Russian ruble

Russian ruble
российский рубль (Russian)[1]
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5000 rubles
Enlarge picture
1 ruble
5000 rubles1 ruble
ISO 4217 CodeRUB
User(s)Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia
Inflation7%
SourceRosstat, 2007
Subunit
1/100kopeck (копейка[2])
Symbolру?
kopeck (копейка[3])?
PluralThe language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms. See article.
Coins''1, 5, 10, 50 kopecks, 1, 2, 5, 10 rubles
Banknotes''5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000 rubles
Central bankBank of Russia
Websitewww.cbr.ru
PrinterGoznak
Websitewww.goznak.ru
MintMoscow mint and Saint Petersburg Mint
CurrencyCurrency signs
฿Cent • $ • ₡ • ₫ • ƒ • ₲ •
LmPR • руб •
S/.R$$ • ₮ • • • zł •
Former signs
I/.



The ruble or rouble (Russian: рубль rublʹ, plural рубли́ rubli; see note on English spelling and Russian plurals with numbers) is the currency of the Russian Federation and the two self-proclaimed republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Formerly, the ruble was also the currency of the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire prior to their breakups. The ruble is subdivided into 100 kopecks (sometimes transliterated kopeks, or copecks, Russian: копе́йка, plural: копе́йки or копеек). The ISO 4217 code is RUB; the former code, RUR, refers to the Russian ruble prior to the 1998 denomination (1 RUB = 1000 RUR).

Currently there is no official symbol[4] for the ruble, though R[5][6] and руб are currently in use. "РР" (cyrillic for "RR") and an "R" with two horizontal strokes across the top (similar to the Philippine peso sign) have both been put forward[7] as possibilities.

Etymology

Main article: Ruble
According to the most popular version, the word "ruble" is derived from the Russian verb рубить, rubit, meaning to chop. Historically, a "ruble" was a piece of a certain weight chopped off a silver ingot (grivna), hence the name.

Names of different denominations

In the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, several coins had individual names:
  • ¼ kopeck - polushka
  • ½ kopeck - denga or denezhka
  • 2 kopeck - semishnik (mostly obsolete by XX century), dvushka (XX century) or grosh
  • 3 kopeck - altyn (mostly obsolete by the 1960s)
  • 5 kopeck - pyatak
  • 10 kopeck - grivennik
  • 15 kopeck - pyatialtynny (5 altyn; the usage lived longer than altyn)
  • 20 kopeck - dvugrivenny (2 grivenniks)
  • 25 kopeck - polupoltinik (half poltinnik)
  • 50 kopeck - poltina or poltinnik
The amount of 10 rubles (in either bill or coin) is sometimes informally referred to as a chervonets. Historically, it was the name for the first Russian 3-ruble gold coin issued for general circulation in 1701. The current meaning comes from Soviet golden chervonets (советский золотой червонец) issued in 1923 that was equivalent to the pre-revolution 10 gold rubles. All these names are obsolete. The practice of using the old kopeck coin names for amounts in rubles is now not very common. In modern Russian slang only these names are used:
  • 5 rubles - Pyatyorka (пятёрка)
  • 10 rubles - Chirik (чирик) simplified "chervonets", or Desyatka (десятка)
  • 50 rubles - Poltinnik (полтинник), or Poltos (полтос)
  • 100 rubles - Stol'nik (стольник)
  • 500 rubles - Pyatikhatka (пятихатка), originally pyatikatka (пятикатка)
  • 1000 rubles - Shtuka (штука)
The penultimate term derived from "пять кать" (five Catherines). Katya (катя, Catherina) having been a slang name for the 100 ruble note in tsarist Russia, as the note had a picture of Catherine II on it.

History

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1898 Russian Empire one rouble bill, obverse
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1898 Russian Empire one rouble bill, reverse

First ruble, Antiquity - December 31 1921

The ruble has been the Russian unit of currency for about 500 years. From 1710, the ruble was divided into 100 kopecks.

