Perugia

Comune di Perugia
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Piazza IV Novembre
Piazza IV Novembre

Seal
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Location of Perugia in Italy
Location of Perugia in Italy
Coordinates:
Country Italy
Region Umbria
Province Province of Perugia
Government
 - Mayor Renato Locchi
Area
 - City 449 km  (1,165 sq mi)
Elevation 493 m (0 ft)
Population (July 2006)[1]
 - City 161,390
 - Density 359/km (0/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Postal codes 06121 to 06135
Area code(s) 075
Patron saints: St. Constantius, St. Herculanus, St. Lawrence
Website: [1]
Perugia is the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river, and the capital of the province of Perugia.

Perugia is a notable artistic center of Italy. The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes; eight of his pictures can also be admired in the National Gallery of Umbria[2]. Perugino was the teacher of Raphael,[3] the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia (today no longer in the city)[4] and one fresco[5]. Another famous painter, Pinturicchio, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia.

History

Perugia was an Umbrian settlement[6] but first appears in written history as Perusia, one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria;[6] it was first mentioned in Q. Fabius Pictor's account, utilized by Livy, of the expedition carried out against the Etruscan league by Fabius Maximus Rullianus[7] in 310 or 309 BCE. At that time a thirty-year indutia was agreed upon;[8] however, in 295 Perusia took part in the Third Samnite War and was reduced, with Vulsinii and Arretium (Arezzo), to seek for peace in the following year.[9]

In 216 and 205 BC it assisted Rome in the Second Punic War but afterwards it is not mentioned until 41-40 BC, when Lucius Antonius took refuge there, and was reduced by Octavian after a long siege, and its senators sent to their death. A number of lead bullets used by slingers have been found in and around the city [10]. The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno— the massive Etruscan terrace-walls,[11] naturally, can hardly have suffered at all— and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whomever chose. It must have been rebuilt almost at once, for several bases for statues exist, inscribed Augusta sacr(um) Perusia restituta; but it did not become a colonia, until 251-253 CE, when it was resettled as Colonia Vibia Augusta Perusia, under the emperor C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus.[12]

It is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until it was the only city in Umbria to resist Totila, who captured it and laid the city waste in 547, after a long siege, apparently after the city's Byzantine garrison evacuated. Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the city's bishop, Herculanus, as representative of the townspeople.[13] Totila is said to have ordered the bishop to be flayed and beheaded. St. Herculanus (Sant'Ercolano) later became the city's patron saint.[14]

In the Lombard period Perugia is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia[15]. In the ninth century, with the consent of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, it passed under the popes; but by the eleventh century its commune was asserting itself, and for many centuries the city continued to maintain an independent life, warring against many of the neighbouring lands and cities— Foligno, Assisi, Spoleto, Todi, Siena, Arezzo, etc. In 1186 Henry VI, rex romanorum and future emperor, granted diplomatic recognition to the consular government of the city; afterward pope Innocent III, whose major aim was to give state dignity to the dominions having been constituting the patrimony of St. Peter, acknowledged the validity of the imperial statement and recognized the established civic practices having the force of law.[16]
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Medieval aqueduct.


On various occasions the popes found asylum from the tumults of Rome within its walls, and it was the meeting-place of five conclaves, including those which elected Honorius III (1216), Clement IV (1285), Celestine V (1294), and Clement V (1305); the papal presence was characterized by a pacificatory rule between the internal rivalries.[16] But Perugia had no mind simply to subserve the papal interests and never accepted papal sovereignty: the city used to exercise a jurisdiction over the members of the clergy, moreover in 1282 Perugia was excommunicated due to a new military offensive against the Ghibellines regardless of a papal prohibition. In the other hand side by side with the thirteenth-century bronze griffin of Perugia above the door of the Palazzo dei Priori stands, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, and Perugia remained loyal for the most part to the Guelph party in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines. However this dominant tendency was rather an anti-Germanic and Italian political strategy.[16] The Angevin presence in Italy appeared offer a counterpoise to papal powers: in 1319 Perugia declared the Angevin Saint Louis of Toulouse "Protector of the city's sovereignty and of the Palazzo of its Priors"[17] and set his figure among the other patron saints above the rich doorway of the Palazzo dei Priori. At the half of the 14th century Bartholus of Sassoferrato, who was a renowned jurist, asserted that Perugia was dependent upon neither imperial nor papal support.[16] In 1347, at the time of Rienzi's unfortunate enterprise in reviving the Roman republic, Perugia sent ten ambassadors to pay him honour; and, when papal legates sought to coerce it by foreign soldiers, or to exact contributions, they met with vigorous resistance, which broke into open warfare with Pope Urban V in 1369; in 1370 the noble party reached an agreement signing the treaty of Bologna and Perugia was forced to accept a papal legate; however the vicar-general of the Papal States, Gérard du Puy, Abbot of Marmoutier and nephew of Gregory IX,[18] was expelled by a popular uprising in 1375, and his fortification of Porta Sole was razed to the ground.[19].

