Seattle, Washington

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City of Seattle


Nickname: The Emerald City
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Location of Seattle in
King County and Washington
Location of Seattle in
King County and Washington
Country United States
State Washington
County King
Incorporated December 2 1869
 - Type Mayor-council
 - Mayor Greg Nickels
 - City  142.5 sq mi (369.2 km)
 - Land  83.87 sq mi (217.2 km)
 - Water  58.67 sq mi (152.0 km)
 - Metro  8,186 sq mi (21,202 km)
Elevation  0–520 ft (0–158 m)
Population (July 1 2006) [1][2]
 - City 582,174
 - Density 6,901/sq mi (2665/km)
 - Metro 3,263,497
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
Area code(s) 206
FIPS code 53-63000GR2
GNIS feature ID 1512650GR3
Seattle (IPA: /siːˈæːtəl/) is the largest city in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located in the U.S. state of Washington between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 96 miles (155 km) south of the United States–Canadian border in King County, of which it is the county seat.

Seattle was first settled by Europeans on November 13, 1851, by Arthur A. Denny and his crew, which would subsequently become known as the Denny party. Early settlements in the area were called New York-Alki and Duwamps. In 1853, Doc Maynard suggested that the main settlement be renamed "Seattle," which was an anglicized rendition of the name of Noah Sealth, the collective chief of the two indigenous tribes. As of 2006, the city had an estimated population of 582,174[1] and an estimated metropolitan area population of approximately 3.3 million.[2] Seattle is the hub of the Greater Puget Sound region, which also includes Tacoma, Bellevue, and Everett. Seattle's official nickname is the "Emerald City," the result of a contest held in the early 1980s to designate a new nickname for the city;[3] the reference is to the lush evergreen trees in the surrounding area. It is also referred to informally as the "Gateway to Alaska," "Queen City," and "Jet City," the latter due to the local influence of Boeing. Seattle residents are known as Seattleites.

Seattle is often regarded as the birthplace of grunge music, and has a reputation for heavy coffee consumption;[4] coffee companies founded or based in Seattle include Starbucks,[5] Seattle's Best Coffee,[6] and Tully's. There are also many successful independent artisanal espresso roasters and cafes.[6] Seattle was the site of the 1999 meeting of the World Trade Organization, and the attendant demonstrations by anti-globalization activists. Researchers at Central Connecticut State University ranked Seattle the most literate city in America in 2005.[7] Moreover, analysis conducted in 2004 by the United States Census Bureau of 2002 survey data indicated that Seattle was the most educated city in the U.S. with 48.8 percent of residents 25 and older having at least bachelor degrees.[8] Based on per capita income, in 2006 the Seattle metropolitan area ranked 17th out 363 metropolitan areas in a study by the Census Bureau.[9]


Main article: History of Seattle


What is now Seattle has been inhabited since the end of the last ice age. Archaeological excavations at West Point in Discovery Park, Magnolia, confirm that the Seattle area has been inhabited by humans for at least 4,000 years, and probably much longer.[10] tohl-AHL-too ("herring house") and later hah-AH-poos ("where there are horse clams") at the mouth of the Duwamish River in what is now the Industrial District has been inhabited since the 6th century BC.[11] The Dkhw'Duw'Absh and Xachua'Bsh people (now called the Duwamish Tribe) occupied at least 17 villages in the mid-1850s,[12] living in some 93 permanent longhouses (khwaac'ál'al) along Elliott Bay, Salmon Bay, Portage Bay, Lake Washington, Lake Sammamish, and the lower Duwamish, Black, and Cedar Rivers.[13]

The first whites to attempt settlement in the area were the Collins Party, who filed legal claim to land at the mouth of the Duwamish River on September 14, 1851.[14] Thirteen days later, members of the Collins Party were on the way to their claim when they passed the scouts of the group of settlers that would eventually found Seattle, the Denny Party.[15] The scouts for the Denny Party, Terry Lee, David Denny, and John Low, would lay claim to land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851, with Terry Low returning to Portland, Oregon carrying a message from David Denny telling his brother, Arthur Denny, to "Come at once."[16] Following the instructions of David Denny, the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. The landing party's first sight of their new homestead was the roofless cabin that David had been unable to complete due to a fever.[16]

After spending a winter of frequent rainstorms and high winds on Alki Point, most of the Denny Party moved across Elliott Bay and settled on land where present day Pioneer Square is located and established the village of "Dewamps" or "Duwamps."[16] The only members of the party that did not migrate to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay were Charles Terry and John Low, who remained at the original landing location and established a village they initially called "New York," after Terry's hometown, until April 1853 when they renamed it "Alki," a Chinook word meaning, roughly, by and by or someday.[17] The villages of New York-Alki and Duwamps would compete for dominance in the area for the next few years, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.[18]

David Swinson ("Doc") Maynard, one of the village's founders, was the primary advocate for renaming the village to "Seattle" after Chief Sealth (si'áb Si'ahl) of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.[19] Doc Maynard's advocacy bore fruit, because when the first plats for village were filed on May 23, 1853, it was for the Town of Seattle. In 1855, nominal legal land settlement were established and the city was incorporated in 1865 and again in 1869, after having existed as an unincorporated town from 1867 to 1869.[16][20]

Major events

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Visitors to Kerry Park on Queen Anne Hill can see the Space Needle, the Downtown Seattle skyline, and Mount Rainier (to the right).
Major events in Seattle's history include the Great Seattle Fire of 1889, which destroyed the central business district (but took no lives);[21] the anti-Chinese riots of 1885–1886;[22] the Klondike gold rush, which made Seattle a major transportation center; the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition of 1909, which is largely responsible for the layout of the University of Washington campus;[23] the Seattle General Strike of 1919, the first general strike in the country;[24] the 1962 Century 21 Exposition, a World's Fair;[25] the 1990 Goodwill Games;[26] the APEC leaders conference in 1993, and the WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999, marked by street protests and a series of riots.[27]

Economic history

Seattle has a history of boom and bust cycles, common in cities of its size. Seattle has several times risen as a company town or through economic specialization, then gone into precipitous decline, but it has typically used those periods to successfully rebuild infrastructure.[28]

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The Seattle Central Library, designed by Rem Koolhaas, is the result of a public vote on the "Libraries for All" bond measure approved by Seattle voters on November 3 1998.
The first such boom, covering the early years of the city, was fueled by the lumber industry. (During this period the road now known as Yesler Way was nicknamed "Skid Road"[29] after the timber skidding down the street to Henry Yesler's sawmill. The term later entered the wider American vocabulary as Skid Row.) This boom was followed by the construction of an Olmsted-designed park system.[28]

The second and most dramatic boom was the direct result of the Klondike Gold Rush of 1896, which ended the national depression that had begun with the Panic of 1893. On July 14 1897, the S.S. Portland docked with its famed "ton of gold", and Seattle became the main transport and supply point for those heading north.[30] The boom lasted well into the early part of the 20th century and funded the start-up of many new Seattle companies and products. In 1907, 19-year-old James E. Casey borrowed $100 from a friend and founded the American Messenger Company (later UPS). Other Seattle companies founded during this period include Nordstrom and Eddie Bauer.[31]

Next came the shipbuilding boom in the early part of the 20th century, followed by the unused city development plan of Virgil Bogue. Seattle was the major point of departure during World War II for troops heading to the North Pacific, and Boeing manufactured many of the war's bombers.