The amount of precious metal in a ruble varied over time. In a 1704 currency reform, Peter I standardized the ruble to 28 grams of silver. While ruble coins were silver, there were higher denominations minted of gold and platinum. By the end of the 18th century, the ruble was set to 4 zolotnik 21 dolya (almost exactly equal to 18 grams) of pure silver or 27 dolya (almost exactly equal to 1.2 grams) of pure gold, with a ratio of 15:1 for the values of the two metals. In 1828, platinum coins were introduced with 1 ruble equal to 77⅔ dolya (3.451 grams).

On December 17, 1885, a new standard was adopted which did not change the silver ruble but reduced the gold content to 1.161 grams, pegging the gold ruble to the French franc at a rate of 1 ruble = 4 francs. This rate was revised in 1897 to 1 ruble = 2⅔ francs (0.774 grams gold).

With the outbreak of the First World War, the gold standard peg was dropped and the ruble fell in value, suffering from hyperinflation in the early 1920s.

Second ruble, January 1 1922 - December 31 1922

In 1922, the first of several redenominations took place, at a rate of 1 "new" ruble for 10,000 "old" rubles. The chervonets (червонец) was also introduced in 1922.

Third ruble, January 1 1923 - March 6 1924

A second redenomination took place in 1923, at a rate of 100 to 1. Again, only paper money was issued. During the lifetime of this currency, the first money of the Soviet Union was issued.

Fourth (Gold) ruble, March 7 1924 - 1947

A third redenomination in 1924 introduced the "gold" ruble at a value of 50,000 rubles of the previous issue. This reform also saw the ruble linked to the chervonets, at a value of 10 rubles. Coins began to be issued again in 1924, whilst paper money was issued in rubles for values below 10 rubles and in chervonets for higher denominations.

Fifth ruble, 1947 - 1961

Following World War II, the Soviet government implemented a confiscatory redenomination of the currency to reduce the amount of money in circulation. This only affected the paper money. Old rubles were revalued at one tenth of their face value.

Sixth ruble, 1961 - December 31 1997

''See Soviet ruble for new currencies of the former Soviet republics.
The 1961 redenomination was a repeat of the 1947 reform, with the same terms applying. The Soviet ruble of 1961 was formally equal to 0.987412 gram of gold, but the exchange for gold was never available to the general public. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the ruble remained the currency of the Russian Federation. New set of banknotes was issued in the name of Bank of Russia in 1993. During the period of high inflation of the early 1990s, the ruble was significantly devalued.

Seventh ruble, January 1 1998 -

1 ruble 1998
ValueEmblem of the Bank of Russia


The ruble was redenominated on January 1, 1998, with one new ruble equalling 1000 old rubles. The redenomination was a purely psychological step that did not solve the fundamental economic problems faced by the Russian economy at the time, and the currency was devalued in August 1998 following the Asian financial crisis. The ruble lost 70% of its value against the U.S. Dollar in the 6 months following this Russian financial crisis.

In November of 2004, the authorities of Dimitrovgrad (Ulyanovsk Oblast) erected a five-meter monument to the ruble.

Coins

First ruble

At the beginning of the 19th century, copper coins were issued for ¼, ½, 1, 2 and 5 kopecks, with silver 5, 10, 25 and 50 kopecks and 1 ruble and gold 5 and 10 rubles, although production of the 10 ruble coin ceased in 1806. Silver 20 kopecks were introduced in 1820, followed by copper 10 kopecks minted between 1830 and 1839, and copper 3 kopecks introduced in 1840. Between 1828 and 1845, platinum 3, 6 and 12 rubles were issued. In 1860, silver 15 kopecks were introduced, due to the use of this denomination (equal to 1 złoty) in Poland, whilst, in 1869, gold 3 rubles were introduced.

