Persecution of Muslims

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Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. Persecution may refer to unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, beating, torture, or execution. It also may refer to the confiscation or destruction of property, or incitement to hate Muslims. Persecution can extend beyond those who perceive themselves as Muslims to include those who are perceived by others as Muslims, or to Muslims which are considered by fellow Muslims as non-Muslims.

Pagan Arab persecution of Muslims

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In the early days of Islam at Mecca, the new Muslims were often subjected to abuse and persecution. Some were killed, such as Sumayyah bint Khabbab, the seventh convert to Islam, who was tortured first by Abu Jahl.[1] Muhammad was protected somewhat by the influence of his family, but even he was subjected to such abuse; while he was praying near the Kaaba, Abu Lahab threw the entrails of a sacrificed camel over him, and Abu Lahab's wife Umm Jamil would regularly dump filth outside his door.[2] And if free Muslims were attacked, slaves who converted were subjected to far worse. The master of the Ethiopian Bilal ibn Rabah (who would become the first muezzin) would take him out into the desert in the boiling heat of midday and place a heavy rock on his chest, demanding that he forswear his religion and pray to the polytheists' gods and goddesses, until Abu Bakr bought him and freed him.[3] This persecution ultimately provoked the hijra.

Christian persecution of Muslims

Persecution of Muslims during the Crusades

Main article: Crusades


The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the stated effort to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims who had captured them from the Byzantines in 638 and partly in response to the Investiture Controversy which was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. It began as a dispute between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Gregorian Papacy and gave rise to the political concept of Christendom as a union of all peoples and sovereigns under the direction of the pope; as both sides tried to marshal public opinion in their favor, people became personally engaged in a dramatic religious controversy.

On May 7, 1099 the crusaders reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured from the Seljuks by the Fatimids of Egypt only a year before. On July 15, the crusaders were able to end the siege by breaking down sections of the walls and entering the city. Over the course of that afternoon, evening and next morning, the crusaders murdered almost every inhabitant of Jerusalem. Muslims, Jews, and even eastern Christians were all massacred. Although many Muslims sought shelter atop the Temple Mount inside the Al-Aqsa Mosque, the crusaders spared few lives. According to the anonymous Gesta Francorum, in what some believe to be one of the most valuable contemporary sources of the First Crusade, "...the slaughter was so great that our men waded in blood up to their ankles..."[4] Other accounts of blood flowing up to the bridles of horses are reminiscent of a passage from the Book of Revelation (14:20). Tancred claimed the Temple quarter for himself and offered protection to some of the Muslims there, but he was unable to prevent their deaths at the hands of his fellow crusaders. According to Fulcher of Chartres: "Indeed, if you had been there you would have seen our feet coloured to our ankles with the blood of the slain. But what more shall I relate? None of them were left alive; neither women nor children were spared."[5]

It is to be noted that this incident was not triggered by a religious issue. Jerusalem was taken by an assault instead of surrendering, and during the Middle Ages it was customary to loot and pillage a town and slay its inhabitants for three days and three nights in such incidents. The same occurred in many other instances, such as at Constantinople in 1204;the town was taken by assault.

Persecution of Muslims in South Europe

Muslim populations did not survive the reconquests of Christendom in Sicily, Spain or Portugal due to either expulsions, murder or forced conversions.[6] In Sicily, Christian-Muslim conflicts were fueled by the Crusades, and in 1224, Frederick II, grandson of tolerant Roger II, expelled the last remaining Muslims from Sicily, temporarily relocating many to a colony in Lucera on the southern mainland, while the rest fled to North Africa. The events are sometimes referred to as the 'Islamic Holocaust.'

