Peace of Constance

The Peace of Constance[1] of 1183 was signed in Konstanz by Frederick Barbarossa and representatives of the Lombard League. It confirmed the Peace of Venice of 1177. The Italian cities agreed to remain loyal to the Empire but retained local jurisdiction over their territories. After the death of Pope Alexander III, the relationship between the Lombard cities and the papacy cooled and the cities became eager to negotiate a new accord with the Emperor. The cities had the freedom to elect their own councils and to enact their own legislation. The consequence of these freedoms was division and it greatly strengthened Frederick in Italy.

Notes

1. ^ Or "Second Treaty of Constance." The first was made in 1153.

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11st century - 12nd century - 13rd century
1150s  1160s  1170s  - 1180s -  1190s  1200s  1210s
1180 1181 1182 - 1183 - 1184 1185 1186

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Konstanz

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Frederick I Barbarossa[1] (1122 – 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy at Pavia in 1154, and finally crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155.
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Lombard League was an alliance formed around 1167, which at its apex included most of the cities of northern Italy (although its membership changed in time), including, among others, Milan, Piacenza, Cremona, Mantua, Bergamo, Brescia, Bologna, Padua, Treviso, Vicenza, Verona, Lodi,
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The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177, was an important peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.
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11st century - 12nd century - 13rd century
1140s  1150s  1160s  - 1170s -  1180s  1190s  1200s
1174 1175 1176 - 1177 - 1178 1179 1180

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Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – August 30, 1181), born Rolando Bandinelli, was Pope from 1159 to 1181.

He was born in Siena. For a long time, scholars believed him to be identical with the twelfth-century canon lawyer and theologian, Master Roland of Bologna,
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The First Treaty of Constance was signed between the Emperor Frederick I and Pope Eugene III in 1153. By the terms of the treaty, the Emperor was to prevent any action by Manuel I Comnenus to reestablish the Byzantine Empire on Italian soil and to assist the pope against his
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11st century - 12nd century - 13rd century
1120s  1130s  1140s  - 1150s -  1160s  1170s  1180s
1150 1151 1152 - 1153 - 1154 1155 1156

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John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian, travel writer and television personality known as John Julius Norwich.
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