San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago

San Fernando
Oil Refinery (in distance) at Pointe a Pierre
Motto: Sanitas Fortis
In a Healthy Environment We Will Find Strength.
Coordinates:
Country Trinidad and Tobago
Jurisdiction City of San Fernando
Government
 - Mayor Kenneth Ferguson
Area
 - City 18.64 km  (0 sq mi)
Population (2000 est )
 - City 55,419
 - Density 2970/km (0/sq mi)
 ranked 3rd
Time zone AST (UTC-4)


The City of San Fernando is the larger of the two cities in Trinidad and Tobago, and the second largest municipality. It occupies 18 km² and is located in the southwestern part of the island of Trinidad. It is bounded to the North by the Guaracara River, the south by the Oropouche River, the east by the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway, and the West by the Gulf of Paria. The population was estimated to be 62,000 as of 2002. The former Borough of San Fernando was elevated to the status of a city on November 18, 1988. The motto of San Fernando is: "Sanitas Fortis" - In a Healthy Environment We Will Find Strength.

History

The Amerindians called the area 'Anaparima'. Translation of 'Anaparima' has been translated as either 'Single Hill' or 'Without Water'. A single hill, San Fernando Hill rises from the centre of the city. A town named San Fernando de Naparima was established by Spanish Governor Don José Maria Chacón in 1784, in honour of the heir to Spanish crown. With time, the de Naparima was dropped.

Enlarge picture
San Fernando, High Street, 1890s
Enlarge picture
ASJA Boys' College, Park Street, San Fernando
Enlarge picture
Last Train, Harris Promenade, 2006
Following the 1783 Cedula of Population, many sugar plantations were established in the Naparima Plains surrounding San Fernando. The town grew as this part of the country came to dominate sugar production. This growth continued throughout the nineteenth century as consolidation in the sugar industry led to the construction of what was then the largest sugar refinery in the world, the Usine, Ste. Madeline factory a few miles east of the town. The development of cacao cultivation and the petroleum industry helped San Fernando grow since the town served as the gateway to these areas.

The growth of the town placed severe strains on the supply of water, especially during the dry season. Complaints by the Burgess of the town resulted in numerous reports by geologists and hydrologists throughout the later nineteenth and early twentieth century, but the problem was not solved until the Navet Dam was constructed in the 1930s.

The nearby oil refinery at Pointe-à-Pierre played an important role in San Fernando's development between World War II and the 1980s. The refinery was constructed by Trinidad Leaseholds Limited during World War II, and constituted one of the largest contributions to the war effort by a private company. The 'oil boom' of the 1970s and 80s led to the growth the suburbs of San Fernando, especially Marabella (to the north) and Gasparillo (to the east) of the Pointe-a-Pierre refinery. In 1991 the boundaries of the city were extended, bringing the refinery (the largest in the Caribbean) immediately adjacent to the City's northern boundary.

The extended City now includes the suburbs of Marabella, Bel Air, Gulf View and Cocoyea.

Geography

San Fernando is a coastal town, is located in western Victoria County. The city is bounded by the Guaracara River to the north, the Solomon Hochoy Highway to the east, the Southern Main Road to the southeast, and the Oropouche River to the south. The city proper is located on the flanks of two hills - San Fernando Hill (more correctly, Naparima Hill) and Alexander Hill. Several Mansions on the pinnacle of Alexander Hill house some of the more prominent San Fernando families. The Cipero, Vistabella, Marabella and the Godineau Rivers all enter the sea within the city limits.

Climate

San Fernando has a seasonal tropical climate with a wet season lasting from June to December and a dry season lasting from January to May.

Urban structure

San Fernando can be divided into the main town, which is located on the flanks of San Fernando Hill and the adjacent Alexander Hill, and the newer suburbs to the north, west and south.
  • San Fernando proper, which can be divided into
  • Downtown - between King's Wharf and Library Corner
  • Paradise
  • Les Effort East and Les Effort West
  • Mon Repos
  • The Old Suburbs
  • Vistabella
  • St. Joseph Village
  • Pleasantville
  • Cross Crossing
  • Southern suburbs
  • Cross Crossing, including Green Acres
  • Union Hall Gardens
  • Coconut Drive
  • Gulf View
  • Bel Air
  • Northern suburbs
  • Marabella, including Gopaul Lands
  • Tarouba

Governance

The administration of San Fernando is done by San Fernando City Corporation. It is a corporate body, and the staff is instrumental in the exercise of the powers of the Corporation through the Council. Functions of this Corporation are delegated by the Central Government, and the Corporation itself is within the jurisdiction of the Minister of Local Government.