See also: Currency of Three

In 1886, a new gold coinage was introduced consisting of 5 and 10 ruble coins. This was followed by another in 1897. In addition to smaller 5 and 10 ruble coins, 7½ and 15 ruble coins were issued for a single year, as these were equal in size to the previous 5 and 10 ruble coins. The gold coinage was suspended in 1911, with the other denominations produced until the First World War.

Fourth, fifth and sixth rubles

The first coinage after Russian civil war was minted in 1921 with silver coins in denominations of 10, 15, 20 and 50 kopecks and 1 ruble. Golden chervonets were minted in 1923. These coins bore the emblem and legends of the RSFSR. In 1924, copper coins were introduced for 1, 2, 3 and 5 kopecks, together with further silver 10, 15 and 20 kopecks, 1 poltinnik (50 kopecks) and 1 ruble. From this issue onwards, the coins were minted in the name of the Soviet Union. Copper ½ kopeck coins were introduced in 1925. The 1 ruble was only issued in 1924 and production of the poltinnik was stopped in 1927, while the ½ kopeck ceased to be minted in 1928. In 1926, aluminium-bronze replaced copper in the 1, 2, 3 and 5 kopecks and, in 1931, the remaining silver coins were replaced with cupro-nickel.

This coinage was unaffected by the redenominations of 1947 and 1961. However, 1961 did see the introduction of new coins, with 1, 2, 3 and 5 kopecks in aluminium-bronze, and 10, 15, 20 and 50 kopecks and 1 ruble in cupro-nickel-zinc.

In 1991, a new coinage was introduced in denominations of 10 and 50 kopecks, 1, 5 and 10 rubles. The 10 kopecks was struck in brass-plated steel, the 50 kopecks, 1 and 5 rubles were in cupro-nickel and the 10 rubles was bimetallic with an aluminium-bronze centre and a cupro-nickel-zinc ring.

After the end of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation introduced coins in 1992 in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 rubles. The 1 and 5 rubles were minted in brass-clad steel, the 10 and 20 rubles in cupro-nickel and the 50 and 100 rubles were bimetallic (aluminium-bronze and cupro-nickel-zinc). In 1993, aluminium-bronze 50 rubles and nickel-brass 100 rubles were issued, and the material of 10 and 20 rubles was changed to nickel-plated steel. In 1995 the material of 50 rubles was changed to brass-plated steel, but the coins were minted with the old date 1993.

Regularly issued commemorative one ruble coin during this period is practically identical in size and weight to a 5 Swiss franc coin (worth approx. 3 / US$4). For this reason, there have been several instances of (now worthless) ruble coins being used on a large scale to defraud automated vending machines in Switzerland. [8]

Seventh ruble

In 1998, the following coins were introduced:

Currently Circulating Coins [1]
Value Technical parameters Description Date of first minting
Diameter Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
1 kopeck15.5 mmCupronickel-steel and CupronickelPlainSaint GeorgeValue1997
5 kopecks18.5 mm
10 kopecks17.5 mmBrass 1997-2006, Brass plated steel 2006-Milled for brass and plain for platedSaint GeorgeValue1997
50 kopecks19.5 mm
1 ruble20.5 mm3.25 gCupronickelMilled2-headed eagle emblem of the Bank of RussiaValue1997
2 rubles23 mm5.1~5.2 gBroken reeding
5 rubles25 mm6.45 gCupronickel-copper1997
For table standards, see the coin specification table.


1 and 5 kopecks coins are rarely used (especially 1 kopeck coin) due to their small value and in many cases are not accepted by stores or individuals. In some cases the 10 kopeck coin is also occasionally refused. Note that all these coins began being issued in 1998, despite the fact the some of them bear the year 1997. There are now 10 ruble jubilee and commemorative coins (bimetallic) meant to replace 10 ruble notes.

The Bank of Russia also issues other commemorative coins ranges from 1-10000 rubles. See [2] for listing.

Banknotes

First ruble

Imperial issues

In 1769, state assignats were introduced for 25, 50, 75 and 100 rubles, with 5 and 10 rubles added in 1787 and 200 ruble in 1819. The value of the assignats fell relative to the coins until, in 1839, the relationship was fixed at 1 coin ruble = 3½ assignat rubles.

