# promotion (chess)

## Information about promotion (chess)

This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves.
Promotion is a chess term describing the transformation of a pawn that reaches the eighth rank into the player's choice of a queen, knight, bishop, or rook of the same color. Promotions to king are also possible in some chess variants, such as suicide chess. In some fairy chess variants, promotions to pieces of the opposite color are also possible.
Chessboard with extra black and white queen for promotion at 35th Chess Olympiad
Promotion to a queen is often referred to as queening. Since the queen is the most powerful piece, the vast majority of promotions in practical play are to a queen. A promotion to a piece other than the queen is called underpromotion, and occurs more often in chess problems than in practical play. A promotion to knight is occasionally useful, particularly if it occurs with check. A promotion to a rook is, on rare occasions, necessary in order to avoid stalemate. Promotion to a bishop almost never occurs in practical play (about one game in 33,000). (See here for examples of underpromotions to rook and bishop made in order to avoid stalemate.)

In the 2006 ChessBase database of 3,200,000 games (largely grandmaster- and master-level), about 1.5% of the games contain a promotion. In these games (counting games in which multiple promotions by the same player to the same piece occur only once), the fraction of times each piece was promoted to is approximately:
• queen - 96.9%
• knight - 1.8%
• rook - 1.1%
• bishop - 0.2%
The promotion is not limited to pieces that have been captured. Some finer chess sets (see Chess piece) come with an extra queen of each color to use for promoted pawns. If no queen is available, an upside-down rook is often used to designate a queen, although this can lead to disqualification in an official tournament.

## Strategy

The ability to promote is often the critical factor in endgames and thus is an important consideration in opening and middlegame strategy. Almost all promotions occur in the endgame, but promotion in the middlegame does happen.

Promotion occasionally occurs even in the opening, often after one side makes a blunder, as in the Lasker trap, which features an underpromotion to a knight on move seven. Schlechter-Perlis, 1911 could have featured a promotion to queen on move 11: 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.e3 Bf5 5.Qb3 Qb6 6.cxd5 Qxb3 7.axb3 Bxb1? 8.dxc6! Be4?? (Perlis avoided the trap with 8...Nc6!, losing more slowly) 9.Rxa7! Rxa7 10.c7 threatening both 11.cxb8(Q) and 11.c8(Q). The British grandmaster Joe Gallagher pulled off a similar idea a half-move earlier in Terentiev-Gallagher, Liechtenstein Open 1990: 1.d4 Nf6 2.Bg5 Ne4 3.Bf4 c5 4.c3 Qb6 5.Qb3 cxd4 6.Qxb6 axb6 7.Bxb8? dxc3 8.Be5?? Rxa2! and now White could have resigned, since if 9.Rxa2, c2 promotes. Another example occurs after 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dex4 4.Nxe4 Nf6 5.Ng3 h5 6.Bg5? h4 7.Bxf6?? hxg3 8.Be5 Rxh2! 9.Rxh2 Qa5+! 10.c3 Qxe5+! 11.dxe5 gxh2, with the dual threat of 12...hxg1(Q) and 12...h1(Q).

P. Short-Daly, Irish championship 2006, position after White's 10th move.

There are also a few opening lines where each side gets a "desperado pawn" that goes on a capturing spree, resulting in each side queening a pawn in the opening. An example is seen in the position at left, where play continued 10...bxc3 11.exf6 cxb2 12.fxg7 bxa1(Q) 13.gxh8(Q).

Both players promoted by White's seventh move in Casper-Heckert: 1.e4 Nf6 2.Nc3 d5 3.e5 d4 4.exf6 dxc3 5.d4 cxb2 6.fxg7 bxa1(Q) 7.gxh8(Q).[1]

## References

• Golombek, Harry (1977), Golombek's Encyclopedia of Chess, Crown Publishing, ISBN 0-517-53146-1
• Hooper, David & Kenneth Whyld (1992), The Oxford Companion to Chess (second ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-866164-9
Algebraic chess notation is used to record and describe the moves in a game of chess. It is now standard among all chess organizations and most books, magazines, and newspapers.
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Chess is a recreational and competitive game for two players. Sometimes called Western Chess or International Chess to distinguish it from its predecessors and other chess variants, the current form of the game emerged in Southern Europe in the second half of the 15th
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pawn (♙♟) is the weakest and most numerous piece in the game of chess, representing infantry, or more particularly armed peasants or pikemen.
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queen (♕ ♛) or archaically known as the minister is the most powerful piece in the game of chess. Each player starts the game with one queen, placed in the middle of their first rank next to their king.
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knight (♘ ♞, colloquially, horse) is a piece in the game of chess, representing a knight (armoured cavalry). It is often represented by a horse's head.