Civic peace was constantly disturbed in the fourteenth century by struggles between the party representing the people (Raspanti) and the nobles (Beccherini). After the assassination in 1398 of Biordo Michelotti, who had made himself lord of Perugia, the city became a pawn in the Italian Wars, passing to Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1400), to Pope Boniface IX (1403), and to Ladislas of Naples (1408-14) before it settled into a period of sound governance under the Signoria of the condottiero Braccio da Montone (1416-24), who reached a concordance with the Papacy. Following mutual atrocities of the Oddi and the Baglioni families, power was at last concentrated in the Baglioni, who, though they had no legal position, defied all other authority, though their bloody internal squabbles culminated in a massacre, 14 July 1500[19]. Gian Paolo Baglioni was lured to Rome in 1520 and beheaded by Leo X; and in 1540 Rodolfo, who had slain a papal legate, was defeated by Pier Luigi Farnese, and the city, captured and plundered by his soldiery, was deprived of its privileges. A citadel known as the Rocca Paolina, after the name of Pope Paul III, was built, to designs of Antonio da Sangallo the Younger "ad coercendam Perusinorum audaciam."[21]
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Palazzo dei Priori: the center of communal government.


In 1797, the city was conquered by French troops. On 4 February 1798, the Tiberina Republic was formed, with Perugia as capital, and the French tricolour as flag. In 1799, the Tiberina Republic merged to the Roman Republic.

In 1832, 1838, 1854 and 1997 Perugia was visited by earthquakes; Following the collapse of the Roman republic of 1848-49, when the Rocca was in part demolished[19], in May 1849 it was seized by the Austrians. In the June of 1859 the inhabitants rebelled against the temporal authority of the Pope and established a provisional government but the insurrection was bloodily defeated by Pius IX's troops[23]. In the September of 1860 the city was finally united, along with the rest of Umbria, to the Kingdom of Italy.

Perugia today

Perugia has become famous for chocolate, mostly because of a single firm, Perugina, whose Baci (kisses) are widely exported[24]. Perugia chocolate is very popular in Italy[25], and the city hosts a chocolate festival in October of every year[26].

Perugia also hosts one of Europe's largest jazz festivals in early July.

In July 2007, Perugia hosted the International IUGG Assembly, a once per four year event that is one of the largest gatherings of Earth scientists.

Perugia today hosts two main universities, the ancient Università degli Studi and the Foreigners University (Università per Stranieri). Stranieri serves as an Italian language and culture school for students from all over the world[27]. Other educational istitutions are the Perugia Fine Arts Academy "Pietro Vannucci" (founded in 1573), the Perugia Music Conservatory for the study of classical music and the RAI Public Broadcasting School of Radio-Television Journalism[28]. The city is also host to the Umbra Institute, an accredited university program for American students studying abroad[29]. The Università dei Sapori (University of Tastes), a National centre for Vocational Education and Training in Food, is located in the city as well[30].

The city symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city.



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Etruscan Arch.