Russian Empire

The period from the conquest of Kazan in 1552 to the ascension of Catherine the Great in 1762, was marked by systematic repression of Muslims through policies of exclusion and discrimination as well as the destruction of Muslim culture by elimination of outward manifestations of Islam such as mosques. While total expulsion as in other Christian nations such as Spain, Portugal and Sicily was not feasible to achieve a homogenous Russian Orthodox population, other policies such as land grants and the promotion of migration by other Russian and non-Muslim populations into Muslim lands displaced many Muslims making them minorities in their ancestral lands such as the Crimea and the Caucasus the Volga-Ural region to other parts such as the Ottoman Turkey, and almost annihilating the Cherkess. In the 16th century this led to an uprising against the Tsar Feodor by the Tatar aristocracy and their subsequent expulsion. The trend of Russification has continued at different paces in the rest of Tsarist and Soviet periods, so that today there are more Tatars living outside the Republic of Tatarstan than inside it.[7]

Philippines

After Spanish conquest of the Philippines, many Muslims were persecuted by Christians and converted to Christianity.

Muslim casualties of the Civil War in Lebanon

The Lebanese Civil War saw numerous massacres of both Christians and Muslims. Among the earliest were the Karantina Massacre and the Tel al-Zaatar Massacre in 1976, against Palestinian refugees; the later Sabra and Shatila Massacre in 1982, with at least 800 killed, is perhaps the best known. These murders combined sectarian, political, ideological, and retaliatory reasons.

Mongol persecution of Muslims

Further information: Battle of Baghdad (1258)


Following the brutal Mongol invasion of Central Asia under Hulagu Khan and after the Battle of Baghdad (1258), the Mongol Empire's rule extended across most Muslim lands in Asia. The Abbasid caliphate was destroyed and Islamic civilization, especially Mesopotamia, suffered much devastation and was replaced by Buddhism as the official religion of the land.[8] It must be remembered that despite Islam's decline at the hands of the Mongol invaders, their actions should not qualify as persecution rooted in religious hatred or intolerance. The Mongol destruction of Muslim lands should be seen rather as military tactics employed for the purpose of conquest through psychological warfare.[9] The seventh ruler of the Ilkhanate dynasty Mahmud Ghazan converted to Islam and thus began the gradual trend of the decline of Buddhism in the region and a renaissance of Islam.

Persecution of Muslims in the modern West

Discrimination and persecution in the former Yugoslavia

Employment bias in the United Kingdom

A BBC survey taken in the summer of 2004 found that employment applicants with Muslim names were far less likely to be called for an interview than applicants whose names did not appear to be Muslim. This study was taken by using fictitious applications for jobs using candidate descriptions that were similar in qualification and education, but under different names. The survey found that while a quarter of 'non-Muslim applicants' were invited to an interview, only 9% of the applications with Muslim names were responded to with invitations.[10]

Persecution of Muslims in Europe

Ziauddin Sardar writes in The New Statesman that Islamophobia is a widespread European phenomenon, so widespread that he asks whether Muslims will be victims of the next pogroms.[11] He writes that each country has its extremes, citing Jean-Marie Le Pen in France; Pim Fortuyn, who was assassinated in Holland; and Philippe Van der Sande of Vlaams Blok, a Flemish nationalist party founded in Belgium. Filip Dewinter, the leader of the nationalist Flemish "Vlaams Belang" has said that his party is "Islamophobic." He said: "Yes, we are afraid of Islam. The Islamisation of Europe is a frightening thing."[12]

The clash between what they say is the "European liberal culture" and that culture's perception of "Islam" gives rise to allegations of Islamophobia in a number of areas. Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi's statement that European civilization is "superior" to Islam was regarded as an example of Islamophobia.[12] In Germany, the state of Baden-Württemberg requires citizenship applicants from the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference to answer questions about their attitudes on homosexuality and domestic violence.[13][14] Clothing has become a flashpoint. France, which has a strong secular tradition separating church and state,[15] was accused of Islamophobia when girls who wore muslim headscarfs were expelled from school under a new law.[16][17] In January 2006, the Dutch parliament voted in favour of a proposal to ban the burqa in public, which led to similar accusations.[18]

Sardar argues that Europe is "post-colonial, but ambivalent." Minorities are regarded as acceptable as an underclass of menial workers, but if they want to be upwardly mobile, as Sardar says young Muslims do, the prejudice rises to the surface. Wolfram Richter, professor of economics at Dortmund University, told Sardar: "I am afraid we have not learned from our history. My main fear is that what we did to Jews we may now do to Muslims. The next holocaust would be against Muslims."[11]