The local economy dipped after the war, but rose again with the expansion of Boeing, fueled by the growth of the commercial aviation industry.[32] When this particular cycle went into a major downturn in the late 1960s and early 1970s, many left the area to look for work elsewhere, and two local real estate agents put up a billboard reading "Will the last person leaving Seattle — Turn out the lights."[33]
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Westlake Center, the southern terminus of the Seattle Center Monorail.
Seattle remained the corporate headquarters of Boeing until 2001, when the company announced a desire to separate its headquarters from its major production facilities. Following a bidding war among a number of major cities, Boeing moved its corporate headquarters to Chicago.[34] The Seattle area is still home to Boeing's Renton narrow-body plant (where the 707, 720, 727, and 757 were assembled, and the 737 is assembled today), and Everett wide-body plant (assembly plant for the 747, 767, 777 and the upcoming 787 Dreamliner); and BECU, formerly the Boeing Employees Credit Union.

Next, technology companies, including Microsoft, Google,, RealNetworks, McCaw Cellular (now AT&T Wireless), VoiceStream (now T-Mobile USA), and biomedical corporations such as Philips, Boston Scientific, ZymoGenetics and Amgen, found homes in Seattle and its suburbs. Even locally-headquartered coffee company Starbucks held investments in numerous Internet and software interests. This success brought an influx of new citizens with a population increase within city limits of almost fifty thousand between the 1990 and 2000 Census[35] and saw Seattle's real estate become some of the most expensive in the country,[36] along with that of San Francisco, New York City, Los Angeles, and Boston. Many of these companies remain relatively strong, but the frenzied dot-com boom years ended in early 2001.[37][38]



See also: , , and
Seattle is located between Puget Sound--an inlet of the Pacific Ocean--and Lake Washington. West beyond the Sound are the Kitsap Peninsula and Olympic Mountains; east beyond Lake Washington and the Eastside suburbs are Lake Sammamish and the Cascade Range. The rivers, forests, lakes, and fields were once rich enough to support one of the world's few sedentary (or semi-sedentary) hunter-gatherer societies.[39][40] Opportunities for sailing, skiing, bicycling, camping, and hiking are nearby and accessible almost all the year.

The city itself, somewhat like San Francisco, is hilly, though not uniformly so.[41] Like Rome, the city is said to lie on seven hills; the lists vary, but typically include Capitol Hill, First Hill, West Seattle, Beacon Hill, Queen Anne, and the former Denny Hill. Many of the hilliest areas are near the city center, with Capitol Hill, First Hill, and Beacon Hill collectively constituting something of a ridge along an isthmus between the chief harbor, Elliott Bay (an inlet of Puget Sound) and Lake Washington. The topography of Downtown has been reshaped by , a seawall, and the construction of an artificial island, Harbor Island (completed 1909), at the mouth of the city's industrial Duwamish Waterway.

The man-made Lake Washington Ship Canal incorporates four natural bodies of water: Lake Union, Salmon Bay, Portage Bay, and Union Bay, connecting Puget Sound to Lake Washington.

Seattle is in an earthquake zone and has experienced a number of significant quakes, most recently (as of 2007) the magnitude 6.8 Nisqually Earthquake, February 28, 2001, which did significant architectural damage, especially in the Pioneer Square area (built on landfill, as are the Industrial District and part of Downtown), but caused no fatalities.[42] Other strong quakes occurred on December 14 1872 (estimated at 7.3 or 7.4 magnitude),[42] April 13 1949 (7.1),[44] and April 29, 1965 (6.5).[45] The 1949 quake caused 8 known deaths, all in Seattle;[45] the 1965 quake caused three deaths in Seattle directly, and one more by heart failure.[45] Although the Seattle Fault passes just south of downtown, neither it[46] nor the Cascadia Subduction Zone has caused an earthquake since the city’s founding. The Cascadia subduction zone poses the threat of an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or greater, capable of seriously damaging the city and collapsing many buildings, especially in zones built on fill.[47]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 369.2 km² (142.5 mi²),GR1 217.2 km² (83.9 mi²) of which is land and 152.0 km² (58.7 mi²) water. The total area is 41.16% water.


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Downtown Seattle is bounded by Elliott Bay and the Alaskan Way Viaduct (lower left) and I-5 (from upper left to lower right)
Seattle's mild climate is usually classified as Marine west coast (Cfb).[48] However, its wet-winter dry-summer pattern shows some characteristics of a Mediterranean climate (Csb), and it is sometimes classified this way.[49] Temperature extremes are moderated by adjacent Puget Sound and Lake Washington as well as the more distant Pacific Ocean. The region is partially protected from Pacific storms by the Olympic Mountains and from Arctic air by the Cascade Range. Despite being on the margin of the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains, the city has a reputation for frequent rain.[50] In reality, the so-called "rainy city" receives an unremarkable 37.1 inches (94 cm) of precipitation a year,[50] which is much less than New York City, Atlanta, and Houston and most cities of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States. Seattle's worldwide reputation for rain derives from the fact that it is cloudy (not rainy) an average of 226 days per year (vs. 132 in New York City). Most of the precipitation falls as drizzle or light rain, with only occasional downpours. The spring, late fall, and winter are filled with days when it does not rain but looks as if it may because of cloudy, overcast skies. As for temperature, winters are cool and wet with average lows around 35–40°F (2–4°C) on winter nights. Colder weather can occur, but seldom lasts more than a few days. Summers are dry and warm, with average daytime highs around 73–80°F (22.2–26.7°C). Hotter weather usually occurs only during a few summer days. Seattle's hottest official recorded temperature was 100  (0 ) on July 20 1994; the coldest recorded temperature was 0°F (-18°C) on January 31, 1950.[50]

