Rabun County, Georgia

Rabun County, Georgia
Map
Enlarge picture
Map of Georgia highlighting Rabun County

Location in the state of Georgia

Georgia's location in the USA
Statistics
Founded1819
SeatClayton
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

377 sq mi (976 km)
371 sq mi (961 km)
6 sq mi (15 km), 1.58%
Population
 - (2000)
 - Density

15,050
16/km 
Website: www.rabuncountygov.com/
Rabun County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2000 census, the population is 15,050. The 2005 Census Estimate shows a population of 16,087.[1] The county seat is Clayton, Georgia.GR6 With an average annual rainfall of over 70 inches, Rabun County has the title of the rainiest county in Georgia and one of the rainiest counties east of the Mississippi River.[2]

History

As early as 1760, explorers came to the area now known as Rabun County. In the 1700s, the population of Cherokee in the area was so heavy in the area that this portion of the Appalachian Mountains were sometimes called the "Cherokee Mountains." The early explorers and settlers divided the Cherokee people into three divisions depending on location and dialect, the Lower, Middle, and Over-the-Hill. There were at least four Cherokee settlements in what would later become Rabun County. A Middle settlement called Stikayi (Stiyaki, Sticoa, Stekoa) was located on Stekoa Creek, probably southeast of the present-day Clayton. An Over-the-Hill settlement called Tallulah was located on the upper portion of the Tallulah River. There were also two Cherokee settlements of unknown division, Chicherohe (Chechero), which was destroyed during the American Revolutionary War, located along Warwoman Creek, east of Clayton, and Eastertoy (Eastatowth, Estatowee) which was located near the present-day Dillard.

Despite the prominence of the Cherokee, there is evidence that other Native Americans were in the region before them. A mound similar to others across North Georgia (including the famous Etowah Indian Mounds) is located about one mile east of Dillard, Georgia and is likely a remnant of an earlier mound-building Native American culture known as the Mississippian culture.[3] The mound location is listed on the National Register of Historical Places as the Hoojah Branch Site.

Enlarge picture
Portrait of William Bartram by Peale
Explorer and naturalist William Bartram was one of the early visitors to Rabun County. According to his journal entries for May, 1775, Bartram crossed the Chattooga River into Georgia near its confluence with Warwoman Creek. He later went through a junction of Cherokee trails called Dividings (which would later become Clayton), and then traveled north to an area called Passover (which would later became Mountain City). During his visit to the area, he also climbed Rabun Bald. His travels in Rabun County are memorialized today by the Georgia portion of the hiking trail known as the Bartram Trail.

John Dillard and his family were among the first documented settlers in the area in 1794 as a result of a land grant for his service in the American Revolution. The settlers were initially tolerated, but tensions increased as displaced Cherokees moved in from other areas. Eventually, the white settlers were viewed as invaders who did not respect nature and killed the game and, as a result, raids between the clashing cultures became commonplace. For the most part, the hostilities ended a few years before the Cherokee ceded the land to Georgia in 1817.

The Georgia General Assembly passed an act to create the county in December 21, 1819 becoming Georgia’s forty-seventh county. The northern border of the county was established as latitude 35°N, which is the boundary between Georgia and North Carolina. The county is named for William Rabun, who served as the 11th Governor of Georgia from his election in 1817 until his death in 1819. In 1828, the Georgia General Assembly transferred a portion of Habersham County to Rabun County. In 1838, the legislature redefined the Rabun-Habersham county line. In 1856, the legislature used portions of Rabun and Union Counties to create Towns County.[4]

During the Civil War, Rabun County was one of only five Georgia counties that did not secede from the Union.[5] Although the county was largely untouched by the Civil War, the area did border on anarchy during that time. Despite its failure to secede from the Union, Rabun County did field two regiments for the Confederate cause: Rabun 24th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company E, Rabun Gap Riflemen; and Rabun 52nd Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company F, Beauregard Braves.

In 1898, the Tallulah Falls Railway on a north/south track through the county. One of the most popular stops along the railway was Tallulah Gorge. The Railway was in operation for more than 60 years and was featured in the Disney movie, ''The Great Locomotive Chase.

Starting in the 1920s, many of the improvements in the county can be attributed to the establishment, growth and expansion of the Chattahoochee National Forest in the county. One of the key figures in the establishment and growth of the Chattahoochee National Forest was "Ranger Nick" Nicholson, Georgia's first forest ranger. Among other things, Ranger Nick was responsible for arranging for telephone lines to be run from Clayton, Georgia to the Pine Mountain community in the eastern part of the county.

Law and government

The county is governed by a five member Board of Commissioners.

Geography

Enlarge picture
1834 map showing Rabun County
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 976 km² (377 mi²). 961 km² (371 mi²) of it is land and 15 km² (6 mi²) of it (1.58%) is water. Approximately, 60% of the land is in National Forests and State Parks, approximately 20% is held by Georgia Power and the rest is in private hands. With 148,684 acres (601.7 km²) of the Chattahoochee National Forest located within its boundaries, Rabun County hosts the largest portion of the Chattahoochee National Forest of any of the 18 counties with land included in the Forest.

Geographic features

The county's three major lakes were created in the early 20th century by Georgia Power for hydroelectric power generation. The three lakes today provide recreation as well as power generation: Lake Burton covers 11.23 km² (2775 acres or 4.33 mi²) and has 100 km (62 mi) of shoreline, Lake Rabun covers 3.38 km² (835 acres) and has 40 km (25 mi) of shoreline, and Lake Seed covers 0.97 km² (240 acres) and has 21 km (13 mi) of shoreline.[6] The county also boasts a large number of trout streams, including the Tallulah River and its tributaries, the Coleman River and Charlies Creek.