EUMC report

The largest monitoring project to be commissioned into Islamophobia was undertaken following 9/11 by the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). Their May 2002 report "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", written Dr. Chris Allen and Jorgen S. Nielsen of the University of Birmingham, was based on 75 reports – 15 from each EU member nation.[19]

The report highlighted the regularity with which ordinary Muslims became targets of abusive and sometimes violent retaliatory attacks after 9/11. Despite localized differences within each member nation, the recurrence of attacks on recognizable and visible traits of Islam and Muslims was the report's most significant finding. The attacks took the form of verbal abuse; blaming all Muslims for terrorist attacks; women having their hijab torn from their heads; male and female Muslims being spat at; children being called "Usama"; and random assaults, which left victims hospitalized, and on one occasion, left a victim paralyzed.[19]

The report also discussed the representation of Muslims in the media. Inherent negativity, stereotypical images, fantastical representations, and exaggerated caricatures were all identified. The report concluded that "a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim and other xenophobic ideas and sentiments has, and may well continue, to become more tolerated."[19]

Recent immigration from Middle Eastern/North African countries has seen a rise in the Muslim population of Europe, particularly the United Kingdom and France. There have been reports of discrimination against Muslims and Muslim communities in many European countries.

Communist persecution of Muslims

Discrimination and persecution in the former Soviet Union and in former East Bloc nations

The USSR was hostile to all forms of religion, which was "the opium of the masses" according to Karl Marx. It also, despite internationalist propaganda, favored Slavic people over the Muslim Turkic or Caucasian nations. Crimean Tatars and Chechens were relocated during World War II, because of Stalin's fear that they would collaborate with the Germans. A quarter of the entire Chechen population died in the gulags.

Slavic colonists were brought into the predominantly Muslim regions of the Soviet Union. Many mosques were closed[20] and teaching of the Quran in schools was forbidden. Use of the Arabic script for Turkic languages was also outlawed[21] in order to tie the conquered peoples closer to Russians and alienate them from Muslims outside the USSR.

In '''Albania, a majority Muslim country, Enver Hoxha conducted a campaign to extinguish all forms of religion. In 1967, he closed all religious buildings and declared the state atheist. See Communist and post-Communist Albania.

In Bulgaria, communist authorities attempted to build a united Bulgarian nation. The Muslim minorities such as Turks and Pomaks were persecuted and forced to become Bulgarians.

In Uzbekistan, the secular post-communist government of Islom Karimov has repressed observant Muslims, who are called fundamentalists and continue to be subjected to harassment, imprisonment, and torture. The most violent action against Islam in this country was the Andijan Massacre.

Persecution of Muslims in Myanmar

Myanmar has a Buddhist majority. The Muslim minority in Myanmar mostly consists of the Rohingya people and the descendants of Muslim immigrants from Bangladesh, India, and China (the ancestors of Chinese Muslims in Myanmar came from the Yunnan province), as well as descendants of earlier Arab and Persian settlers. Indian Muslims were brought to Burma by the British to aid them in clerical work and business. After independence, many Muslims retained their previous positions and achieved prominence in business and politics.When General Ne Win swept to power on a wave of nationalism in 1962, the status of Muslims changed for the worse. Muslims were expelled from the army and were rapidly marginalized.[22]

Muslims are stereotyped in the society as "cattle killers" (referring to the cattle sacrifice festival of Eid Al Adha in Islam). The generic racist slur of "Kala" (black) used against perceived "foreigners" has especially negative connotations when referring to Burmese Muslims. The more pious Muslim communities which segregate themselves from the Buddhist majority face greater difficulties than those Muslims who integrate more at the cost of not observing Islamic personal laws.[23]