In 1840, the State Commercial Bank issued 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles notes, followed by 50 ruble credit notes of the Custody Treasury and State Loan Bank. In 1843, state credit notes were introduced in denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles. These circulated, in various types, until the revolution, with 500 rubles notes added in 1898 and 250 and 1000 rubles notes added in 1917.

In 1915, two kinds of small change notes were issued. One, issued by the Treasury, consisted of regular style (if small) notes for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 50 kopecks. The other consisted of the designs of stamps printed onto card with text and the imperial eagle printed on the reverse. These were in denominations of 1, 2, 3, 10, 15 and 20 kopecks.

Provisional Government issues

In 1917, the Provisional Government issued treasury notes for 20 and 40 rubles. These notes are known as "Kerenki" or "Kerensky rubles". The provisional government also had 25 and 100 rubles state credit notes printed in the U.S.A. but most were not issued.

RSFSR issues

In 1918, state credit notes were introduced by the R.S.F.S.R. for 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 rubles. These were followed in 1919 by currency notes for 1, 2, 3, 15, 20, 60, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 rubles. In 1921, currency note denominations of 5, 50, 25,000, 50,000, 100,000, 1 million, 5 million and 10 million rubles were added.

Second ruble

Only state currency notes were issued for this currency, in denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 rubles.

Third ruble

As with the previous currency, only state currency notes were issued, in denominations of 50 kopecks, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 rubles. In early 1924, just before the next redenomination, the first paper money was issued in the name of the USSR, featuring the state emblem with 6 bands around the wheat, representing the language of the then 4 constituent republics of the Union: Russian SFSR, Transcaucasian SFSR (Azerbaijani, Armenian, and Georgian), Ukrainian SSR and Byelorussian SSR. They were dated 1923 and were in denominations of 10,000, 15,000, and 25,000 rubles.

Fourth ruble

In 1924, state currency notes were introduced for 1, 3 and 5 gold rubles (рубль золотом). These circulated alongside the chervonets notes introduced in 1922 by the State Bank in denominations of 1, 3, 5 10 and 25 chervonets. State Treasury notes replaced the state currency notes after 1928. In 1938, new notes were issued for 1, 3 and 5 rubles, dropping the word "gold".

Fifth ruble

In 1947, State Treasury notes were introduced for 1, 3 and 5 rubles, along with State Bank notes for 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles.

Sixth ruble

In 1961, new State Treasury notes were introduced for 1, 3 and 5 rubles, along with new State Bank notes for 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles. In 1991, the State Bank took over production of 1, 3 and 5 ruble notes and also introduced 100, 200 and 500 ruble notes, although the 25 ruble note was no longer issued.

In 1992, a final issue of notes was made bearing the name of the U.S.S.R. before the Russian Federation introduced notes for 5000 and 10,000 rubles. These were followed by 50,000 and 100,000 ruble notes in 1993 and 500,000 rubles in 1995.

Since the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russian ruble banknotes and coins have been notable for their lack of portraits, which traditionally were included under both the Tsarist and Communist regimes. With the issue of the 500 ruble note depicting a statue of Peter I, and then the 1000 ruble note depicting a statue of Yaroslav the lack of recognizable faces on the currency has been partially alleviated.

Banknote Series of the Sixth Ruble
Series Value Obverse Reverse Issuer Languages
19611, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 rublesLenin or views of the KremlinValue, and views of the Kremlin for 50 rubles or higherUSSR15
19911, 3, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 rublesRussian3
199250, 200, 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000 rublesUSSR for 1000 rubles and lower
Bank of Russia for 5000 and 10,000 rubles
Russian
1993100, 200, 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000, 50,000 rublesKremlin with the tri-color Russian flagBank of Russia
19951000, 5000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 500,000 rublesSame design as today's banknotes, where 1 new ruble = 1000 old rubles. See below.4, 5


The 1000 ruble note did not continue as a 1 new ruble note.