Local government administration starts in 1845 - when the Town Council was established and the Municipality of San Fernando came into being. Circa 1853, San Fernando was elevated to a Borough; the first Mayor was Dr. Robert Johnstone. From the simple start of a fishing village, San Fernando blossomed financially, and became "the Industrial Capital" of Trinidad and Tobago.

This crest incorporates the City motto, the sea, the hill, a fishing boat, sugar cane stalk, oil tank, house and two discs. The sea and boat represent the beginnings as a fishing village. The sugar cane stalk represents the Sugar industry. The oil tank represents productivity and the oil industry. The house represents shelter for all races. The sun-like disks represent Steelpan and Tassa, as well as togetherness.

During its first year as a city, San Fernando was twinned with the town of Trinite, Martinique. Ties with the French were re-established.

The City of San Fernando is divided into nine electoral districts, each represented by a Councillor. Three appointed Aldermen sit on the Council, which is chaired by the Mayor, currently Kenneth Ferguson.

Economy

San Fernando is known as the Industrial Capital. Its economy is heavily dependent on the oil fields of southern Trinidad and the refinery at Pointe-à-Pierre. San Fernando serves as a shopping centre for much of southern Trinidad.

Education

San Fernando serves as an important educational centre serving the surrounding areas of south Trinidad and attracting students from as far away as Point Fortin, Rio Claro and Couva. Prominent schools in San Fernando include Naparima College, Naparima Girls' High School, Presentation College, St. Joseph's Convent, San Fernando Secondary School, ASJA Boys' College, ASJA Girls' College and Saint Benedict's College.

Culture and entertainment

Scenery/attractions

In terms of scenery, the major attraction is San Fernando Hill. The park at the top of the Hill gives a view of much of western Trinidad. Venezuela, on the South American mainland, is visible on clear days.

Harris Promenade, named after Lord Harris (Governor of Trinidad 1845-1854), houses City Hall, the Magistrates Court, Supreme Court, Police Station, Anglican, Roman Catholic and Methodist churches and two schools, St. Joseph's Convent, San Fernando and St. Gabriel's Girls R.C. School. There is also a bandstand, a statue of Mahatma Gandhi and the famous "last train" engine - the last train that was run in Trinidad. Usually referred to as simply "The Promenade", this area plays an important role in the life of the city. It runs parallel to the main shopping district (High Street), but lacks the busy throngs of people. It also serves as an important Judging Point for the J'ouvert portion of Trinidad and Tobago Carnival. The eastern end of the Promenade is known as Library Corner after the Carnegie Free Library (a gift from Andrew Carnegie) which was opened in 1919. Seven roads meet at Library Corner (including Harris Promenade, High Street, Pointe-a-Pierre Road, La Pique Road, Coffee Street and Mucarapo Street). Although Library Corner was once the transportation hub of San Fernando, this is no longer the case at taxi stands have been moved away from the centre of town in an attempt to relieve congestion. The San Fernando General Hospital is located at the western end of Harris Promenade.

Naparima Bowl is the performing arts centre in San Fernando.

Media

The Trinidad Guardian and Trinidad Express newspapers have regional offices in San Fernando.

Sports

Skinner Park was given to the people of San Fernando for recreational purposes such as football, cricket and other athletic events and training. It is also an important part of Carnival, where historically bands are judged and has been the site of the Semi-Finals of the Calypso Monarch celebrations. In a historical move, the National Steelband Panorama Finals were held here on February 17th, 2007. This was the first time that the event was held somewhere other than the Queen's Park Savannah in Port-of-Spain, as that location was unavailable due to planned construction of a Carnival Complex on its grounds. The role of "The Park" as a sporting venue has largely been supplanted by newer Manny Ramjohn Stadium in Marabella, on the northern end of town and by Guaracara Park in Pointe-à-Pierre.

Utilities

Electric generation is handled by Powergen, while electrical distribution is handled by the Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commission (T&TEC). Powergen has one natural gas fired generation plants at Point Lisas, Penal and Wrightson Road in Port-of-Spain. Additional power can be supplied from power generation facilities controlled by Inncogen at Point Lisas.

Telecommunications are regulated by the Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (TATT). It has been working to de-monopolise the industry, granting several new licenses in 2005. Fixed-line telephone service is a monopoly controlled by Telecommunications Services of Trinidad and Tobago (TSTT). Licenses have been granted for competition in this area, but start-up is a while away. Wireless telephony is currently controlled by TSTT, but licenses have been granted for two private companies, Digicel and Laqtel to offer wireless service in competition with TSTT.

Water and sewerage are under the purview of the Water and Sewerage Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (WASA).

