Ptolemais (Cyrenaica)

For other ancient cities of the same name see Ptolemais


Ptolemais or Ptolemaida was one of the ancient capitals of Cyrenaica, located near the modern town of Tolmeitha (Arabic طلميثة) in Libya. It was most probably named after Ptolemy III Euergetes.

The town was most probably founded in 7th or 6th century BC by settlers from Barka. Soon it became one of the founding city-states of the Pentapolis federation. In 331 BC the union was dissolved after all of its towns surrendered to Alexander the Great. After his death the area formed part of the Ptolemaic empire. In early 1st century the region was conquered by Rome and became a separate province.

In 365 a major earthquake struck the region and destroyed all of the five major cities of the area (Cyrene, Apollonia, Arsinoe, Berenice and Barca). Ptolemais survived the tragedy in a relatively good shape and it was there that the most important authorities were moved. It served the role of a capital of Cyrenaica until 428, when it was destroyed by the Vandals. During the reign of Justinian I the city was rebuilt, but it never regained its powers and was again destroyed by the Arabs in 7th century.

Covered with sand, the town's ruins survived in a relatively good shape to our times. West of the city stands a conspicuous and tower-like Hellenistic mausoleum, and there's also a Greek theater cut into the hillside behind the city. It is probably the only well-preserved Roman capital of a province in the world. In 2001 the archaeological mission from the Warsaw University started the excavations there. It is estimated that the town covers 2.5 square kilometers, excluding the city walls and large necropolis surrounding it.

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Coordinates:
Ptolemais is the ancient name for the cities of:
  • Ptolemaida (Greece) - named for the Macedonian Ptolemy who became Ptolemy I Soter
  • Acre (Israel) - named for the Macedonian Ptolemy who became Ptolemy I Soter

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Cyrenaica or Cirenaica (Greek: Κυρηναϊκή, Arabic: برقه, Barqah
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Tolmeitha is a small town in northeastern Libya.
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al-jamāhīriyyatu l-`arabiyyatu l-lībiyyatu š-ša`biyyatu l-ištirākiyyatu l-`uZmà
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Ptolemy III Euergetes, (Greek: Πτολεμαίος Ευεργέτης, reigned 246 BC–222 BC) is sometimes called Ptolemy III Euergetes I.
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The 7th century BC started the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC.

Events



  • 700 BC to 600 BC — Baudhayana Sulbasutra, an orally transmitted Vedic Sanskrit text on altar construction, contains the earliest extant verbal statement of the

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The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC.

Overview

In the Near East, the first half of this century was dominated by the Neo Babylonian or Chaldean
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Barca or Barce (Arabic: برقة) was an ancient Greek colony and later Roman, Byzantine, city in North Africa. It occupied the coastal area of what is modern day Libya.
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A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. Historically, city-states have often been part of larger cultural areas, as in the city-states of ancient Greece (such as Athens, Sparta and Corinth), the Phoenician cities of Canaan (such as
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A pentapolis, from the Greek words penta 'five' and polis 'city(-state)' is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities.

Significant historical cases


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4th century BC - 3rd century BC
360s BC  350s BC  340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC  310s BC  300s BC 
334 BC 333 BC 332 BC - 331 BC - 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC

Politics
State leaders - Sovereign states

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Alexander III, the Great
Basileus of Macedon, Hegemon of the Hellenic League, Shah of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt

Alexander fighting Persian king Darius III. From Alexander Mosaic, from Pompeii, Naples, Museo Archeologico Nazionale.
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The history of Ptolemaic Egypt starts chronologically with the conquest by the king Alexander III of Macedon (Alexander the Great) in 332 BC and ends with the death of the queen Cleopatra of Egypt and the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
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The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period
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The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. This article however is about the latter.
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4th century · 5th century
330s 340s 350s 360s 370s 380s 390s
362 363 364 365 366 367 368
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Cyrene can refer to:
  • Cyrene, a mythological figure;
  • Cyrene, a Greek colony in north Africa (at the present day, Libya);
  • The USS Cyrene (AGP-13), a motor torpedo boat tender;
  • 133 Cyrene, an asteroid;

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Apollonia may be:

People:
  • Saint Apollonia, of Alexandria
  • Apollonia Kotero, musician & actress
Places:
In Albania:
* Apollonia, Illyria


In Bulgaria:

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Arsinoe (Greek: Ἀρσινόη), sometimes spelled Arsinoë, may refer to different things:

Greek mythology

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Benghazi (Arabic بنغازي, transliterated Banġāzī) is the second largest city in Libya and the main city (or capital) of the Cyrenaica region (or ex-Province).
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Barca or Barce (Arabic: برقة) was an ancient Greek colony and later Roman, Byzantine, city in North Africa. It occupied the coastal area of what is modern day Libya.
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5th century · 6th century
390s 400s 410s 420s 430s 440s 450s
425 426 427 428 429 430 431
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Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. The Goth Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths and regent of the Visigoths was allied by marriage with the Vandals, as well as with the Burgundians and the Franks under Clovis I.
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Justinian I
Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire

Justinian depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna
Reign 9 August 527 - 13 or 14 November 565
Full name Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus
Born
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The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era.

Overview

During this century, the Eastern Roman Empire continued suffering setbacks, which increased after the 630s, when the Arab prophet Muhammad militantly
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21st century - 22nd century
1970s  1980s  1990s  - 2000s -  2010s  2020s  2030s
1998 1999 2000 - 2001 - 2002 2003 2004

2001 by topic:
News by month
Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun
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University of Warsaw (Polish: Uniwersytet Warszawski) is the largest university in Poland.

History

1816-31

The Royal University of Warsaw was established in 1816, when the partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the
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1 metre =
SI units
1000 mm 0 cm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 in
The metre or meter[1](symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).
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