Seventh ruble

In 1998, the following banknotes were introduced:
1997 Series [3]
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark printing issue
5 rubles1137 × 61 mmGreenThe Millennium of Russia monument on background of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Velikiy NovgorodFortress wall of the Novgorod Kremlin"5", Saint Sophia Cathedral in Velikiy Novgorod1997January 1, 1998
10 rubles2150 × 65 mmDark-green and dark-brownBridge across Yenisei River in Krasnoyarsk, ChapelKrasnoyarsk hydroelectric plant"10", ChapelJanuary 1, 1998
20013, 20044
50 rublesBlueSculpture at the foot of the Rostral Column on background of Petropavlosk Fortress in Saint PetersburgFormer stock exchange building"50", Peter and Paul Cathedral
100 rublesBrown-greenSculpture on the portico of the Bolshoi Theatre in MoscowThe Bolshoi Theatre"100", The Bolshoi Theatre
500 rublesViolet-blueMonument to Peter the Great, sailing ship and sea terminal in ArkhangelskSolovetsky Monastery"500", Peter the Great
1000 rubles157 × 69 mmBlue-greenMonument to Yaroslav I the Wise and chapel of the Yaroslavl kremlinChurch of Precursor in Yaroslavl"1000", Monument to Yaroslav I the Wise2000, 20044
5000 rublesRed-orangeMonument to Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky in KhabarovskKhabarovsk Bridge over the Amur"5000", Head of the monument to Muravyov-AmurskyJune 2006
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre, a standard for world banknotes. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
  1. The 5 ruble note is very rare now, as it is being replaced by a 5 ruble coin. It is now out of print, although it is still a legal tender.
  2. In 2006, it was announced that the 10 ruble note will be gradually phased out and replaced by a 10 ruble coin.
  3. Banknotes of the 2001 revision bear the fine print "модификация 2001г." meaning "modification of year 2001" on the left watermark area.
  4. Banknotes of the 2004 revision also bear the similar fine print. More importantly, new security features have been added, including (but not limited to):
*Moiré pattern: The area appears to be one color from one angle, stripes from another angle.
*'''Wider metallic thread
*Microperforation (100 rubles and above): Denomination numeral formed by dots (small laser perforated holes in the paper)
*Color shifting ink (500 rubles and above): The emblem of the Bank of Russia for 500 rubles, and the city emblem of Yaroslavl for 1000 rubles.


All Russian paper money is currently printed at the state-owned factory Goznak in Moscow, which was organized on June 6, 1919 and has continued to operate ever since. Coins are minted in Moscow and at the Saint Petersburg Mint, which has been operating since 1724.

Current RUB exchange rates
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See also

References

1. ^ Tatar: сум; Bashkir: һум; Ossetic: сом; Udmurt: манет; Mari: теҥгеYakut: солкуобай
2. ^ Tatar: тиен; Bashkir: тин; Ossetic: капекк; Udmurt: коны; Mari: ыр; Yakut: харчы
3. ^ Tatar: тиен; Bashkir: тин; Ossetic: капекк; Udmurt: коны; Mari: ыр; Yakut: харчы
4. ^ Valeria Korchagina (2006-06-15). 'R' for Ruble Is Symbol of Pride. The Moscow Times. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
5. ^ Currencies of the World. The University of British Columbia Sauder School of Business. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
6. ^ Russia. Lonely Planet. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
7. ^ Peter Finn (2006-06-28). Russians Bet Ruble Will Rise To Status of Dollar, Euro, Yen. The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
8. ^ (German) "Mit alten Rubelmünzen Automaten am Zürcher HB geplündert", Swissinfo, 15 November 2006.2006"> 

External links


ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
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Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation


Capital
(and largest city) Moscow

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აფხაზეთი
Абхазия
Apsny / Apkhazeti / Abhazia

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Anthem
unknown

Capital Tskhinvali

Official languages Ossetian, Russian 1
Government
 -  President Eduard Kokoity
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Inflation is measured as the growth of the money supply in an economy, without a commensurate increase in the supply of goods and services. This results in a rise in the general price level as measured against a standard level of purchasing power.
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A currency sign is a graphic symbol often used as a shorthand for a currency's name. Internationally, ISO 4217 codes are used instead of currency signs, though currency signs may be in common use in their respective countries.
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Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world.