To the west 80 miles (130 km), the Hoh Rain Forest, in Olympic National Park on the western flank of the Olympic Mountains, receives an annual average rainfall of 142 inches (361 cm), and the state capital, Olympia, south of the rain shadow, receives an annual average rainfall of 52 inches (132 cm). Snowfall is very infrequent, especially at lower altitudes and near the coast, and is usually light and fleeting, lasting only a few days. Average annual snowfall, as measured at Sea-Tac Airport, is 13 inches (33 cm).[52] Seattle's record snowfall was 20 inches (50.8 cm) on January 13, 1950.[53] Sunnier and drier "California weather" typically dominates from mid-July to mid-September. An average of 0.8 inches (0 cm) of rain falls in July and an average of 1.0 inches (0 cm) in August. Although the summer climate in the Seattle area is considerably drier and less humid than areas with humid continental climates, a slight dampness can be occasionally felt, usually when temperatures reach above 80  (0 ). This dampness is typically more noticeable during the evening when the temperatures have dropped. Because of this, Seattle experiences occasional summer thunderstorms.[54]
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Seattle on a sunny afternoon.

The Puget Sound Convergence Zone is an important feature of Seattle's weather. In the convergence zone, air arriving in the area from the north meets air flowing in from the south. Both streams of air originate over the Pacific Ocean; airflow is split by the Olympic Mountains to Seattle's west, then reunited by the Cascade Mountains to the east. When the air currents meet, they are forced upward, resulting in convection.[55]

Thunderstorms caused by this activity can occur north and south of town, but Seattle itself rarely receives worse weather than occasional thunder and ice pellet showers. Nonetheless, the Hanukkah Eve Wind Storm in December 2006 brought heavy rain and winds gusting up to 69  (0 ). One Seattleite drowned in her collapsed and flooded basement; power failures were widespread, with some left without power for up to eleven days.[56]

An exception to Seattle's dampness often occurs in El Niño years, when the marine weather systems track as far south as California and little precipitation falls in the Puget Sound area. Since the region's water comes from mountain snowpacks during the drier summer months, El Niño winters can not only produce substandard skiing but can result in water rationing and a shortage of hydro-electric power the following summer.

Weather averages for Seattle, Washington
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high F (C)
Average low F (C)
Precipitation inch (mm)
Source: [50] July 2007


Further information: List of Seattle neighborhoods
Seattle mayor Greg Nickels is among those who have called Seattle "a city of neighborhoods,"[57][58] [59] although the boundaries (and even names) of those neighborhoods are often open to dispute. For example, a Department of Neighborhoods spokeswoman reported that her own neighborhood has gone from "the 'CD' to 'Madrona' to 'Greater Madison Valley' and now 'Madrona Park.'"[59]

Over a dozen Seattle neighborhoods have Neighborhood Service Centers, originally known in 1972 as "Little City Halls".[60] At least twenty of these neighborhoods have one or more annual street fairs, parades, etc.[61] The largest of the street fairs feature hundreds of craft and food booths and multiple stages with live entertainment, and draw more than 100,000 people over the course of a weekend.[62] In addition, at least half a dozen neighborhoods have weekly farmers' markets, some with as many as fifty vendors.[63]

Seattle has grown through a series of annexations of smaller neighboring communities, many of which now constitute prominent neighborhoods: In November 2007, the residents of the unincorporated North Highline neighborhood will vote on whether they will be annexed by Seattle or Burien and in 2009, the community will be incorporated.[69]


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The Seattle skyline
The Seattle skyline

Among Seattle's notable buildings are:
The Columbia Center, the tallest building in Seattle. With 76 stories,[70] it has a greater number of floors than any other building west of the Mississippi River.
The Space Needle, perhaps the most iconic building in Seattle, built for the Century 21 Exposition, a World's Fair.
The Smith Tower, the tallest building on the West Coast from its completion in 1914 until the Space Needle overtook it in 1962.[71]
The Washington Mutual Tower, the second tallest building on the Seattle skyline and the former headquarters of Washington Mutual.
The Chapel of St. Ignatius at Seattle University, designed by Steven Holl.[72]
The Seattle Central Library, designed by Office for Metropolitan Architecture.[73]
The Starbucks Center, just south of Downtown, is the largest building in Seattle by volume, at just over 2,000,000 square feet (0 m). The building, once Sears' Northwest catalog distribution center, now serves as Starbucks headquarters as well as containing Sears and OfficeMax stores.[74]


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Seattle Center as seen from Kerry Park
The Space Needle is Seattle's most recognizable landmark, having been featured in the logo of the television show Frasier and the backgrounds of the television series Grey's Anatomy, not to mention several films. "The Needle" dates from the 1962 Century 21 Exposition. Contrary to popular belief, the Space Needle is neither the tallest structure in Seattle nor is it in Downtown. This misconception results from the Space Needle often being photographed from Kerry Park on Queen Anne Hill, where it is closer to the viewer than are the downtown skyscrapers. The fairgrounds surrounding the Needle have been converted into Seattle Center, which remains the site of many local civic and cultural events, such as Bumbershoot, Folklife, and the Bite of Seattle. Seattle Center shares a combination of roles within the city, ranging from a public fair grounds to a civic center, though recent economic losses have called its viability and future into question. The Seattle Center Monorail runs from Seattle Center to Westlake Center, a downtown shopping mall: a distance of a little over a mile.

Other notable Seattle landmarks include the Smith Tower, Pike Place Market, the Fremont Troll, the Experience Music Project (at Seattle Center), the Seattle Central Library, the Washington Mutual Tower, and the Columbia Center, which is the fourth tallest skyscraper west of the Mississippi River and the seventeenth tallest in the nation. (On June 16 2004, the 9/11 Commission reported that the original plan for the September 11, 2001 attacks included the Columbia Center as one of ten targeted buildings.)[75]

Starbucks Coffee has been at Pike Place Market since the coffee company was founded there in 1971. The first store is still operating a block south of its original location.[76]

Street layout

See also:
Seattle's streets are laid out in a cardinal-direction grid pattern, except in the central business district: early city leaders Arthur Denny and Carson Boren insisted on orienting their plats relative to the shoreline rather than to true North, so streets meet at unusual angles where Denny's plat meets "Doc" Maynard's to the south and Boren's to the north.[77] This inconsistency creates frequent confusion for visitors and newcomers when they attempt to navigate the streets at the edges of the business district. Largely as a result of Seattle's topography, only one street and one freeway run uninterrupted through the city from north to south.


