Primitive communism

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Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original hunter-gatherer society of humanity. Marx and Engels were influenced by the work of the pioneering anthropologist Lewis H. Morgan. Morgan's work is now usually regarded as outdated, and there is no universally accepted description of the way of life of pre-historic humans. However, there are many advocates of the notion of primitive communism, both Marxist and non-Marxist.

It has been suggested that the model of primitive communism may apply to some but not all early human societies because some Hunter gatherer societies may have been able to store food and thus generate surplus and have social stratification as a result. Further, it has been suggested that primitive societies may have contained some, but not all of the features presently associated with the goals of "communism".

In a primitive communist society, all able bodied persons would have engaged in obtaining food, and everyone would share in what was produced by hunting and gathering. There would be almost no property, other than articles of clothing and similar personal items, because primitive society produced almost no surplus; what was produced was quickly consumed. The few things that existed for any length of time (tools, housing) were held communally. There would have been no state.

Domestication of animals and plants following the Neolithic Revolution through herding and agriculture was seen as the turning point from primitive communism to class society as it was followed by private ownership and slavery, with the inequality that it entailed. In addition, parts of the population specialized in different activities, such as manufacturing, culture, philosophy, and science. This stratification is said to lead to the development of social classes.

According to Marxism, society may, if it lasts long enough, develop into communism. Like its primitive ancestor, communism involves public ownership of the means of production, and Marx popularized a famous maxim to illustrate its basic principle: "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs." Communism differs from primitive communism in that production is highly advanced — advanced enough, said Marx, to meet the material needs and wants of practically everyone. According to Marxists, communism has not yet been implemented in any part of the world.

It has been argued that a few isolated peoples still have a primitive communist society. Debates about the nature of such societies tend to rest on whether or not communism is regarded as encompassing the whole life of a community or, alternately, specific activities within that community can be defined as "communist".

Those groups that advocate a return to or are inspired by hunter-gatherer society are associated with the movement of anarcho-primitivism.
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See also Marxian economics, Marxism


Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists.
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Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, leading ideologists of communism, wrote "The [written][1]
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Proletarian internationalism is a Marxist social class theory whose concept is that members of the working class should act in solidarity towards world revolution and support working people in other countries, rather than following their respective national governments.
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Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Any political practice or theory that is based on an interpretation of the works of Marx and Engels may be called Marxism; this includes
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Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. Trotsky considered himself an orthodox Marxist and Bolshevik-Leninist, arguing for the establishment of a vanguard party.
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Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the Communist Left, which opposes the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position that is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views of Leninism held by the Communist
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Council communism is a radical left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. Its primary organization was the Communist Workers Party of Germany (KAPD).
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Anarchist communism advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations, workers' councils and/or commons through which everyone will be free to satisfy their needs.
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Fourth International (FI) is a communist international organisation working in opposition to both capitalism and Stalinism. Consisting of followers of Leon Trotsky, it has striven for an eventual victory of the working class to bring about socialism.
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Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820 – August 5, 1895) was a German social scientist and philosopher, who developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848).
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Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов
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Leon Trotsky (Russian: Лeв Давидович Трóцкий  ,
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Rosa Luxemburg (Pol: Róża Luksemburg) (March 5, 1870/71 – January 15, 1919, was a Polish Marxist theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary for the Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland, the German SPD, and the Independent Social
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Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი,
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Mao Zedong pronunciation   (Simplified Chinese: 毛泽东; Traditional Chinese: 毛澤東; Pinyin: Máo Zédōng; Wade-giles:
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Anarchism (from Greek αναρχία , "without archons," "without rulers")[1] is a political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which reject compulsory government[2] and support its elimination,[3]
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Anti-capitalism describes a wide variety of movements, ideologies, and attitudes which oppose capitalism. Some of these oppose each other more than they oppose capitalism. Anti-capitalists, in the strict sense of the word, are those who wish to completely replace capitalism with
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Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. Historically, the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and their supporters, but, since the mid-19th century, the dominant school of communism in the world has been Marxism.
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communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, or as a popular movement, see the communism article.


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