Ruthenia

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Carpatho-Rusyn sub-groups - Sanok area Lemkos in original goral folk-costumes from Mokre (Poland)


Ruthenia is a geographic and culturo-ethnic name applied to the parts of Eastern Europe populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to the past various states that existed in these territories. Essentially, the word is a Latin rendering of the ancient place-name Rus (cf. etymology of Rus and derivatives). Today, the historical territory of Rus, in the broadest sense, is formed with part(s) of the lands of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, a small part of northeastern Slovakia and a narrow strip of eastern Poland.

The term "Ruthenia" may mean significantly different things, depending on to whom the term applies and the when, why, and to which period. It may refer to any of the following entities, appearing in rough chronological order:

Early Middle Ages

Main article: Kievan Rus'


If the name Ruthenia has any connection to the name Rus, it is in the west generally held to derive from the Varangians whom the early Slavic and Finnic tribes called Rus' and this name is derived from the Old Norse root roðs- or roths- referring to the domain of rowing and still existing in the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden, Ruotsi and Rootsi. Later the name came to denote not only the Scandinavian aristocracy in Eastern Europe but also the ethnically mixed population of their domains.

Some modern scholars use the spelling Ruthenia when discussing the Middle Ages in English texts. However, the ancient state of Rus did not have a proper name apart from the phrase zemlya ruskaya, and therefore there were different spellings in different languages.

The term Ruteni first appears in the form rex Rutenorum in the 12th-century Augsburg annals. It was most likely a reflex of the ancient tradition, when the barbaric people were called by the names found in Classical Latin authors, i.e. Danes were called Daci and Germans were called Theutoni. Likewise, the Rus passed by the name of Ruteni, the form being influenced by one of the Gallic tribes mentioned by Julius Caesar.

There is a 12th-century Latin geography from France which says that "Russia is also called Ruthenia, as you may see from the following phrase of Lucan…" The original Latin text: Polonia in uno sui capite contingit Russiam, quae et Ruthenia, de qua Lucanus: Solvuntur flavi longa statione Rutheni. Earlier the Rus had been referred to as Rugi (one of the foremost Gothic tribes) and Rutuli (an Italic tribe mentioned by Virgil in the Aeneid).

By the end of the 12th century, the word Ruthenia was used, among the alternative spelling Ruscia and Russia, in Latin papal documents to denote the lands formerly dominated by Kiev. By the 13th century, the term became the dominant name for Rus' in Latin documents, particularly those written in Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland.

Late Middle Ages

By the 14th century, the state of Rus had disintegrated into loosely united principalities. Vladimir-Suzdal and the Novgorod Republic in the north fell under Mongol influence. Later, one of the daughter-principalities of Vladimir-Suzdal, the Moscow principality (or Muscovy) took control of most of the northern principalities of Rus, and started to use the word, "Rus'," to cover the expanded state. Natives used other forms of the name Rus for their country, and some of these forms also passed into Latin and English.

The territories of Halych-Volynia , Kiev and other in the south were helped out of Mongols in 1320 and united with Catholic Lithuania and Polonia, and therefore were usually denoted by the Latin Ruthenia. However, other spellings were used in Latin, English and other languages during this period as well.

These southern territories have corresponding names in Polish:

Modern age

Belarusians

After World War II, in relation to Belarusians from the so called Kresy region of pre-WWII Poland who found themselves in displaced persons camps in the Western occupation zones of the post-war Germany. At that time the notion of a Belarusian nation met with little recognition in the West. Therefore, to avoid confusion with the term "Russian" and hence "repatriation" to the Soviet Union, the terms White Ruthenian, Whiteruthenian, and Krivian were used. The last of these terms derives from the name of an old Eastern Slavic tribe called the Krivichs, who used to inhabit the territory of Belarus.

Ukrainians

The name "Ruthenia" survived a bit longer as a name for Ukraine. When the Austrian monarchy made Galicia a province in 1772, Habsburg officials realized that the local East Slavic people were distinct from both Poles and Russians. Their own name for themselves, Rusyny, sounded like the German word for Russians, Russen. So the Austrians adopted the designation Ruthenen (Ruthenians), and continued to use it officially until the empire fell apart in 1918.

From 1840 on, nationalists encouraged people to give up the name "Little Rus" for Ukrayina. In the 1880s and 1900s, due to the spread of the name "Ukraine" as a substitute for "Ruthenia" among the Ruthenian/Ukrainian population of the Russian Empire, the name, "Ruthenian" was often restricted to mean western Ukraine, an area then part of the Austro-Hungarian state.

By the early 20th century, the name "Ukraine" had replaced "Ruthenia" in Galicia/Halychyna.

Rusyns

The English term Rusyn is now used for the nationality and language of the descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity.