Muslims in Myanmar are affected by the actions of Islamic Fundamentalists in other countries. Violence in Indonesia perpetrated by Islamists is used as a pretext to commit violence against Muslim minorities in Burma. The anti-Buddhist actions of the Taliban in Afghanistan (the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan) was also used as a pretext to commit violence against Muslims in Myanmar by Buddhist mobs.Human Rights Watch reports that there was mounting tension between the Buddhist and Muslim communities in Taungoo for weeks before it erupted into violence in the middle of May 2001. Buddhist monks demanded that the Hantha Mosque in Taungoo be destroyed in "retaliation" for the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan.[24] Mobs of Buddhists, led by Monks, vandalized Muslim owned businesses and property and attacked and killed Muslims in Muslim communities. This was followed by retaliation by Muslims against Buddhists. Human Rights Watch also alleges that Burmese military intelligence agents disguised as monks, led the mobs.[25]

The dictatorial government, which operates a pervasive internal security apparatus, generally infiltrates or monitors the meetings and activities of virtually all organizations, including religious organizations.Religious freedom for Muslims is reduced.Monitoring and control of Islam undermines the free exchange of thoughts and ideas associated with religious activities.[26]

It is widely feared that persecution of Muslims in Myanmar could foment Islamic fundamentalism in the country.[27] Many Muslims have joined armed resistance groups that are fighting for greater freedom in Myanmar,[28] but are not Islamic fundamentalists as such.

Persecution of Muslims in India

There were widespread riots during the Partition of India in 1947, with attacks on Muslim minorities by Hindu and Sikh mobs.

In 1992, the Babri Mosque was demolished by the Sangh Parivar family of organizations on the basis of their controversial assertion that a Hindu temple belonging to a Hindu god existed at the site before the erection of the Mosque. The demolition was followed by anti-Muslim riots in Mumbai allegedly perpetrated by the nativist Shiv Sena party.

The Sangh Parivar family of organisations, has allegedly been involved in encouraging negative stereotyping of Muslims, and in the 2002 Gujarat violence they were allegedly responsible for encouraging attacks against Muslims. [29]. Another major incident was at Naroda Patia, where a Hindu mob, massacred more than 100 Muslims. In another incidence of Best Bakery, in city of Baroda, a complete family of 15 was massacred, raped and then burnt. Subsequent riots led to the death of 754 Muslims. Another major incident was at Naroda Patia, where a Hindu mob, massacred more than 100 Muslims. In another incident at Best Bakery, in the city of Baroda, a family of 12 was massacred and burnt.[30] The Gujarat riots officially led to the death of 1044 people, 754 Muslims and 290 Hindus.Human Rights Watch puts the death toll at higher figures, with 2000 deaths, mostly Muslim, but with attacks against Hindus by Muslim mobs as well.[31]

Recently Hindu mobs have attacked Muslim villages after claims were made that cows had been slaughtered for the festivities of eid. In 2005, this caused the destruction of 40 homes and 3 deaths. A police investigation revealed that no cow had been slaughtered in the village.[32]

Persecution of minority/sectarian Muslim groups by other Muslim groups

See takfir, Ahmadiyya, Shia, Kharijite, Mu'tazili, Alawites, Druze.

Persecution of and by Mutazilites

In medieval Iraq, the Mu'tazili theological movement was made a state doctrine in 832, igniting the Mihna(ordeal) a struggle over the application of Greek logical proof of the Qu'ran; people who would not accept Mu'tazili claims that the Qur'an was created rather than eternal were sometimes persecuted. The most famous victims of the Mihna were Ahmad Ibn Hanbal who was imprisoned and tortured, and the judge Ahmad Ibn Nasr al-Khuza'i who was crucified.

However, it lost official support soon afterwards. This coincided with the loss of the scientific edge of the Islamic world and the rise to prominence of a more dogmatic approach to Islam, of which Al-Ghazali was a staunch defender. Sunni and shi'a Islam became the mainstream schools of Islam. As a consequence, the tables turned and most scholars and scientists like Ibn Rushd and Avicenna with Mutazilite views were the victims of persecution themselves in the centuries to follow.

Sunni-Shi'a conflicts and persecutions

At various times many Shi'a groups have faced persecution.