Main attractions

  • The Cathedral of S. Lorenzo.
  • The Palazzo dei Priori (Town Hall, encompassing the Collegio del Cambio, Collegio della Mercanzia, and Galleria Nazionale), one of Italy's greatest buildings[31]. The Collegio del Cambio has frescoes by Pietro Perugino, while the Collegio della Mercanzia has a fine later 14th century wooden interior.
  • Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbria, the National Gallery of Umbrian art in Middle Ages and Renaissance (it includes works by Duccio, Piero della Francesca, Beato Angelico, Perugino)
  • Church and abbey of San Pietro (late 16th century).
  • Basilica of San Domenico (begun in 1394 and finished in 1458). It is located in the place where, in Middle Ages times, the market and the horse fair were held, and where the Dominicans settled in 1234. According to Vasari, the church was designed by Giovanni Pisano. The interior decorations were redesigned by Carlo Maderno, while the massive belfry was partially cut around mid-16th century. It houses examples of Umbrian art, including the precious tomb of Pope Benedict XI and a Renaissance wooden choir.
  • Church of Sant'Angelo (Founded in the 6th century).
  • Church of San Bernardino (with façade by Agostino di Duccio).
  • Fontana Maggiore, a medieval fountain designed by Fra Bevignate and sculpted by Nicolò and Giovanni Pisano.
  • Church of San Severo, retains a fresco painted by Raphael[5] and Perugino.
  • Ipogeo dei Volumni (Hypogeum of the Volumnus family), an Etruscan chamber tomb
  • National Museum of Umbrian Archaeology, where is conserved one of the longest inscription in Etruscan, the Cippus perusinus.
  • Etruscan Arch (also known as Porta Augusta), an Etruscan gate with Roman elements.
  • the Rocca Paolina, a Renaissance fortress (1540-1543) of which only a bastion today is remaining. The original design was by Antonio and Aristotile da Sangallo, and included the Porta Marzia (3rd century BC), the tower of Gentile Baglioni's house and a mediaeval cellar.
  • Centro Direzionale (1982-1986), an administration civic center owned by the Umbria Region. The building was designed by the Pritzker Architecture prizewinner Aldo Rossi[33].

Other attractions

  • The Etruscan Well (Pozzo Etrusco).
  • Medieval aqueduct.
  • The Tribunali.
  • Piazza Matteotti
  • Teatro Comunale Morlacchi.
  • Church of Sant' Agata.
  • Church of Sant' Ercolano (early 14th century). Currently resembling a polygonal tower, it had once two floors. The upper one was demolished when the Rocca Paolina was built. It includes Baroque decorations commissioned from 1607. The main altar is made of a 4th sarcophagus found in 1609.
  • Church of Sant'Antonio da Padova.
  • Church of San Francesco al Prato.
  • Church of Santa Giuliana, heir of a female monastery founded in 1253, which in its later years gained a reputation for dissoluteness, until the French turned it into a granary. It is now a military hospital. The church, with a single nave, has traces of the ancient frescoes (13th century), which probably covered all the walls. The cloister is a noteworthy example of Cistercian architecture of the mid-14th century, attributed to Matteo Gattapone. This is contemporary with the upper part of the campanile, whose base is from the 13th century.
  • Church of San Michele Arcangelo (5th-6th centuries). It is an example of Palaeo-Christian art with central plan recalling that of Santo Stefano Rotondo in Rome. It has 16 antique columns.
  • Church of San Matteo in Campo Orto.
  • Church of Santi Stefano e Valentino
  • Templar church of San Bevignate.

Gallery


Corso Vannucci

Palazzo dei Priori

Palazzo del Capitano del Popolo

Local events

  • The Umbria Jazz Festival is one of the most important venues for Jazz in Europe and has been held annually since 1973, usually in July.
  • Eurochocolate
  • Sagra Musicale Umbra[34]

Twinnings

Perugia has twin and sister city agreements with the following cities[35]:

