of viable(>20 wks)births.
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Gravida/para/abortus (GPA) encodes a summary of a woman's obstetric history.
  • Gravida: the number of pregnancies a woman has had. A current pregnancy, if any, is included.
  • Para: the number of pregnancies resulting in live births.

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