While the dominant strand in modern Sunni dogma regards Shiism as a valid madhhab, following Al Azhar, some Sunnis both now and in the past have regarded it as beyond the pale, and have attacked its adherents. In modern times, notable examples include the bombing campaigns by the Sunni Sipah-e-Sahaba and the Shia Tehrik-e-Jafria, two small extremist groups, against Shia or Sunni mosques in Pakistan, the persecution of Hazara under the Taliban, and the bloody attacks linked with Zarqawi and his followers against Shia in Iraq.

Persecution of Ahmadiyyas

The Ahmadiyya regard themselves as Muslims, but are seen by many other Muslims as non-Muslims and "heretics". Armed groups, led by the umbrella organization Khatme Nabuwat ("Finality of Prophethood"), have launched violent attacks against their mosques in Bangladesh.

They committed massacres against them which resulted in 2,000 Ahmadiyya deaths in Pakistani Punjab. Eventually, martial law had to be established and Governor general Ghulam Mohamed dismissed the federal cabinet. This anti-Ahmadiyya movement led Pakistani prime minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to declare that the Ahmadiyyas were "non-Muslims".[33][33]

In 1984, the Government of Pakistan, under General Zia-ul-Haq, passed Ordinance XX,[34] which banned proselytizing by Ahmadis and also banned Ahmadis from referring to themselves as Muslims. According to this ordinance, any Ahmadi who refers to oneself as a Muslim by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation, directly or indirectly, or makes the call for prayer as other Muslims do, is punishable by imprisonment of up to 3 years. Because of these difficulties, Mirza Tahir Ahmad migrated to London, UK.

Alawites

The Alawites are a secretive group that seems to believe in the divine nature of Ali. They have been persecuted in the past and survive in the remote and more mountainous parts of Syria. The ruling Ba'ath party is dominated by Alawis (President Bashar al-Assad is Alawi himself) and they have sought fatwas from Shiite clergy in Lebanon declaring that they are, in fact, Muslims.

Persecution by Takfiris

Certain small groups - the Kharijites of early medieval times, and Takfir wal Hijra and the GIA today - follow takfirist doctrines, regarding almost all other Muslims as infidels whose blood may legitimately be shed. As a result, they have killed large numbers of Muslims; the GIA, for example, proudly boasted of having committed the Bentalha massacre.

Persecution of Ajlaf and Arzal Muslims in South Asia

Despite Islam's egalitarian tenets, units of social stratification, termed as "castes" by many, have developed among Muslims in some parts of South Asia.[35][36] Various theories have been put forward regarding the development of castes among Indian muslims. Some sources state that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with Hindu culture and Hindu converts to Islam,[35][36][37][38] while others feel that these developed based on claims of descent from the prophet Mohamed.[39][40]

Sections of the ulema (scholars of Islamic jurisprudence) have declared the religious legitimacy of the caste system with the help of the concept of kafa'a. A classic example of scholarly literature supporting the Muslim caste system is the Fatawa-i Jahandari, written by the fourteenth century Turkish scholar, Ziauddin Barani, a member of the court of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. Barani was known for his intensely casteist views, and he regarded the Ashraf Muslims as racially superior to the Ajlaf Muslims. He divided the Muslims into grades and sub-grades. In his scheme, all high positions and privileges were to be a monopoly of the high born Turks, not the Indian Muslims. Even in his interpretation of the Koranic verse "Indeed, the pious amongst you are most honored by Allah", he considered piety to be associated with noble birth.[39] Barrani was specific in his recommendation that the "sons of Mohamed" [i.e. Ashrafs] "be given a higher social status than the low-born [i.e. Ajlaf].[41]His most significant contribution in the fatwa was his analysis of the castes with respect to Islam.[42] His assertion was that castes would be mandated through state laws or "Zawabi" which would carry precedence over Sharia law whenever they were in conflict.[42] In the Fatwa-i-Jahandari (advice XXI), he wrote about the "qualities of the high-born" as being "virtuous" and the "low-born" as being the "custodians of vices". Every act which is "contaminated with meanness and based on ignominy, comes elegantly [from the Ajlaf]".[43] Barani had a clear disdain for the Ajlaf and strongly recommended that they be denied education, lest they usurp the Ashraf masters. He sought appropriate religious sanction to that effect.[38] Barrani also developed an elaborate system of promotion and demotion of Imperial officers ("Wazirs") that was conducted primarily on the basis of caste.[44]

