Phototoxin

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Phototoxins are toxins that can cause allergic reactions in particularly susceptible individuals and which can cause dangerous photosensitivity in a much broader range of subjects.

Phototoxins are common in: Ingested medications may cause systemic photosensitivity and topically applied medications, cosmetics and essential oils may lead to local (or perhaps systemic) photosenstivity. Curiously and ironically, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) found in some sunscreens can also cause photosensitivity.

Upon exposure to light, notably light containing ultraviolet radiation, discolouration of the skin (whether as inflammation, lightening or darkening) or rashes may result. In extreme cases, blistering may also occur.

Uses

The marigold plant produces the phototoxin alpha-terthienyl, which functions as a nematicide. When exposed to near ultraviolet light, such as in sunlight, alpha-terthienyl generates the toxic singlet oxygen.[1] Alpha-terthienyl results in damage to the respiratory, digestive and nervous system of larvae, resulting in 100% death rates in concentrations of 33 ppb.[2] This makes it an interesting natural insecticide.

Rose bengal and other singlet oxygen generating phototoxins are also used in synthetic organic chemistry. They have also found use in photodynamic therapy, where the toxin is activated by intense light to destroy cancer cells.

References

1. ^ J. Bakker, F. J. Gommers, I. Nieuwenhuis and H. Wynberg. Photoactivation of the nematicidal compound alpha-terthienyl from roots of marigolds (Tagetes species). A possible singlet oxygen role. JBC, Vol. 254, Issue 6, 1841-1844, Mar, 1979. [1]
2. ^ Manish Nivsarkar, Bapu Cherian and Harish Padh. Alpha-terthienyl: A plant-derived new generation insecticide. Current Science, Vol. 81, No. 6, 25 September 2001. [2]

See also

Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.[1] It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people.
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Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medicolegal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use.
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history of poisons[1] stretches over a period from before 4500 BC to the present day. Poisons have been used for many purposes across the span of human existence as weapons, anti-venoms and medicines.
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poisons are substances that can cause damage, illness, or death to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism.
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A toxicant is a chemical compound that has an effect on organisms. Toxicants are typically introduced into the environment by human activity.The effects depend on the concentration of the compound.
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An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.

Sometimes, the antidote for a particular toxin is manufactured by injecting the toxin into an animal in small doses and the resulting antibodies are extracted from the animals' blood.
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Acceptable Daily Intake or ADI is a measure of the amount of a specific substance (usually a food additive, or a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide) in food or drinking water that can be ingested (orally) over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk.
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Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance which result either from a single exposure[1] or from multiple exposures in a short space of time (usually less than 24 hours).
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Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic substance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost. Thus, the longer the biological half-life of the substance the greater the risk of chronic poisoning, even if environmental levels of the toxin are very
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The fixed-dose procedure (FDP) was proposed in 1984 to assess a substance's acute oral toxicity using fewer animals with less suffering than the older LD50 test developed in 1927.
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A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. Because resistance varies from one individual to another, the 'lethal dose' represents a dose (usually recorded as dose per kilogram of subject body weight) at which a given
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Toxic capacity can mean the toxicity of a substance, possibly in relation to a specific organism and toxic capacity can mean the capacity of an organism, organic system or ecosystem to contain a toxic substance or a selection of toxic substances (a compound) without showing
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Toxicity Class refers to a classification system for pesticides created by a national or international government-related or -sponsored organization. It addresses the acute toxicity of agents such as soil fumigants, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, miticides, molluscicides,
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toxin (Greek: τοξικόν, toxikon, lit. (poison) for use on arrows) is a poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms.
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Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by certain types of animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. Generally, venom is injected while other toxins are absorbed by ingestion or through the skin.
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A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. Many of the venoms and other toxins that organisms use in defense against vertebrates are neurotoxins.
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Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. Necrosis is less orderly than apoptosis, which is part of programmed cell death.
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Hemotoxins, haemotoxins or hematotoxins are toxins that destroy red blood cells (that is, cause hemolysis), disrupt blood clotting, and/or cause organ degeneration and generalized tissue damage.
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Mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης (mykes, mukos) "fungus") is a toxin produced by an organism of the fungus kingdom, which includes mushrooms, molds and yeasts. Most fungi are aerobic (use oxygen).
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Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic.
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Daylight.

Fictional chemical weapons


This is the list of fictional chemical weapons. Fictional chemical weapons are toxins that are used on large scale, by either military, paramilitary or terrorist organizations.
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The Bradford sweets poisoning was the accidental arsenic poisoning of more than 200 people in Bradford, England in 1858; an estimated 20 people died when sweets accidentally made with arsenic were sold from a market stall.
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Minamata disease
Classification & external resources

The crippled hand of a Minamata disease victim (W. E. Smith)
ICD-10 T56.1
ICD-9 985.0

MedlinePlus 001651

Minamata disease
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Niigata Minamata disease
Classification & external resources

The crippled hand of a Minamata disease victim
ICD-10 T56.1
ICD-9 985.0

MedlinePlus 001651

Niigata Minamata disease
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Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. He died three weeks later, becoming the first known victim of lethal polonium-210-induced acute radiation syndrome.
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The Bhopal Disaster took place in the early hours of the morning of December 3 1984,[1] in the heart of the city of Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
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2007 pet food recalls comprise the contamination and wide recall of many brands of cat and dog foods beginning in March 2007 and the ensuing developments involving the human food supply.
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This is a list of poisonings in chronological order of victim. It also includes confirmed attempted and fictional poisonings. Many of the people listed here committed or attempted to commit suicide by poison; others were poisoned by others.
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Lead poisoning
Classification & external resources

ICD-10 T 56.0
ICD-9 984.9

Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism or painter's colic, caused by increased blood lead levels.
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