See also

Notes

1. ^ Statistiche demografiche ISTAT ISTAT demographics
2. ^ cf. Perugia, Raffaele Rossi, Pietro Scarpellini, 1993 (Vol. 1, pg. 337, 344)
3. ^ "...it appears most probable that he did not enter Perugino's studio till the end of 1499, as during the four or five years before that Perugino was mostly absent from his native city. The so-called Sketch Book of Raphael in the academy of Venice contains studies apparently from the cartoons of some of Perugino's Sistine frescoes, possibly done as practice in drawing." (Encyclopedia Britannica Eleventh Edition).
See also "Perugia". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2003
4. ^ The precise role of Raphael in Perugino's works, executed during his apprenticeship, is disputed by scholars. The independent works depicted in Perugia are: the Ansidei Madonna (taken by the French under the terms of the Treaty of Tolentino in 1798), the Pala Baglioni (this masterpiece was expropriated by Scipione Borghese in 1608, cf. 'The Guardian, October 19, 2004), the Colonna Altarpiece (formerly located in the convent of St Anthony of Padua cf.The Colonna Altarpiece review at Art History), the Connestabile Madonna (this picture was lost to Perugia in 1871, when Count Connestabile sold it to the emperor of Russia for £13,200, cf. Encyclopedia Britannica''), the Oddi Altarpiece (requisitioned by the French in 1798)
5. ^ "...some studies for the figure of St. John the Martyr which Raphael used in 1505 in his great fresco in the Church of San Severo at Perugia." (
6. ^ Perugia (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 21, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
7. ^ "How much of his glory is due to his kinsman, Fabius Pictor, the first historian of Rome, or to the family legends, which found in Etruria the most fitting scene for the exploits of the great Fabian house, we cannot tell" (Walter W. How and Henry Devenish Leigh, A History of Rome to the Death of Caesar [London:Longmans, Green] 1898:112).
8. ^ Livy ix.37.12).
9. ^ Livy ix.30.1-2, 31.1-3; indutiae with Volsinii, Perusia and Arretium, ix.37.4-5.
10. ^ cf. Corpus Inscr. Lat. xi. 1212
11. ^ Etruscan town walls.
12. ^ Latin inscriptions at two of the preserved Etruscan gates.
13. ^ Patrick Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554 pp185-86, referring to Perugia in passing, notes the increasingly localized role assumed since the mid-fifth century by the bishops.
14. ^ Procopius, Bellum Gothicum, 3 (7).2.35.2, characteristically does not mention the incident, reported in Gregory the Great, Dialogues, 13, who imagines a seven-year siege (i.e. since 540, before the accession of Baduila) and dramatically reports Herculanus' grotesque murder.
15. ^ Procopius of Caesarea, Gothic Wars I,16 and III,35.
16. ^ cf. Perugia, Raffaele Rossi, Attilio Bartoli Angeli, Roberta Sottani 1993 (Vol. 1, pp. 120-140)
17. ^ "Avvocato della Signoria cittadina e del Palazzo dei suoi Priori"
18. ^ Made a cardinal by his uncle, 20 December 1375 (Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: XIV century)
19. ^ cf. Touring Club Italiano, Guida d'Italia: Umbria (1966)
20. ^ cf. Touring Club Italiano, Guida d'Italia: Umbria (1966)
21. ^ "in order to bring to heel the audacious Perugini".
22. ^ cf. Touring Club Italiano, Guida d'Italia: Umbria (1966)
23. ^ cf. Chicago Tribune, Jul 18, 1859 and The outrage of the American witnesses in Perugia, Chicago Tribune, Jul 21, 1859
24. ^ Nestlè-Perugina produced in 2005 about 1.5 million Baci a day.In Italy, right in the kisser, The Washington Post, May 29, 2005
25. ^ The company's plant located in San Sisto (Perugia) is the largest of Nestlé's nine sites in Italy.European Industrial Relations Observatory, April 9, 2003. According to the Nestlé Usa official website today Baci is the most famous chocolate brand in Italy.
26. ^ Thousands converge on historic city to celebrate everything chocolate, Associated Press, October 21, 2002
27. ^ BBC students diaries March 13, 2007
28. ^ See Perugia, University Town and La Repubblica Università - Italian Journalism recognized schools

Italian:


