Proteus (bacterium)

Proteus
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Proteus vulgaris growth in MacConkey agar culture plate

Proteus vulgaris growth in MacConkey agar culture plate
Scientific classification
Domain:Bacteria
Phylum:Proteobacteria
Class:Gamma Proteobacteria
Order:Enterobacteriales
Family:Enterobacteriaceae
Genus:Proteus
Hauser 1885
Species


P. mirabilis
P. morganii
P. penneri
P. rettgeri
P. vulgaris
etc.


Proteus is a genus of Gram-negative Proteobacteria, which includes pathogens responsible for many human urinary tract infections.[1] Proteus'' species do not usually ferment lactose, but have shown to be capable lactose fermenters depending on the species in a TSI test, Triple Sugar Iron. They are oxidase negative, and urease positive; some species are motile.[2]

Pathogenesis

Three species—P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. penneri—are opportunistic human pathogens.

References

1. ^ Guentzel MN (1996). Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter, and Proteus. In: Barron's Medical Microbiology (Barron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
2. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
P. vulgaris

Binomial name
Proteus vulgaris
Hauser 1885

Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped (bacilli) Gram negative bacterium (a chemoheterotroph) that inhabits the intestinal tracts of
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MacConkey (also McConkey) agar is a culture medium designed to grow Gram-negative bacteria and stain them for lactose fermentation. It contains bile salts, crystal violet dye (to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria), neutral red dye (which stains microbes fermenting lactose),
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Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Bacteria

Phyla

Actinobacteria
Aquificae
Chlamydiae
Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi
Chloroflexi
Chrysiogenetes
Cyanobacteria
Deferribacteres
Deinococcus-Thermus
Dictyoglomi
Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria
Firmicutes
Fusobacteria
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Proteobacteria
Stackebrandt et al., 1986

Orders

Alpha Proteobacteria
   Caulobacterales - e.g. Caulobacter
   Parvularculales
   Rhizobiales - e.g.
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Enterobacteriales

Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Rahn, 1937

Genera

See text.
The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella
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Enterobacteriales

Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Rahn, 1937

Genera

See text.
The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella
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P. mirabilis

Binomial name
Proteus mirabilis
Hauser 1885

Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium. It shows swarming, motility, and urease activity. P.
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P. vulgaris

Binomial name
Proteus vulgaris
Hauser 1885

Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped (bacilli) Gram negative bacterium (a chemoheterotroph) that inhabits the intestinal tracts of
..... Click the link for more information.
Gram-negative bacteria are those that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol.[1] Gram-positive bacteria will retain the dark blue dye after an alcohol wash.
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Proteobacteria
Stackebrandt et al., 1986

Orders

Alpha Proteobacteria
   Caulobacterales - e.g. Caulobacter
   Parvularculales
   Rhizobiales - e.g.
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A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host.[1] The term is most often used for agents that disrupt the normal physiology of a multicellular animal or plant.
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Urinary tract infection
Classification & external resources

ICD-10 N 39.0
ICD-9 599.0

DiseasesDB 13657
MedlinePlus 000521
eMedicine emerg/625   emerg/626
MeSH D014552 A urinary tract infection (UTI
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Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Lactose makes up around 2-8% of the solids in milk. The name comes from the Latin word for milk, plus the -ose ending used to name sugars.
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TSI may refer to:
  • "The Spaghetti Incident?", a covers album by Guns N' Roses.
  • Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin
  • Televisione svizzera di lingua italiana
  • Torres Strait Islanders, an Australian indigenous people
  • Torres Strait Islands

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An oxidase is any enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation/reduction reaction involving molecular oxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. In these reactions, oxygen is reduced to water (H2O) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
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Urease (EC 3.5.1.5 ) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia. The reaction occurs as follows:

(NH2)2CO + H2O → CO2 + 2NH3
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Motility is a biological term which refers to the ability to move spontaneously and independently. It can apply to either single-celled or multicellular organisms.

In cellular biology or biomedical engineering, motility often refers to directed cell movement down gradients
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P. vulgaris

Binomial name
Proteus vulgaris
Hauser 1885

Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped (bacilli) Gram negative bacterium (a chemoheterotroph) that inhabits the intestinal tracts of
..... Click the link for more information.
P. mirabilis

Binomial name
Proteus mirabilis
Hauser 1885

Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium. It shows swarming, motility, and urease activity. P.
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Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. They need an "opportunity" to infect a person.
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A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host.[1] The term is most often used for agents that disrupt the normal physiology of a multicellular animal or plant.
..... Click the link for more information.


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