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Downtown Seattle at night
Main article: Arts in Seattle
Seattle has been known as a significant center for regional performing arts for many years. The century-old Seattle Symphony Orchestra is among the world's most recorded orchestras[78] and performs primarily at Benaroya Hall.[79] The Seattle Opera and Pacific Northwest Ballet, which perform at McCaw Hall (which opened 2003 on the site of the former Seattle Opera House at Seattle Center), are comparably distinguished,[80][81] with the Opera being particularly known for its performances of the works of Richard Wagner[82][83] and the PNB School (founded in 1974) ranking as one of the top three ballet training institutions in the United States.[83] The Seattle Youth Symphony Orchestras (SYSO) is the largest symphonic youth organization in the United States.[84]

The historic 5th Avenue Theatre, built in 1926,[85] has continued to stage Broadway quality musical shows featuring both local talent and international stars. In addition, Seattle has about twenty other live theatre venues, a slim majority of them being associated with fringe theatre. An example of these is Seattle's 900-seat, Romanesque Revival Town Hall on First Hill.[86]

Seattle is often thought of as the home of grunge rock due to artists like Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, Green River, and Mudhoney, all of whom reached vast audiences in the early 1990s.[87] The city is also home to such varied musicians as avant-garde jazz musicians Bill Frisell and Wayne Horvitz, rapper Sir Mix-a-Lot, smooth jazz saxophonist Kenny G, heavy metal band Nevermore, industrial rockers KMFDM, and such poppier rock bands as Aiden, Goodness and the Presidents of the United States of America. Such musicians as Jimi Hendrix, Duff McKagan, Nikki Sixx, and Quincy Jones spent their formative years in Seattle. Ann and Nancy Wilson of the band Heart, often attributed to Seattle, were actually from neighboring Bellevue, as were progressive metal band Queensrÿche.[87]

Since the grunge era, the Seattle area has hosted a diverse and influential alternative music scene. The Seattle-based record label Sub Pop—the first to sign Nirvana—has signed such non-grunge bands as Murder City Devils, Sunny Day Real Estate, Skinny Puppy and The Postal Service. Other Seattle-area bands of note in this period include Death Cab for Cutie (Bellingham), Foo Fighters, Modest Mouse (Issaquah), MXPX (Bremerton), and Sleater-Kinney (Olympia).[87]

Earlier Seattle-based popular music acts include the collegiate folk group The Brothers Four; The Wailers, a 1960s garage band; The Ventures, an instrumental rock band; the Allies and the Heaters (later "the Heats"), 1980s teen-pop bands; from that same era, the more sophisticated pop of the short-lived Visible Targets and the still-performing Young Fresh Fellows and Posies; and the pop-punk of The Fastbacks and the outright punk of the Fartz (later Ten Minute Warning), The Gits, and Seven Year Bitch.[87]

Spoken word and poetry are also staples of the Seattle arts scene, paralleling the explosion of the independent music scene during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Seattle's performance poetry scene blossomed with the importation of the poetry slam from Chicago (its origin) by transplant Paul Granert. This and the proliferation of weekly readings, open mics, and poetry-friendly club venues like the Weathered Wall, the OK Hotel, and the Ditto Tavern (all now defunct), allowed spoken-word/performance poetry to take off in a big way. Seattle annually sends a team of slammers to the National Poetry Slam and considers itself the home of some of the most talented performance poets in the world: Buddy Wakefield, two-time Individual World Poetry Slam Champ;[88] Anis Mojgani, two-time National Poetry Slam Champ;[89] and Danny Sherrard, 2007 National Poetry Slam Champ.[90] Seattle also hosted the 2001 national Poetry Slam Tournament. The Seattle Poetry Festival is a biennial poetry festival that (launched first as the Poetry Circus in 1997) has featured local, regional, national, and international names in poetry.[91]


See also:
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Seattle waterfront as seen from deck of cruise ship
Among Seattle's best-known annual cultural events and fairs are the 24-day Seattle International Film Festival,[92] Northwest Folklife over the Memorial Day week, numerous Seafair events throughout July and August (ranging from a Bon Odori celebration to hydroplane races), and the Bite of Seattle. Bumbershoot, over the Labor Day weekend, and Capitol Hill Block Party provide Seattleites with alternative and independent music concerts. All are typically attended by over 100,000 people annually, as are Hempfest and two separate Independence Day celebrations.[93][94][95]
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Green Lake Park, popular among runners, contains a 2.8 mile (0 km) trail circling the lake.

Other significant events include numerous Native American powwows, a Greek Festival hosted by St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church in Montlake, and numerous ethnic festivals associated with Festál at Seattle Center.

As in most large cities, there are numerous other annual events of more limited interest, ranging from book fairs; an anime, Sakura-Con; Penny Arcade Expo, a gaming convention; and specialized film festivals, such as the Seattle Gay and Lesbian Film Festival, to a two-day, 9,000-rider Seattle-to-Portland bicycle ride[96] and a Gay Pride parade and festival. In the past, the Gay Pride parade and festival have been centred on Capitol Hill. Since 2006, festivities have been held city-wide, and the parade has followed a route in Downtown to the Seattle Center amusement park.[97]

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Prominent Seattle buildings circa 1893
The Henry Art Gallery opened in 1927, making it the first public art museum in Washington.[98] The main Seattle Art Museum opened in 1933 which has finished a major renovation and reopened in 2007.[99] Art collections are also housed at the Frye Art Museum and the Seattle Asian Art Museum.

Regional history collections are at the Loghouse Museum in Alki, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, the Museum of History and Industry and the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture. Industry-specific collections are housed at the Center for Wooden Boats, the Seattle Metropolitan Police Museum, and the Museum of Flight. Regional ethnic collections include the Nordic Heritage Museum and the Wing Luke Asian Museum.

In addition, Seattle has a thriving artist-run gallery scene, including 10 year veteran Soil Art Gallery, and the newer Crawl Space Gallery.

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Pacific Place Mall is a shopping center located in downtown Seattle.
The Woodland Park Zoo opened as a private menagerie in 1889, but was sold to the city in 1899.[100] The Seattle Aquarium has been open on the downtown waterfront since 1977 (undergoing a renovation 2006).[101] The Seattle Underground Tour, an exhibit of places that existed before the Great Fire, is also popular.[102] There are also many community centers for recreation, including Rainier Beach, Van Asselt, Rainier, and Jefferson south of the Ship Canal and Green Lake, Laurelhurst, Loyal Heights north of the Canal, and a newly remodeled center at Meadowbrook.