29. ^ Arcadia University Center for Education Abroad - Course Options at the Umbra Institute
30. ^ See the istitution educational purposes at the Università dei Sapori official site
31. ^ A short break in Perugia The Independent - London, June 6, 1999
32. ^ "...some studies for the figure of St. John the Martyr which Raphael used in 1505 in his great fresco in the Church of San Severo at Perugia." (
33. ^ The Centro Direzionale is mentioned in the Aldo Rossi personal page at the Pritzker Prize official website
34. ^ The Umbrian musical event is hosted in Perugia since the end of World War II NYT, October 18, 1953
35. ^ Perugia Official site - Relazioni Internazionali

Italian:


References

  • Conestabile della Staffa, Giancarlo (1855). I Monumenti di Perugia etrusca e romana. 
  • Gallenga Stuart, Romeo Adriano (1905). Perugia. Bergamo: Istituto italiano d'arti grafiche Editore. 
  • Heywood, William (1910). A history of Perugia. London: Methuen & Co. 
  • Mancini, Francesco Federico; Giovanna Casagrande. Perugia - guida storico-artistica. Perugia: Italcards. ISBN 88-7193-746-5. 
  • Rubin Blanshei, Sarah (1976). Perugia, 1260-1340: Conflict and Change in a Medieval Italian Urban Society. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. 
  • Rossi, Raffaele; and others (1993). Perugia. Milan: Elio Sellino Editore. ISBN 88-236-0051-0. 
  • Symonds, Margaret; Lina Duff Gordon (1898). The Story of Perugia. London: J.M. Dent & Co. 

External links

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Anthem
Il Canto degli Italiani
(also known as Fratelli d'Italia)


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Italy

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Regione Umbria


Map highlighting the location of Umbria in Italy

Capital Perugia
President Maria Rita Lorenzetti
(DS-Union)
Provinces 2
Comuni 92
Area 8,456 km
 - Ranked 16th (2.8 %)
Population (2006 est.
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In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione).
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Province of Perugia

Nation Italy
Region Umbria
Capital Perugia
Area 6,334 km
Population (2001) 606,413
Density 96
Comuni 59
Vehicle Registration PG
Postal Code 06010-06089, 06100

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A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "larger", "greater") is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer.

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Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to:
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Saint Costantius (also known as Constantius, Constance or Costanzo; second century) is one of the patron saints of Perugia, Italy. His feast day is January 29. Costantius became the first bishop of Perugia at the age of 30.
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Saint Herculanus (Sant' Ercolano) of Perugia (d. 549) was a bishop of Perugia and is patron saint of that city. His main feast day is November 7; his second feast is celebrated on March 1.
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Saint Lawrence (c. 225 – 258) (Latin: Laurentius - "laurelled") was one of the seven deacons of ancient Rome who were martyred under the persecution of Roman Emperor Valerian in the year 258.

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city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
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Regione Umbria


Map highlighting the location of Umbria in Italy

Capital Perugia
President Maria Rita Lorenzetti
(DS-Union)
Provinces 2
Comuni 92
Area 8,456 km
 - Ranked 16th (2.8 %)
Population (2006 est.
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Anthem
Il Canto degli Italiani
(also known as Fratelli d'Italia)


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The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains of Tuscany and flowing 406 kilometres through Umbria and Lazio to the Tyrrhenian Sea. It drains a basin estimated at 18,000 km².
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Province of Perugia

Nation Italy
Region Umbria
Capital Perugia
Area 6,334 km
Population (2001) 606,413
Density 96
Comuni 59
Vehicle Registration PG
Postal Code 06010-06089, 06100

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Pietro Perugino (1446–1524) was a well-known painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance.
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Renaissance (French for "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento; Spanish: Renacimiento), was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
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Bernardino di Betti, called Pinturicchio (1454 – 1513) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance.

He was born in Perugia, the son of Benedetto or Betto di Blagio. He may have trained under lesser known Perugian painters such as Bonfigli and Fiorenzo di Lorenzo.
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Galeazzo Alessi (1512- December 30, 1572) was an Italian architect born and died at Perugia, and trained by Giovan Battista Caporali. He was an enthusiastic student of ancient architecture, and his style gained for him a European reputation.
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