In the English language, singular and plural are the only grammatical numbers.

In English, nouns, pronouns, and demonstratives inflect for plurality.
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Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of
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Economic policy
Monetary policy
Central bank   Money supply
Fiscal policy
Spending   Deficit   Debt
Trade policy
Tariff   Trade agreement

Finance
Financial market
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The Bank of Russia (Russian:Банк России) or the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Russian: Центральный банк
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A printer is a company that provides commercial printing services, often also offering typesetting and book-binding services. The term can also refer to people who operate printing presses, or who run printing companies.
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Goznak (Гознак in Russian, short for Государственный знак
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"Mints" redirects here. For other uses, see Mint (disambiguation).

A mint is a place or facility which manufactures coins for currency.

On the whole, the history of mints correlates very closely with the history of coins.
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Saint Petersburg Mint (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́ргский моне́тный
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A currency sign is a graphic symbol often used as a shorthand for a currency's name. Internationally, ISO 4217 codes are used instead of currency signs, though currency signs may be in common use in their respective countries.
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Thai baht
บาทไทย (Thai)

Baht bills and coins Aluminium satang coins
ISO 4217 Code THB
User(s) Thailand

Inflation 5.
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Ghanaian cedi

50 cedis
ISO 4217 Code GHS
User(s) Ghana

Inflation 10.9%
Source [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2092.html The World Factbook], 2006 est.
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In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries' basic monetary units. The word also refers to the coin which is worth one cent.

In the United States, Canada and Ireland, the 1¢ coin is generally known by the nickname penny
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ellipsis ( , ...
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Former signs
₳ • ₢ • ₰ • ₯ • ₠ • ₣ • ℳ • ₧ • I/.



The florin sign (ƒ
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Lao kip
ກີບ (Lao)

1000 kip issued in 1996
ISO 4217 Code LAK
User(s) Laos

Inflation 5.9%
Source [https://www.cia.
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Former signs
₳ • ₢ • ₰ • ₯ • ₠ • ₣ • ℳ • ₧ • I/.



The pound sign ("" or later more commonly in the UK "£
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Former signs
₳ • ₢ • ₰ • ₯ • ₠ • ₣ • ℳ • ₧ • I/.



The pound sign ("" or later more commonly in the UK "£
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Maltese lira
lira Maltija (Maltese)

Maltese banknotes currently in circulation Maltese coins currently in circulation
ISO 4217 Code MTL
User(s) Malta

Inflation 3.
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The mill or mille(₥) (sometimes mil in the UK, Cyprus and Malta, or when discussing property taxes in the United States) is a now abstract unit of currency used sometimes in accounting.
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Nigerian naira

Front of a 2006 500 naira banknote.
ISO 4217 Code NGN
User(s) Nigeria

Inflation 10.5%
Source [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2092.html The World Factbook], 2006 est.
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Philippine peso
Piso ng Pilipinas (Filipino)

P500 P1
ISO 4217 Code PHP
User(s) Philippines

Inflation 2.
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Botswana pula

Obverse of 2 pula (1980s) Reverse of 2 pula (1980s)
ISO 4217 Code BWP
User(s) Botswana

Inflation 8.5%
Source Bank of Botswana , December 2006
Method CPI

Subunit
1/100 thebe

Symbol P
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South African rand
'''Suid-Afrikaanse rand (Afrikaans) '''

50 rand New 5 rand (2004)
ISO 4217 Code ZAR
User(s) Common Monetary Area: Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland
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