Main article: Sports in Seattle

Club Sport League Stadium
Seattle MarinersBaseballMajor League Baseball (MLB) - ALSafeco Field
Seattle SeahawksFootballNational Football League (NFL) - NFCQwest Field
Seattle SoundersSoccerUSL First Division (men's)
W-League (women's)
Qwest Field
Seattle StormBasketballWomen's National Basketball Association (WNBA)KeyArena
Seattle SuperSonicsBasketballNational Basketball Association (NBA)KeyArena
Seattle ThunderbirdsIce HockeyWestern Hockey LeagueKeyArena
Seattle Tiger SharksMixed Martial ArtsInternational Fight LeagueVaries
Seattle SockeyeUltimateUPAVaries
Old Puget Sound Beach RFCRugbyRugby Super League (US)Varies

Seattle's professional sports history began at the start of the 20th century with the PCHA's Seattle Metropolitans, which in 1917 became the first American hockey team to win the Stanley Cup.[103] Today Seattle has teams in nearly every major professional sport. The four major professional teams are the 1979 NBA champions Seattle SuperSonics,[104] the NFL's Seattle Seahawks, the MLB's Seattle Mariners, and the 2004 WNBA champions, Seattle Storm.[105] Seattle also boasts a strong history in collegiate sports, the NCAA Division I school University of Washington and the NCAA Division II schools Seattle Pacific University and Seattle University. The Major League Baseball All-star game was held at Safeco Field in Seattle during the 2001 season.[106]

Outdoor activities

Seattle's cool mild climate helps a huge proportion of its population engage in outdoor recreation, including walking, bicycling, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, boating, team sports, and swimming, among others. The downtown REI is that chain's flagship store, and carries gear for most of those activities. In town many people walk around Green Lake, through the forests and along the bluffs and beaches of 535 acre (0 km) Discovery Park (the largest park in the city) in Magnolia, along the shores of Myrtle Edwards Park on the Downtown waterfront, or along Alki Beach in West Seattle. Also popular are hikes and skiing in the nearby Cascade or Olympic Mountains and kayaking and sailing in the waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Strait of Georgia. The San Juan Islands, with their sunny climate and labyrinthine waterways, are especially popular among sailing enthusiasts and passengers aboard the Washington State Ferries on their way to Victoria.


Main article: Media in Seattle

Seattle's leading newspapers are the daily Seattle Times and Seattle Post-Intelligencer; they share their advertising, circulation, and business departments under a Joint Operating Agreement.[107]

The most prominent weeklies are the Seattle Weekly, The Stranger, and the Puget Sound Business Journal. The Seattle Weekly and The Stranger consider themselves "alternative" papers; the famously irreverent Stranger has a reputation for carrying a younger and hipper readership, while the more staid Weekly has a longstanding reputation for in-depth coverage of arts and local politics. There are also several ethnic newspapers, including the Northwest Asian Weekly, and numerous neighborhood newspapers, including the North Seattle Journal.

Seattle is also well served by television and radio. Seattle's major network television affiliates are KOMO 4 (ABC), KING-TV 5 (NBC), KIRO 7 (CBS), KCTS 9 (PBS), KSTW 11 (The CW), KCPQ 13 (FOX), KONG 16/6 (Ind.), KMYQ 22/10 (MNTV), and KWPX 33/3 (ION);[108] five of them can be seen in Canada via digital cable or satellite. Seattle cable viewers also receive CBUT 2 (CBC) from Vancouver, British Columbia, often as cable channel 99. There are also two Spanish-language stations: KUNS (Univision) and KHCV (Azteca America).

Leading radio stations include NPR affiliates KUOW-FM 94.9 and KPLU-FM 88.5 (Tacoma). Other notable stations include KEXP-FM 90.3 (affiliated with EMP), KBCS-FM 91.3 (affiliated with Bellevue Community College), and KNHC-FM 89.5, which broadcasts an electronic music format and is owned by the public school system and operated by students of Nathan Hale High School. Many Seattle radio stations are also available through internet radio, with KUOW, KNHC, and KEXP being notable web radio innovators. Popular commercial radio stations in Seattle include KUBE 93.3, KISW 99.9, KBKS (KISS) 106.1, KMPS 94.1, KNDD 107.7, KVI-AM 570, KIRO-AM 710 and KOMO-AM 1000. Seattle is also home to KING-FM, one of the last commercial classical music stations in the United States.[108]

On the Internet, Seattle is covered by Seattle Indymedia, a co-op started in 1999 which has since spread to many cities around the world, by, a local online business community since 1999, and numerous blogs, including Seattlest, Seattle Metroblogging, and The Slog, among others.


See also:

Five companies on the 2006 Fortune 500 list of the United States' largest companies, based on total revenue, are headquartered in Seattle: financial services company Washington Mutual (#99), Internet retailer (#272), department store Nordstrom (#293), coffee chain Starbucks (#338), and insurance company Safeco Corporation (#339). Just shy of making the list is global logistics firm Expeditors International (#506).[109] Other Fortune 500 companies popularly associated with Seattle are based in nearby Puget Sound cities. Warehouse club chain Costco Wholesale Corp. (#28), the largest company in Washington, is based in Issaquah. Microsoft (#48), Nintendo of America, and cellular telephone pioneer McCaw Cellular (part of AT&T Wireless until it was acquired by Cingular Wireless and finally merged into the new AT&T), are all located in Redmond. Weyerhaeuser, the forest products company (#90), is based in Federal Way. Finally, Renton is home to truck manufacturer PACCAR (#157) as is Bellevue to international mobile telephony giant T-Mobile's U.S. subsidiary T-Mobile USA.[109]

Prior to moving its headquarters to Chicago, aerospace manufacturer Boeing (#26) was the largest company based in Seattle. Its largest division is still headquartered in Renton, and the company has large aircraft manufacturing plants in Everett and Renton, so it remains the largest private employers in the Seattle metropolitan area.[110] Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels announced a desire to spark a new economic boom driven by the biotechnology industry in 2006. Major redevelopment of the South Lake Union neighborhood is underway in an effort to attract new and established biotech companies to the city, joining biotech companies Corixa (acquired by GlaxoSmithKline), Immunex (now part of Amgen), and ZymoGenetics. Vulcan, the holding company of billionaire Paul Allen, is behind most of the development projects in the region (which has resulted in the neighborhood's being nicknamed "Allentown"). While some see the new development as an economic boon, others have criticized Nickels and the Seattle City Council for pandering to Allen's interests at tax-payers' expense.[111] Also in 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Seattle among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion.[112] In 2005, Forbes ranked Seattle as the most expensive American city for buying a house based on the local income levels.[113]


City of Seattle
Population by year[35]