In addition to the Ashraf/Ajlaf divide, there is also the Arzal caste among Muslims, whose members were regarded by anti-Caste activists like Babasaheb Ambedkar as the equivalent of untouchables.[45][46] The term "Arzal" stands for "degraded" and the Arzal castes are further subdivided into Bhanar, Halalkhor, Hijra, Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehtar etc.[45][46] The Arzal group was recorded in the 1901 census in India and its members are also called Dalit Muslims “with whom no other Muhammadan would associate, and who are forbidden to enter the mosque or to use the public burial ground”.They are relegated to "menial" professions such as scavenging and carrying night soil.[47]

See also

References

1. ^ http://www.themuslimweekly.com/fullstoryview.aspx?NewsID=40336F9421B392F034112220&MENUID=KID&DESCRIPTION=Kids Themuslimweekly.com Retrieved on 05-24-07
2. ^ http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/MH_LM/from_the_beginning_of_revelation.htm Witness.pioneer.org Retrieved on 05-24-07
3. ^ http://www.islamonline.com/cgi-bin/news_service/profile_story.asp?service_id=756 Islamonline.com Retrieved on 05-24-07
4. ^ http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/cde-jlem.html#gesta2 Fordham.edu Retrieved on 05-24-07
5. ^ http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/cde-jlem.html#fulcher1 Fordham.edu Retrieved on 05-24-07
6. ^ Bernard Lewis, "Islam and the West", Oxford University Press US, Apr 1, 1993, ISBN 0-19-509061-6 pg.6
7. ^ Shireen Tahmasseb Hunter, Jeffrey L. Thomas, Alexander Melikishvili, "Islam in Russia", M.E. Sharpe, Apr 1, 2004, ISBN 0-7656-1282-8
8. ^ Daniel W. Brown, " New Introduction to Islam", Blackwell Publishing, Aug 1, 2003, ISBN 0-631-21604-9 pg. 185-187
9. ^ John Man, " Genghis Khan, Life , Death and Resurrection", Feb 6, 2007, "Muslim Holocaust"
10. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/letters/story/0,,1387271,00.html Guardian.co.uk Retrieved on 05-24-07
11. ^ "The next holocaust", New Statesman, December 5, 2005.
12. ^ "Belgian Establishment Fears Crack-Up", The Flemish Republic.org newsletter, April-June 2006.
13. ^ http://www.expatica.com/source/site_article.asp?subchannel_id=52&story_id=26707&name=Failing+the+tolerance+test Expatica.com Retrieved on 05-24-07
14. ^ http://www.militantislammonitor.org/article/id/1524 Militantislammonitor.org Retrieved on 05-24-07
15. ^ http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=3013 Yaleglobal.yale.edu Retrieved on 05-24-07
16. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4616664.stm News.bbc.co.uk Retrieved on 05-24-07
17. ^ The French policy extends to all visible religious paraphernalia, including large Christian crosses and Jewish scullcaps, although small crucifixes and stars of David are still allowed.
18. ^ Madell, Mark. "Dutch MPs to decide on burqa ban", BBC News, January 16, 2006.
19. ^ Allen, Chris and Nielsen, Jorgen S. "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", EUMC, May, 2002.
20. ^ [1]
21. ^ Perry, J. R. (1996) "Tajik literature: Seventy years is longer than the millennium" in World Literature Today, Vol. 70 Issue 3, p. 571
22. ^ [2]
23. ^ [3]
24. ^ http://hrw.org/backgrounder/asia/burma-bck4.htm#P103_22688 Hrw.org Retrieved on 05-24-07
25. ^ [4]
26. ^ [5]]. Accusations of "terrorism" are made against Muslim organizations such as the All Burma Muslim Union.[6]br> 27. ^ http://www.irrawaddy.org/aviewer.asp?a=5380&z=102 Irrawaddy.org Retrieved on 05-24-07
28. ^ [7]
29. ^ Human Rights Watch
30. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2003. By the United States Department of State. Retrieved on April 19 2007.
31. ^ http://hrw.org/reports/2002/india/ Hrw.org Retrieved on 05-24-07
32. ^ USA Today - Retrieved 06/11/2005.
33. ^ Jamaat-i-Islami Federal Research Division US Library of Congress
34. ^ Ordinance XX
35. ^ "Islamic caste." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 18 Oct. 2006
36. ^ Burton-Page, J. "Hindū." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzeland W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2006. Brill Online.
37. ^ Muslim Caste in Uttar Pradesh (A Study of Culture Contact), Ghaus Ansari, Lucknow, 1960, Page 66
38. ^ Singh Sikand, Yoginder. Caste in Indian Muslim Society. Hamdard University. Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
39. ^ Sajida Sultana Alvi, Advice on the art of governance, an Indo-Islamic Mirror for Princes P122, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-918-5
40. ^ Ahmad, Imtiaz, "The Ashraf-Ajlaf dichotomy in Muslim social structure in India", Indian economic and social history review 33 (1966) pgs 268-78
41. ^ Das, Arbind, Arthashastra of Kautilya and Fatwa-i-Jahandari of Ziauddin Barrani: an analysis, Pratibha Publications, Delhi 1996, ISBN 81-85268-45-2 pgs 138-139
42. ^ Ibid pg124
43. ^ Ibid p143
44. ^ Das pgs 138-139
45. ^ Ambedkar, Bhimrao. Pakistan or the Partition of India. Thackers Publishers. 
46. ^ Web resource for Pakistan or the Partition of India
47. ^ Dereserve these myths by Tanweer Fazal,Indian express