Each player starts with two knights, which start on the rank closest to the player.
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bishop (♗ ♝) is a piece in the board game of chess. Each player begins the game with two bishops. One starts between the king's knight and the king, the other between the queen's knight and the queen.
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rook (♖ ♜,borrowed from Persian رخ rokh, Sanskrit roth, "chariot") is a piece in the strategy board game of chess. Each player starts with two rooks, one in each of the corners nearest their own side.
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King (♔ ♚) is the most important piece. The object of the game is to capture the opponent's king. If a player's king is threatened with capture, it is said to be in check, and the player must move so as to remove the threat of capture.
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A chess variant is a game derived from, related to or similar to chess in at least one respect.[1] The difference from chess can include one or more of the following:

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Antichess, also called losing chess, loser's chess, zero chess, giveaway chess, or suicide chess, is a chess variant in which the objective of the participants is to get all of their pieces captured.
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Fairy chess is a term in a chess problem which expands classical (also called orthodox) chess problems which are not direct mates. The term was introduced before the First World War.
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underpromotion is promotion of a pawn that has reached the eighth rank to any piece other than a queen; that is a rook, a bishop or a knight. It is uncommon, since the queen is the most powerful piece, but can be advantageous in specific situations.
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chess problem, also called a chess composition, is a puzzle set by somebody using chess pieces on a chess board, that presents the solver with a particular task to be achieved.
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Stalemate is a situation in chess where the player whose turn it is to move has no legal moves but is not in check. Stalemate ends the game, with the result a draw. Stalemate is often sought after during the endgame by a player with vastly outnumbered pieces to avoid an outright
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ChessBase is a company that markets chess software, maintains a chess news site, and operates a server for online chess. It is a leading company in the transformation of chess study along with its leading commercial database competitor, Convekta (Chess Assistant), and the
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The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from "World Champion", Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain.
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The title International Master is awarded to outstanding chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. The title is open to both men and women. Instituted in 1950, it is a lifetime title, in chess literature usually abbreviated as IM.
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Chess pieces vary in both value and abilities. A standard chess match consists of each player having the follow equipment:
• 1 King
• 1 Queen
• 2 Rooks
• 2 Bishops
• 2 Knights
• 8 Pawns

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rook (♖ ♜,borrowed from Persian رخ rokh, Sanskrit roth, "chariot") is a piece in the strategy board game of chess. Each player starts with two rooks, one in each of the corners nearest their own side.
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Endgame is the name of a 1997 story arc of the Sonic the Hedgehog comic book published by published by Archie Comics. It officially encompasses issues 47 through 50, although Sonic VS Knuckles: Battle Royale directly leads up to the events.
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chess opening is the group of initial moves of a chess game (the opening moves). Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings as initiated by White or defenses, as created in reply by Black.
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middlegame in chess refers to the portion of the game that happens immediately after the opening (usually the first move after the procession of moves that make up a standard opening) and blends somewhat with the endgame, usually when queens are traded.
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A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often "winning". Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed.
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Lasker Trap is a chess opening trap in the Albin Countergambit, named after Emanuel Lasker, although it was first noted by Serafino Dubois [1]. It is unusual in that it features an underpromotion as early as the 7th move.
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Carl Schlechter (March 2, 1874 - December 27, 1918) was a leading Austrian chess master at the turn of the 20th century. He is best known for drawing a World Chess Championship match with Emanuel Lasker.

## Early life

Schlechter was born in Vienna.
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20th century - 21st century
1880s  1890s  1900s  - 1910s -  1920s  1930s  1940s
1908 1909 1910 - 1911 - 1912 1913 1914

Year 1911 (MCMXI
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The title Grandmaster is awarded to world-class chess masters by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from "World Champion", Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain.
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Joseph Gerard Gallagher (born May 4 1964) is a British Chess International Grandmaster and former British Champion, as well as a chess author.

Born to Irish parents Norah and Patrick, Gallagher was the eldest child (his sisters Catherine, Noreen, Pauline and Marie, and
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Motto
"Für Gott, Fürst und Vaterland"
"For God, Prince and Fatherland"
Anthem
Oben am jungen Rhein
"High Above the Young Rhine"

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20th century - 21st century
1960s  1970s  1980s  - 1990s -  2000s  2010s  2020s
1987 1988 1989 - 1990 - 1991 1992 1993

Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar).
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