After 1918, the name "Ruthenia" became narrowed to the area south of the Carpathian mountains in the Kingdom of Hungary, named Carpathian Ruthenia (It incorporated the cities of Mukachevo, Uzhhorod and Prešov) and populated by Carpatho-Ruthenians), a group of East Slavic highlanders. At this time, Galician Ruthenians almost all considered themselves to be Ukrainians, so the Carpatho-Ruthenians were the last East Slavic people that kept the ancient historic name (Ruthen is a Latin deformation of the Slavic rusyn).

Carpatho-Ruthenia has been part of the Hungarian Kingdom since the late eleventh century, where it was known as Kárpátalja. In 1918, was incorporated into Czechoslovakia, with a status of autonomy. After this date, Ruthenian people have been divided among three orientations. First, there were the Russophiles, who saw Ruthenians as part of the Russian nation; second, there were the Ukrainophiles who, like their Galician counterparts across the Carpathian mountains, considered Ruthenians part of the Ukrainian nation; and, lastly, there were Ruthenophiles, who said that Carpatho-Ruthenians were a separate nation, and who wanted to develop a native Rusyn language and culture. In 1939, the Ukrainophile president of Carpatho-Ruthenia, Avhustyn Voloshyn, declared its independence as Carpatho-Ukraine. On 15 March 1939, Hungarian Army regular troops again crossed into Czechoslovakia, now the state of Carpatho-Ukraine. The Hungarian occupation regime was pro-Ruthenophile. In 1944, the Soviet Army occupied Carpatho-Ruthenia, and in 1946, annexed it to the Ukrainian SSR. Officially, there were no Rusyns in the USSR. In fact, Soviet and some modern Ukrainian politicians, as well as Ukrainian government claim that Rusyns are part of the Ukrainian nation. Nowadays the majority of the population in the Zakarpattya oblast of Ukraine consider themselves Ukrainians, however, a small Rusyn minority is still present.

A Rusyn minority also remained after World War II in northeastern Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia). The people of the region rapidly became Slovakicised, because their language is closely related to the Slovak language and because most of them refused to identify themselves as Ukrainians, as the Communist government, after 1953, wished them to do [1].

The name "Ruthenia" became largely identical with Carpathian Ruthenia, that is mostly the westernmost region of present-day Ukraine. It was sometimes referred to as Carpatho-Russia before the fall of the Soviet Union.

Cognate word

The element ruthenium was isolated in 1844 from platinum ore found in the Ural mountains.

External links

References

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Slavic peoples are a branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. Since emerging from their original homeland (most commonly thought to be in Eastern Europe) in the early 6th century, they have inhabited most of
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The word Russia has been used to refer to several Russian states:
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Rus may refer to one of the following:
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Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) referred to the early medieval Rus' Khaganate and Kievan Rus'. The territories of the latter are today distributed among Belarus, northern Ukraine and a part of the European section of the Russian Federation.
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Ще не вмерла України ні слава, ні воля  
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Мы, беларусы   (Belarusian)
My, Belarusy   (transliteration)
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Mazurek Dąbrowskiego   (Polish)
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Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. From the historiographical point of view, Rus' polity is considered a early predecessor of three modern East Slavic
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Varangians or Varyags (Russian, Ukrainian : Варяги, Varyagi) sometimes referred to as Variagians were Scandinavians who migrated eastwards and southwards through what is now Russia and Ukraine mainly in the 9th and 10th centuries.
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Finnic can refer to:
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Finnish ( suomi  , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91.
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(Royal) "För Sverige - I tiden" 1
"For Sweden – With the Times" Â²

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Du gamla, Du fria
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Middle Ages form the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three "ages": the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages and Modern Times.
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Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) referred to the early medieval Rus' Khaganate and Kievan Rus'. The territories of the latter are today distributed among Belarus, northern Ukraine and a part of the European section of the Russian Federation.
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Augsburg
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Annals (Latin Annales, from annus, a year) are a concise form of historical writing which record events chronologically, year by year.

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Latin}}} 
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Dane may refer to:
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Dacians (Lat. Daci, Gr. Dákai) were the ancient inhabitants of Dacia (roughly corresponding to modern Romania and Moldova) and parts of Moesia (mostly in northern Bulgaria) in southeastern Europe.
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Germans (German: Deutsche) are defined as an ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, citizenship, speaking the German language as a mother tongue and being born in Germany.
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Teutons or Teutones (from Proto-Germanic *Þeudanōz) were mentioned as a Germanic tribe in early historical writings by Greek and Roman authors such as Strabo and Velleius.
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Gallic is an adjective that may refer to:
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Gaius Julius Caesar
Dictator of the Roman Republic

Reign October, 49 BC–March 15, 44 BC
Full name Gaius Julius Caesar
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