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Many Buddhists have experienced persecution from non-Buddhists during the history of Buddhism. Persecution may refer to unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, beating, torture, or execution.
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Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. Hindus have been historically persecuted during Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent and during Portuguese rule of Goa.
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persecution of Jews has been a constant feature in Jewish history.

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Persecution of members of the Rastafari movement, a group founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s and who worship Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as Almighty God, has been fairly continuous since the movement began but nowadays is particularly concerning their spiritual use of
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Zoroastrians have faced much religious discrimination including forced conversions, harassments, as well as being identified as najis and impure to some groups of Muslims, while they are originally recognized as Ahle Kitab, along side with Christians and Jews who have a holy
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Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen.
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Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic, religious or national group. While precise definition varies among genocide scholars, the legal definition is found in the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
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A forced conversion occurs when someone adopts a religion or philosophy under the threat that a refusal would result in negative non-spiritual consequences. These consequences range from job loss and social isolation to incarceration, torture or death.
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A religious war is a war justified by religious differences. It can be the legitimate forces of one state that has an established religion against those of another state with either a quite different
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Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe.
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Religion and neo-fascism refers to the relationship between neo-fascism and religion.

Some scholars, using the term neo-fascism in its narrow sense, consider certain contemporary religious movements and groups to represent forms of clerical or theocratic
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Discrimination
General forms
Racism Sexism Ageism Religious intolerance Xenophobia
Specific forms
Social
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Religious terrorism is terrorism by those whose motivations and aims have a predominant religious character or influence[1]; to be considered religious terrorism the perpetrators must use religious scriptures to justify or explain their violent acts or to gain recruits
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Religious segregation involves the separation of people on the basis of religion.
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Atheism

Concepts
ReligionNontheism
AntireligionAntitheism
AgnosticismHumanism
Metaphysical naturalism
Weak and strong atheism
Implicit and explicit atheism

History
History of atheism
EnlightenmentFreethought


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state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. Practically, a state without a state religion is called a secular state.
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The Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution is a conventional description of the results of a number of separate policies, conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801.
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revolt in the Vendée was an 1793-1796 popular uprising against the Republican government during the French Revolution.

Variously known as the Uprising, Insurrection, Revolt, Vendéan Rebellion, or the Wars in the Vendée
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The Cristero War (also known as the Cristiada) of 1926 to 1929 was an uprising against the anti-Catholic Mexican government of the time, set off specifically by the anti-clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of 1917.
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