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 563,374 people, 258,499 households, and 113,400 families residing in Seattle. The racial makeup of the city was 67.1 percent White, 16.6 percent Asian, 9.7 percent African American, 2.38 percent from other races, 1.00 percent Native American, 0.50 percent Pacific Islander, and 4.46 percent from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.3 percent of the population.[114] 11.3% were of German, 9.1% Irish, 8.1% English and 5.0% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000. Seattle has seen a major increase in legal and illegal immigration in recent decades. The foreign-born population increased 40 percent between the 1990 and 2000 censuses.[115] The percentage of Seattle's population that identifies as gay or lesbian is estimated to be 12.9 percent, the second highest among the largest 50 cities in the U.S. behind San Francisco, California.[116]

As of 1999, the median income for a household in the city is $45,736 and the median income for a family is $62,195. Males have a median income of $40,929 versus $35,134 for females. The per capita income for the city is $30,306.[117] 11.8 percent of the population and 6.9 percent of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 13.8 percent are under the age of 18 and 10.2 percent are 65 or older.[117]

It is estimated that King County has 8,000 homeless on any given night, and many of those live in Seattle.[118] In September 2005, King County adopted a "Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness", one of the near-term results of which is a shift of funding from homeless shelter beds to permanent housing.[119]

In 2006, after growing by 4,000 citizens per year for the previous 16 years, regional planners expect the population of Seattle to grow by 200,000 people by 2040.[120] However, Mayor Nickels supports plans that would increase the population by 60 percent, or 350,000 people, by 2040 and is working on ways to accommodate this growth while keeping Seattle's single-family housing zoning laws.[120] The Seattle City Council later voted to relax height limits on buildings in the greater part of Downtown, partly with the aim of increasing residential density in the city center.[121]

A 2006 study by UCLA shows that Seattle has one of the highest GLBT populations per capita. With 12.9% of the city being gay, lesbian, or bisexual, the city ranks 2nd of all the major US cities. The Seattle metropolitan area also ranks 2nd of all major metropolitan areas with 6.5% being GLBT.[122]

In 2005, Men's Fitness magazine named Seattle the fittest city in the United States.[123]

Government and politics

See also:

Seattle is a charter city, with a Mayor-Council form of government, unlike many of its neighbors that use the Council-Manager form. Seattle's mayor and nine city council members are elected at large, rather than by geographic subdivisions. The only other elected offices are the city attorney and Municipal Court judges. All offices are non-partisan.[124]

Seattle's politics have leaned to the left in the last few decades compared to the United States as a whole, although there is a small libertarian movement within the metro area.[125] Only two precincts in Seattle—one located in the exclusive Broadmoor community, and one encompassing neighboring Madison Park—voted for Republican George W. Bush in the 2004 presidential election.[125] In partisan elections, such as for the Washington State Legislature and United States Congress, most elections are won by Democrats, with Greens getting more votes than in many other cities. Seattle dominates Washington's 7th congressional district, in which Representative Jim McDermott, one of Congress' most liberal members,[126] routinely wins by a large margin.

Crime and criminal justice

As with most U.S. cities, the county judicial system handles felony crimes — the Seattle Municipal Court deals with parking tickets, traffic infractions, and misdemeanors. Seattle does not have its own jail, contracting out inmates it convicts to either the King County Jail (which is located downtown), the Yakima County Jail, or (for short-term holdings) the Renton City Jail.[127] After reaching its highest murder rate in 1994 with 69 homicides, Seattle's murder rate declined to a 40-year low with 24 homicides in 2004.[128] By 2006, Seattle's murder rate had increased, with thirty murders that year.[129] Auto theft is another matter: Seattle has until recently ranked in the top ten "hot spots" for auto theft; the Seattle Police Department has responded by nearly doubling the number of auto theft detail detectives, and started a "bait car" program in 2004.[130]

Seattle has suffered two mass-murders in recent history: the 1983 Wah Mee massacre (13 people killed in the Wah Mee gambling club)[131]and the March 25, 2006 Capitol Hill massacre when 28-year-old Kyle Aaron Huff killed six at a rave afterparty.[132] Later in 2006, an attempted spree killing by Naveed Afzal Haq left one dead at the Jewish Federation building.[133]

Mayor Greg Nickels is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition,[134] a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The Coalition is co-chaired by Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg.

Official nickname, flower, slogan, and song

In 1981, Seattle held a contest to come up with a new official nickname to replace "the Queen City." "Queen City" had been devised by real estate promoters and used since 1869, but was also the nickname of: Cincinnati; Denver; Regina, Saskatchewan; Buffalo; Bangor, Maine; Helena, Montana; Burlington, Vermont and Charlotte, North Carolina. The winner of this contest, selected in 1982, was "the Emerald City". Submitted by Californian Sarah Sterling-Franklin, it referred to the lush surroundings of Seattle that were the result of frequent rain.[3] Seattle has also been known in the past as "the Jet City"—though this nickname, related to Boeing, was entirely unofficial.

Seattle's official flower has been the dahlia since 1913. Its official song has been "Seattle the Peerless City" since 1909. In 1942, its official slogan was "The City of Flowers"; 48 years later, in 1990, it was "The City of Goodwill", for the Goodwill Games held that year in Seattle.[136] On October 20, 2006, the Space Needle was adorned with the new slogan "Metronatural." The slogan is a result of a 16-month, $200,000 effort by the Seattle Convention and Visitor's Bureau.[137] The official bird of Seattle is the Great Blue Heron, named by the City Council in 2003.[138]

Seattle mayors of note

Sister cities

Seattle is internationally partnered with a number of sister cities to promote global cooperation, cultural exchange and economic collaboration.


Main article: Education in Seattle

Of the city's population over the age of 25, 47.2 percent (vs. a national average of 24 percent) hold a bachelor's degree or higher; 93 percent (vs. 80 percent nationally) have a high school diploma or equivalent. In fact, United States Census Bureau survey showed that Seattle has the highest percentage of college graduates of any major U.S. city.[8] In addition to the obvious institutions of education, there are significant adult literacy programs and considerable homeschooling. Seattle is also the most literate city in the United States based on a study done by Central Connecticut State University.[7]

Enlarge picture
Inside Suzzallo Library, University of Washington campus.