Prominent San Fernandians

Local Government in Trinidad and Tobago
Regional Corporations - Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo - Diego Martin - Penal-Debe - Princes Town - Rio Claro-Mayaro - San Juan-Laventille - Sangre Grande - Siparia - Tunapuna-Piarco
Boroughs and Cities - Borough of Arima - Borough of Chaguanas - City of Port of Spain - Borough of Point Fortin - City of San Fernando
Tobago House of Assembly
Counties (historic) - Caroni - Mayaro - Nariva - Saint Andrew - Saint David - Saint George - Saint Patrick - Victoria
Coat of arms elements
A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization.
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Together we aspire, together we achieve"
Anthem
Forged From The Love of Liberty


Capital Port of Spain

..... Click the link for more information.
Trinidad and Tobago

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Trinidad and Tobago


  • President (List)
  • George Maxwell Richards
  • Prime Minister

..... Click the link for more information.
Trinidad and Tobago

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Trinidad and Tobago


  • President (List)
  • George Maxwell Richards
  • Prime Minister

..... Click the link for more information.
A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "larger", "greater") is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer.

In many systems, the mayor is an elected politician who serves as chief executive and/or ceremonial official of many types of
..... Click the link for more information.
Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object.

Units

Units for measuring surface area include:
square metre = SI derived unit

..... Click the link for more information.
Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to:
  • 1,000,000 m²
  • 100 ha (hectare)
Conversely:
  • 1 m² = 0.

..... Click the link for more information.
square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
..... Click the link for more information.
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular.

Biological population densities


..... Click the link for more information.
List of cities towns and villages in Trinidad and Tobago:

A


Name Location (Regional Corporation) Origin of name
Arima Borough of Arima Amerindian
Arnos Vale Tobago Spanish-inspired
Arouca Tunapuna-Piarco Amerindian (originally Arauca)
..... Click the link for more information.
time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. Most adjacent time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time).
..... Click the link for more information.
The Atlantic Standard Time Zone (AST) is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting four hours from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), resulting in GMT-4. The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 60th degree meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.
..... Click the link for more information.
UTC−4 is the time offset used in the Atlantic Standard Time Zone in Canada in winter and the North American Eastern Time Zone during daylight saving time (DST), as well as other countries.
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Together we aspire, together we achieve"
Anthem
Forged From The Love of Liberty


Capital Port of Spain

..... Click the link for more information.
municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. A municipality is typically governed by a mayor and a city council or municipal council.
..... Click the link for more information.
1 kilometre =
SI units
0 m 0106 mm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 mi
A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer, symbol km
..... Click the link for more information.
Trinidad (Spanish: "Trinity") is the largest and most populous of the 23 islands which make up the country of Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad is the southernmost island in the Caribbean and lies just 11 km (7 miles) off the northeastern coast of Venezuela.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Guaracara River, located in south Trinidad, runs westward out of the Central Range and drains into the Gulf of Paria. It forms the boundary between the city of San Fernando (to the south) and the Couva-Tabaquite-Talparo Regional Corporation.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway is the major north-south highway in Trinidad and Tobago. It connects Chaguanas with San Fernando. It meets the Uriah Butler Highway at Chaguanas.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Gulf of Paria (Golfo de Paria in Spanish) is a 7800 km2 (3000 square mile) shallow inland sea between the island of Trinidad (Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) and the east coast of Venezuela.
..... Click the link for more information.
20th century - 21st century - 22nd century
1970s  1980s  1990s  - 2000s -  2010s  2020s  2030s
1999 2000 2001 - 2002 - 2003 2004 2005

2002 by topic:
News by month
Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun
..... Click the link for more information.
A borough is an administrative division used in various countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing township although, in practice, official use of the term varies widely.
..... Click the link for more information.
November 18 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 326 - The old St. Peter's Basilica is consecrated.

..... Click the link for more information.
19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1950s  1960s  1970s  - 1980s -  1990s  2000s  2010s
1985 1986 1987 - 1988 - 1989 1990 1991

Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII
..... Click the link for more information.
hi Amerindian is an ambiguous term given to people descended primarily from the native inhabitants of the Americas prior to the European colonization (following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492).
..... Click the link for more information.
San Fernando Hill (officially known as Naparima Hill) is a 180-m (600-foot) hill which lies at the centre of the city of San Fernando in Trinidad and Tobago. The hill, an outcrop of limestone is the highest point in the Naparima Plains.
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Plus Ultra"   (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem
"Marcha Real" 1
..... Click the link for more information.
A governor or governour (archaic) is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the Head of state.
..... Click the link for more information.
Don José Maria Chacón (1749–1833) was the last Spanish Governor of Trinidad. He was responsible for signing the Cedula of Population in 1783 (which led to extensive French immigration to Trinidad), moved the capital from San José de Oruña to Puerto de España (Port of
..... Click the link for more information.
Spain

This article is part of the series:
Politics of Spain


  • Constitution
  • 1978 Constitution
  • King
  • Juan Carlos I

..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.