Pushkalavati

Pushkalavati is an ancient site situated in Peshawar valley in Sarhad, Pakistan. It is located on the banks of Swat River, near its junction with Kabul River, now it is known as Charsadda. Pushkalavati meaning Lotus City was the capital of ancient kingdom Gandhara from the 6th century BC to 2nd century AD.

The ruins of Pushkalavati consist of many stupas and sites of two old cities.

Bala Hisar

This is the oldest settlement of the Pushkalavati occupied from 6th century BC. Ashoka built a stupa there which was described by Xuan Zang when he visited in 630AD, which is still not found. This site was first time excavated in 1902 by Marshal and than by Mortimer Wheeler in 1958.

Shaikhan Dheri

The Bactrian Greeks built a new city at this site which lies one kilometre from Bala Hissar on the other side of the branch of River Jinde. This city was occupied by Parthian, Sakas and Kushans. In 2nd AD, river changed its course and city was flooded. Town moved to the site of modern village of Rajar.

The city was partly excavated by Ahmad Hasan Dani in 1960’s. There are still many mounds at Mir Ziarat, at Rajar and Shahr-i-Napursan which are still unexcavated.

Pushkalavati & Prayag

The city of Pushkalavati was situated at the confluence of Swat and Kabul rivers. Three different branches of Kabul river meet there. That specific place is still called Prang and considered sacred. The local people still bring their dead for burial. Aryan found similar geographical characteristics at the confluence of Ganges and Jumna and founded sacred city by the name of Pryayag near Benares, which is one of the ancient pilgrim centres of India.

Pushkalavati in the Ramayana.

In the concluding portion of the (Ramayana) Uttara or Supplemental Book, the descendants of Rama and his brothers are described as the founders of the great cities and kingdoms which flourished in Western India

Bharata (Ramayana) the brother of Ram had two sons, Taksha and Pushkala. The former founded Taksha-sila or Taxila, to the east of the Indus, and known to Alexander and the Greeks as Taxila. The latter founded Pushkala-vati or Pushkalavati, to the west of the Indus, and known to Alexander and the Greeks as Peukelaotis. Thus the sons of Bharat are said to have founded kingdoms which flourished on either side of the Indus river .

See also

History of Peshawar

Site Map

Peshāwar   (Pashto: پښور; Urdu: پشاور
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For the 1959 British film see Northwest Frontier


The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: shemaal maghribi sarhadi soobe شمال مغربی سرحدی
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Motto
اتحاد، تنظيم، يقين محکم
Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam   (Urdu)
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''For Swat Valley, see Swat (Pakistan).
Swat River (Urdu: دریائے سوات) flows from Hindukush Mountains through Kalam valley and merges into Kabul River in peshawer valley Sarhad, Pakistan.
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Kabul River or Kabal River (Persian: دریای کابل) is a river that rises in the Sanglakh Range of Afghanistan, separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass.
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Charsadda (Urdu: چارسڈّہ) is a a town in Charsadda District, in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. It is located 29 kilometers from Peshawar.
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Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार Urdu: گندھارا Gandḥārā; literally meaning "perfumed"; also known as Waihind in Persian)[1]
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Ashoka the Great
Mauryan emperor

Modern reconstruction of Ashoka's portrait.
Reign 273 BC-232 BC
Full name Ashoka Maurya
Predecessor Bindusara
Emperor Mahindra
Successor Dasaratha Maurya
Consort
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This page contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
See also: Xuanzang (fictional character)

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Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler CH, CIE, MC, FBA, FSA (September 10, 1890 Glasgow – July 22, 1976 London), was one of the best-known British archaeologists of the twentieth century.
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The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising today's northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE.
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Bala Hissar is an ancient fortress located in the city of Kabul, Afghanistan. The estimated date of construction is around the 5th Century B.C. Bala Hissar sits to the south of the modern city centre at the tail end of the Kuh-e-Sherdarwaza Mountain.
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Parthian may refer to:
  • Parthia
  • Parthian language
  • Parthian shot
  • Indo-Parthian Kingdom
  • Seven Parthian clans
  • Parthian class submarine

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Sakas were the Scythians who lived in the eastern part of Central Asia. They are considered to be of north-eastern Iranian people by modern scholars.[1][2][3]
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See Kushan (Homeworld) for the "Homeworld" exiles.
The Kushan Empire (c. 1st–3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105–250, stretched from what is now Tajikistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and down into the Ganges river valley in
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RAJAR (Radio Joint Audience Research Limited) was established in 1992 to operate a single audience measurement system for the radio industry in the United Kingdom. RAJAR is jointly owned by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the RadioCentre (Commercial Radio's trade
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Ahmad Hasan Dani
Born May 20 1920 (1920--) (age 87)

Residence Islamabad
Nationality Pakistani
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Ziarat is a town in Ziarat District, Pakistan. It is a famous holiday resort of Balochistan and nearly every trip from Karachi to Quetta stops at Ziarat. Ziarat ("a Mahommedan shrine"), was the summer residence of the chief commissioner of Baluchistan, and sanatorium for the
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''For Swat Valley, see Swat (Pakistan).
Swat River (Urdu: دریائے سوات) flows from Hindukush Mountains through Kalam valley and merges into Kabul River in peshawer valley Sarhad, Pakistan.
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Hindu scriptures

Vedas
Rigveda · Yajurveda
Samaveda · Atharvaveda
Vedic divisions
Samhita · Brahmana
Aranyaka  · Upanishad

Upanishad
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Rama (rāma in IAST, राम in Devanāgarī) or
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In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Bharata (Sanskrit: भरत, IAST Bharata) was the second brother of the main protagonist Lord Rama, and the son of Emperor Dasaratha and Kaikeyi of the Solar Dynasty.
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State Party  Pakistan
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, vi
Reference 139
Region Asia-Pacific

Inscription History
Inscription 1980  (4th Session)
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Indus
Sindh, Sindhu, Hindu, Abasin, Sengge Chu
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The known history of Peshawar, a region of modern-day Pakistan, covers thousands of years. The region was dominated by various tribal groups of Indo-Iranian origin and a variety of other groups, possibly of Elamo-Dravidian origin, maybe prior to invasion of Aryan tribes and their
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