Like most urban American public school systems, Seattle Public Schools has been subject to numerous controversies. Seattle's schools desegregated without a court order[143] but continue to struggle to achieve racial balance in a somewhat ethnically divided city (the south part of town having more ethnic minorities than the north).[144] In 2006, a challenge to Seattle's racial tie-breaking system made it to the Supreme Court.[145] Where the Supreme Court decided that race was not a legal criterion for desegregation, but left the door open for desegration formulas based on other indicators (e.g., income or socio-economic class).[146] And in 2002, West Seattle's West Seattle High School made headlines in the midst of protests of the school's "Indian" mascot. Despite bitter battles between SPS and Alumni Association President/Attorney Robert Zoffel, the school would later change its mascot to the "Wildcats".[147]

The public school system is supplemented by a moderate number of private schools: five of the high schools are Catholic, one is Lutheran, and six are secular.[148]

Seattle is also famous in part for being home to one of the nation's most respected public universities, the University of Washington. With over 40,000 under-graduates and post-graduates, UW is the largest school in the Pacific Northwest[149] and is ranked among the top research universities in the United States.[150] A recent study even cited UW as the twenty-second best university in the world.[151] The university is noted for its top programs in Computer Science, Engineering, Comparative Literature, Germanics, and Asian Studies.

The city's other prominent universities are Seattle University, a Jesuit university, and Seattle Pacific University, founded by the Free Methodists. There are also a handful of excellent smaller schools, such as City University of Seattle, a private university; Antioch University Seattle, which provides graduate and undergraduate degrees for working adults; and others mainly in the fine arts, business and psychology. The Cornish College of the Arts offers bachelor's degrees in such disciplines as dance, music, and theatre. Seattle is also served by North Seattle, Seattle Central, and South Seattle Community Colleges. Time magazine chose Seattle Central Community College for best college of the year in 2001, claiming that the school "pushes diverse students to work together in small teams".[152]


Health systems

Group Health Cooperative is a leading proponent and developer of managed care in the northwest, and the University of Washington is consistently ranked among the country's top leading institutions in medical research. Seattle has seen local developments of modern paramedic services with the establishment of Medic One in 1970.[153] In 1974, a 60 Minutes story on the success of the then four-year-old Medic One paramedic system called Seattle "the best place in the world to have a heart attack".[154]

Most of Seattle's hospitals are located on First Hill. Harborview Medical Center, the public county hospital, is the only Level I trauma hospital serving Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho.[155] Virginia Mason Medical Center and Swedish Medical Center's two largest campuses are also located in this part of Seattle. This concentration of hospitals resulted in the neighborhood's nickname "Pill Hill".[156]

Located in the Laurelhurst neighborhood, Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center is the pediatric referral center for Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has a campus in the Eastlake neighborhood and also shares facilities with the University of Washington Medical Center. The University District is home to the University of Washington Medical Center which, along with Harborview, is operated by the University of Washington. Seattle is also served by a VA hospital on Beacon Hill, a third campus of Swedish in Ballard, and Northwest Hospital near Northgate Mall.


Enlarge picture
Interstate 5 as it passes through downtown Seattle.

Even though Seattle is old enough that railways and streetcars once dominated its transportation system, the city is now largely dominated by automobiles. Seattle is also serviced by an extensive network of bus routes and two commuter rail routes connecting it to many of its suburbs.

The first streetcars appeared in 1889 and were instrumental in the creation of a relatively well-defined downtown and strong neighborhoods at the end of their lines. The advent of the automobile proved to be the death knell for rail in Seattle. Tacoma-Seattle railway service ended in 1929 and the Everett-Seattle service came to an end in 1939, replaced by inexpensive automobiles running on the recently developed highway system. With the removal or paving over of the rails on city streets and the arrival of trolleybuses, 1941 brought the end of streetcars in Seattle. This left only an extensive network of buses to provide mass transit within the city and throughout the region.[157]

Seattle is serviced by three transit authorities. King County Metro provides frequent stop bus service within the city and surrounding county. Like Vancouver, Edmonton, and San Francisco, Seattle is one of the few cities in North America that use electric trolleybuses.

The second transit authority that services Seattle is Sound Transit, which provides express bus service between the suburbs and downtown Seattle. On September 18 2000, Sound Transit began operating "Sounder", a commuter rail system that connects Seattle to Tacoma and other suburbs to the south and another line to Everett and other suburbs to the north.[158] Sound Transit also began construction on the 15.7 mile (0 km) Central Link portion of its Link Light Rail in November 2003 that will connect downtown Seattle to SeaTac Airport in the south suburbs. Central Link is expected to be completed in 2009, giving the city its first local rapid transit line that will have intermediate stops in the city. University Link is an approved extension of the light rail system connecting downtown Seattle to Capitol Hill and the University of Washington. Future expansion plans of the Link Light Rail system include connections from the University of Washington to Northgate to the north; Bellevue and Redmond, across Lake Washington to the east; and Federal Way, Des Moines, and possibly as far south as Tacoma.[159]

The third transit authority is operated by Washington State Ferries, which manages the largest network of ferries in the United States, third largest in the world, that connects Seattle to Bainbridge Island and Vashon Island in Puget Sound and Bremerton and Southworth on the Kitsap Peninsula. This ferry system consists of 10 routes (4 servicing Seattle), 20 terminals (2 in Seattle), and 28 vessels (8 servicing Seattle).[160]

Enlarge picture
Seattle Metro Buses

A monorail line constructed for the 1962 Exposition still exists today between Seattle Center and downtown and is used by tourists and by commuters from the north, who often find it cheaper to park at Seattle Center and take the 1 mile (2 km) route to work rather than taking their car downtown. On November 26 2005, the monorail's two trains collided on a curve near Westlake Center where a design flaw made it impossible to pass safely.[161] Service was suspended for nearly nine months as both trains were repaired, resuming on August 11, 2006.[162]

In the 1990s, the city proposed building a longer monorail as a real commuter service replacing the existing tourist attraction, but nothing came of two voter-approved initiatives in the 90s. Ultimately, Seattle voters approved the creation of the 14 mile (23 km) line, which was to be called the Green Line, connecting West Seattle and Ballard to downtown in November 2002. Controversy over scope, financial difficulties, and other issues led to two additional votes with the final vote, in November 2005, bringing the extended monorail proposal to an end.[163]

The South Lake Union line of the Seattle Streetcar passed full City Council on June 27, 2005. The streetcar is "on track" to be built and operating by 2007. The 2.6 mile (4.2 km) streetcar line will run between the Westlake Center shopping mall in Downtown and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Eastlake. Property owners along the right-of-way will pay about $25 million of the $45 million total capital cost through a local improvement district.[164]

Seattle's commercial airport is Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, locally known as Sea-Tac Airport and located in the city of SeaTac, which is named for the airport. It is operated by the Port of Seattle and provides service to many destinations throughout North America, Europe, and Asia, some of the major ones include, London, Paris, Amsterdam, and Tokyo among many others. The airport is a hub for Alaska Airlines and its regional subsidiary Horizon Air. Seattle is also a focus city for Northwest Airlines.

