Rudd Concession

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Matabeleland, 1887
The Rudd Concession was a written mining concession or agreement that Charles Rudd secured from Lobengula, King of Matabeleland on 13th October 1888. Rudd was a business associate of Cecil John Rhodes and he obtained the concession as his agent.

Rhodes had already tried and failed to get a concession from Lobengula. In 1888 he used the 'imperial factor' to lay the groundwork: a friendship treaty with the British Government, which Rhodes instigated by using John Moffat, son of the missionary Robert Moffat who was trusted by Lobengula, to persuade the latter to sign the treaty and to look favourably on Rhodes' subsequent mining concession proposals.

Rhodes and Rudd also used deceit, assuring Lobengula that no more than ten white men would mine in Matabeleland, but this was left out of the actual document Lobengula signed. Furthermore it stated that the mining companies could do anything necessary to their operations. In the months of negotiations, Rhodes also used Dr Leander Starr Jameson, who Lobengula regarded as his friend having previously treated him for gout, to help sway him.

When Lobengula discovered later what the Rudd Concession really meant, he tried to renounce it, but the British Government ignored him.[] The concession effectively gave Rhodes and his partners in the subsequently-formed British South Africa Company (BSAC) free rein over the minerals of Matabeleland and its subject territory, Mashonaland. These territories formed the bulk of Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe.

But that was still in the future. Meanwhile, armed with the Concession, in 1889 Rhodes obtained a charter from the British Government in London for the BSAC to rule, police and make new treaties and concessions from the Limpopo River to the great lakes of Central Africa. He convinced London that Lobengula's tributary state of Mashonaland, which had a few ancient gold mines, would be a new Rand gold mining area, and would pay for the administration as well as bringing trade benefits to Britain.

In 1890 Rhodes therefore sent the Pioneer Column of white settlers protected by well-armed British South Africa Police (BSAP), the BSAC's own paramilitary force, to Mashonaland, using the Rudd Concession as the justification. Rhodes then cynically declared that Lobengula had never really conquered the Mashona and it was independent of Matabeleland, thus exploiting tribal rivalries to cement the settlers' occupation of the land. Once the BSAC had consolidated their base in Mashonaland, they provoked Lobengula into a war in which he would be defeated by superior arms. He remarked that 'England' was like a chameleon that stalks a fly; and he was the fly.

It turned out that the Rudd Concession was not so valuable in mining terms, as the gold deposits were much scantier than those of the Witwatersrand in South Africa and the mineral resources of the country were scattered in smaller deposits. The farmland taken by settlers was valuable, and after putting down two more uprisings, the mines in Southern Rhodesia and South Africa had a ready supply of cheap labour from people displaced from their land. Not surprisingly some in London thought that this might have been Rhodes' plan all along.

See also

References

  • Neil Parsons: "A New History of Southern Africa, Second Edition." Macmillan, London (1993), pp 179-181.
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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein, or (coal) seam.
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A concession is a business operated under a contract or license associated with a degree of exclusivity in business within a certain geographical area. For example, sports arenas or public parks may have concession stands.
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Charles Dunell Rudd (Oct 22 1844, Hanworth, Norfolk - Nov 15 1916, London) was the main business associate of Cecil John Rhodes.

Rudd studied at Trinity College, Cambridge from 1863-5, where he excelled in playing rackets.
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Lobengula Kumalo
King of Matabeleland (also encompassed Mashonaland)

Reign September 1868 - January 1894
Coronation 1869
Born ca. 1845
Matabeleland
Died ca. January 1894
ca.
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Modern day Matabeleland is currently divided into two provinces: Matabeleland North and Matabeleland South. These two provinces are in the west and south-west of Zimbabwe, between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers.
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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5 1853 – March 26 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. He was the founder of the diamond company De Beers, which today markets 60% of the world's rough diamonds and at one time
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Reverend John Smith Moffat (1835 — 1918) was a British missionary and imperial agent in southern Africa, the son of missionary Robert Moffat and brother-in-law of missionary explorer David Livingstone.
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Robert Moffat (born December 21, 1795 in Ormiston, Haddingtonshire; died August 9, 1883 in Leigh near Tunbridge Wells) was a Scottish Congregationalist missionary to Africa.
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The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company Ltd., receiving a royal charter in 1889.
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Mashonaland is a region in northern Zimbabwe. It is the home of the Shona people.

Currently, Mashonaland is divided into three provinces, with a total population of about 3 million:
  • Mashonaland West
  • Mashonaland Central
  • Mashonaland East


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Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated north of the Limpopo River and the Union of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe.

History

Origin as 'Rhodesia'


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Motto
"Unity, Freedom, Work"
Anthem
Simudzai Mureza wedu WeZimbabwe   (Shona)
Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe   (Ndebele)
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For other uses of charter, see Charter (disambiguation).


A charter is a document bestowing certain rights on a town, city, university, land or institution; sometimes used as a loan of money.
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Mouth Indian Ocean
Basin countries South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique
Length 1,600 km (1,100 mi)

Basin area 413,000 km²

The Limpopo River
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The term tributary state refers to one of the two main ways in which a pre-modern state might be subordinate to a more powerful neighbour. The heart of the relationship was that the tributary would send a regular token of submission (tribute) to the superior power.
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Mashonaland is a region in northern Zimbabwe. It is the home of the Shona people.

Currently, Mashonaland is divided into three provinces, with a total population of about 3 million:
  • Mashonaland West
  • Mashonaland Central
  • Mashonaland East


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Witwatersrand is a low, sedimentary range of hills, at an elevation of 1700-1800 metres above sea-level, which runs in an east-west direction through Gauteng in South Africa. The word in Afrikaans means "the ridge of white waters".
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The Pioneer Column was a force raised by Cecil Rhodes and his British South Africa Company in 1890 and used in his efforts to annex the territory of Mashonaland, later part of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).
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The British South Africa Police (BSAP) was the police force of the British South Africa Company (BSAC) of Cecil Rhodes which became the national police force of Southern Rhodesia and its successor after 1965, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).
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Shona (IPA: [ʃona]),is the name collectively given to several groups of people in Zimbabwe and western Mozambique.
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British Empire was the largest empire in history and for a substantial time was the foremost global power. It was a product of the European age of discovery, which began with the maritime explorations of the 15th century, that sparked the era of the European colonial empires.
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Chamaeleonidae

Genera

Bradypodion
Calumma
Chamaeleo
Furcifer
Kinyongia
Nadzikambia
Brookesia
Rieppeleon
Rhampholeon
Chameleons (family
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Witwatersrand is a low, sedimentary range of hills, at an elevation of 1700-1800 metres above sea-level, which runs in an east-west direction through Gauteng in South Africa. The word in Afrikaans means "the ridge of white waters".
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Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5 1853 – March 26 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. He was the founder of the diamond company De Beers, which today markets 60% of the world's rough diamonds and at one time
..... Click the link for more information.
Lobengula Kumalo
King of Matabeleland (also encompassed Mashonaland)

Reign September 1868 - January 1894
Coronation 1869
Born ca. 1845
Matabeleland
Died ca. January 1894
ca.
..... Click the link for more information.
Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated north of the Limpopo River and the Union of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe.

History

Origin as 'Rhodesia'


..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Unity, Freedom, Work"
Anthem
Simudzai Mureza wedu WeZimbabwe   (Shona)
Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe   (Ndebele)
..... Click the link for more information.
The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company Ltd., receiving a royal charter in 1889.
..... Click the link for more information.


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