The Eastern Continental Divide runs through the county, roughly from southwest to northeast also representing a portion of the Tennessee Valley Divide. The county's eastern border with South Carolina is formed by the Chattooga River, the largest tributary of the Tugaloo River and then Savannah River (which forms the rest of the border of the two states). The other half is in the watershed of the Little Tennessee River, which flows northward from Clayton. The high elevation along the divide gives Rabun County the most snow of any in county in Georgia. This also gives it mild weather throughout the warmer months of the year, leading to the county's slogan, Where Spring Spends the Summer.

Mountains

Mountains dominate the topogrpahy of Rabun County. The Eastern Continental Divide provides Rabun County with the second and third highest peaks in Georgia: Rabun Bald at 4,696 feet and Dick's Knob at 4,620 feet. The county has eight peaks that are higher than 4,000 feet and over 60 peaks that are between 3,000 and 4,000 feet.
*For more information, see: List of Summits and Ridges in Rabun County, Georgia


Enlarge picture
120-foot Holcomb Creek Falls

Waterfalls

Rabun County has a number of picturesque waterfalls, many of which are easily reached by relatively short trails. Among the favorites of visitors to the county are Dick's Creek Falls, Holcomb Creek Falls and Minnehaha Falls.

Hiking Trails

The county has numerous hiking trails. Most notably, a portion of the Appalachian Trail winds through the county and the county is home to a 37 mile portion of the Bartram Trail.

Major highways

U.S. 23 and U.S. 441 run together, following a north-south route through the county, and U.S. 76 runs east-west. Georgia 246 begins at Dillard and connects to Sky Valley. Georgia 28 runs for an extremely short distance in the northeastern tip, between the Carolinas.

Adjacent counties

Endangered and Threatened Species

Rabun County is home to several endangered and threatened species as reported by the US Fish & Wildlife Service[7] and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.[8]

*See also: List of Species of Special Concern in Rabun County, Georgia


Enlarge picture
The threatened Bog Turtle

Animals

  • The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a threatened species in the US, but is considered to be an endangered species in Georgia.
  • The Bog Turtle (Clemmys muhlenbergii) is considered to be a threatened species in both the US and Georgia.
  • Three fish found in the County still have their status pending on the US endangered species list, but are protected in Georgia: the Fatlips minnow (endangered in Georgia), the Highscale shiner (threatened in Georgia) and the Olive darter (threatened in Georgia).

Plants

There are 15 plants that are protected in Rabun County, including two that are on the Federal endangered species list: Persistent Trillium (Trillium persistens), Rock gnome lichen (Gymnoderma lineare) and Swamp pink (Helonias bullata).

Economy

As of early 2006, the county's two largest employers are textile manufacturers: Rabun Apparel, with over 900 jobs, and National Textiles, with 410.[9] In March 2006, Fruit of the Loom announced it would close the Rabun Apparel plant and lay off all 930 employees. National Textiles has also announced layoffs, but so far, those have only targeted plants in North Carolina and Tennessee.[10]

Demographics

As of the census2 of 2000, there were 15,050 people, 6,279 households, and 4,351 families residing in the county. The population density was 16/km² (41/mi²). There were 10,210 housing units at an average density of 11/km² (28/mi²). The racial makeup of the county was 94.88% White, 0.79% Black or African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.63% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. 4.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 6,279 households out of which 26.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.70% were non-families. 26.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.82.

In the county the population was spread out with 21.80% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 27.70% from 45 to 64, and 18.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $33,899, and the median income for a family was $39,992. Males had a median income of $28,105 versus $21,164 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,608. About 8.10% of families and 11.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.00% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.

Cities and towns

  • Clayton. Incorporated: December 13, 1823; Population 2,019; Total Area: 3.09 square miles.
  • Dillard. Incorporated 1906; Population: 198; Total Area 1.55 square miles.
  • Mountain City: Incorporated: 1907; Population: 829; Total Area: 1.8 square miles.
  • Sky Valley. Incorporated: 1978; Population: 221; Total Area: 3.03 square miles.
  • Tallulah Falls. Incorporated: unknown; Population: 164; Total Area: 8.56 square miles.
  • Tiger. Incorporated: 1904; Population: 316; Total Area: .5 square miles.

In Fiction

Rabun County, Georgia, is one of the battlegrounds where humans fight the alien Posleen invaders in John Ringo's Legacy of the Aldenata series of books.

See also

References

Sources (History)

External links

State of Georgia

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Nickname(s): Peach State, Empire State of the South
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Clayton, Georgia
Location in Rabun County and the state of Georgia
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Georgia
County Rabun
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 - City  3.
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Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to:
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  • 100 ha (hectare)
Conversely:
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Clayton, Georgia
Location in Rabun County and the state of Georgia
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Georgia
County Rabun
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 - City  3.
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Dillard, Georgia
Location in Rabun County and the state of Georgia
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Georgia
County Rabun
Area
 - City  1.
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American Indian and Alaska Native
One race: 2.5 million[1]
In combination with one or more other races: 1.6 million[2]
Regions with significant populations  United States

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Nearest city: Cartersville, GA

Added to NRHP: October 15, 1966

NRHP Reference#: 66000272 [1]

Governing body: State

Etowah Indian Mounds
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Dillard, Georgia
Location in Rabun County and the state of Georgia
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Georgia
County Rabun
Area
 - City  1.
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