Seattle's general-aviation airport is Boeing Field. It is also used for cargo flights and testing/delivery of Boeing airliners. Southwest Airlines and Alaska Airlines recently requested permission to move its services from Sea-Tac to Boeing Field but did not receive permission.[165]

Alaskan Way Viaduct

Main article: Alaskan Way Viaduct

The Alaskan Way Viaduct, completed on April 4, 1953, is an elevated section of Washington State Route 99 that runs along the Elliott Bay waterfront in Seattle's Industrial District and downtown Seattle. It is the smaller of the two major north-south traffic corridors through Seattle, carrying up to 110,000 vehicles per day.[166] The viaduct runs above the surface street, Alaskan Way, from S. Nevada Street in the south to the entrance of Belltown's Battery Street Tunnel in the north, following previously existing railroad lines.

The 2001 Nisqually earthquake damaged the viaduct and its supporting Alaskan Way Seawall and required the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) to invest $3.5 million U.S. in emergency repairs. Experts give a 1-in-20 chance that the viaduct could be shut down by an earthquake within the next decade.<ref name="viaduct_project" /> Since the Nisqually Earthquake occurred, semi-annual inspections have discovered continuing settlement damage.

Whether to remove, replace, or rebuild the viaduct is a politically charged issue. On March 13, 2007, voters in the city of Seattle rejected two separate proposals to replace the viaduct.[167]


Enlarge picture
Seattle Steam Company

Main article: Utilities of Seattle

Unlike most neighboring cities, water and electricity are provided by public city agencies: Seattle Public Utilities and Seattle City Light. Privately owned utility companies serving Seattle are Puget Sound Energy (natural gas), Seattle Steam Company (steam), Qwest (landline telephone service), and Comcast (and to a lesser extent Millennium Digital Media) (cable television).


High Point community garden

Volunteer Park water tower

Downtown from Volunteer Park on Capitol Hill

Eastlake and north Capitol Hill from Gas Works Park

Looking down the Pike Street Hillclimb

The Seattle skyline, as seen from Lake Union

Pike Place Market, main arcade

Zeitgeist Coffee, Pioneer Square

Sunset at Alki Beach

Two Seattle icons: The Space Needle and a ferry

Space Needle through Seattle Center's Fun Forest

Pike Place Market

Pike Place Market

Seattle Waterfront from upstairs plaza at Safeco Field

See also


1. ^ Population Estimates for Places over 100,000: 2000 - 2006. United States Census Bureau (2007-06-28). Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
2. ^ Population Estimates for the 100 Most Populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas. United States Census Bureau (2007-04-05). Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
3. ^ We're not in Washington Anymore. Seattlest (2005-10-27). Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
4. ^ Catharine Reynolds. "THE LIST; Seattle: An Insider's Address Book", New York Times, 2002-09-29. Retrieved on 2001-10-21. “…Seattle's coffee culture has become America's… 
5. ^ Starbucks Company Profile (PDF). Starbucks. Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
6. ^ (1) Braiden Rex-Johnson; Tom Douglas (contibutor) (2003). ''Pike Place Market Cookbook. Sasquatch Books. ISBN 1570613192. 
(2) Starbucks Corporation Completes Acquisition of Seattle Coffee Company. Starbucks (2003-7-14). Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
The company (under various names) originated in Coupeville, Washington (1968), moved to Seattle (1971), then moved to Vashon Island (1983), before being sold to Atlanta, Georgia owners (1998) and sold to Starbucks in 2003.
7. ^ Dr. John W. Miller. America's Most Literate Cities. Central Connecticut State University. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
8. ^ Stephen Buckner (2004-03-10). Seattle Residents Among Nation’s Most Educated. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
9. ^ "Personal income per capita grows", The Seattle Times, 2007-08-08. Retrieved on 2007-10-06. 
10. ^ Talbert
11. ^ Dailey (map with village 33, referencing his footnotes 2, 9, and 10)
12. ^ After historical epidemiology 62% losses due to introduced diseases. [Boyd]
13. ^ (1) Anderson & Green
(2) Greg Lange (2000-10-15). Seattle and King County's First White Settlers. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
(3) Dailey
(4) "The people and their land". Puget Sound Native Art and Culture. Seattle Art Museum (c. 2003-07-04 per "Native Art of the Northwest Coast: Collection Insight"). Retrieved on 2006-04-21.
(5) Crowley, Walt (2003-03-13). "Native American tribes sign Point Elliott Treaty at Mukilteo on January 22, 1855.". Essay 5402. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
14. ^ Greg Lange (2003-03-08). Luther Collins Party, first King County settlers, arrive at mouth of Duwamish River on September 14, 1851.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
15. ^ Greg Lange (2000-12-16). Collins party encounters Denny party scouts at Duwamish Head near future site of Seattle on September 27, 1851.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
16. ^ Crowley, Walt (1998-08-31). "Seattle -- a Snapshot History of Its Founding". Essay 303. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
17. ^ James R. Warren. "Seattle at 150: Charles Terry's unlimited energy influenced a city", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2001-10-23. Retrieved on 2007-10-14. 
18. ^ Greg Lange (2001-03-28). Charles Terry homesteads site of Alki business district on May 1, 1852.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
19. ^ (1) Thomas R. Speer, editor:"Chief Si'ahl" (DOC). "Chief Si'ahl". Duwamish Tribe (2004-07-22). Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
Includes bibliography.
(2) Kenneth G. Watson (2003-01-18). "Seattle, Chief Noah". HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-14. (3) Morgan (1951, 1982), p.20
20. ^ Greg Lange; Cassandra Tate (1998-11-04). Legislature incorporates the Town of Seattle for the first time on January 14, 1865.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
21. ^ Walt Crowley (2003-01-25). Seattle burns down in the Great Fire on June 6, 1889.. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
22. ^ George Kinnear (1911-01-01). . Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved on 2007-10-04. Kinnear's article originally appeared in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and was later privately published in a small volume.
23. ^ Greg Lange (2003-05-05). Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition opens for a 138-day run on June 1, 1909.. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
24. ^ Patrick McRoberts (1999-02-04). Seattle General Strike, 1919, Part I. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
25. ^ Alan J. Stein (2000-04-18). Century 21 -- The 1962 Seattle World's Fair, Part I. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
26. ^ David Wilma (2004-02-25). Ted Turner's Goodwill Games open in Seattle on July 20, 1990.. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
27. ^ David Wilma (2000-03-01). Protests against the World Trade Organization (WTO) continue on December 1, 1999.. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
28. ^ Seattle: Booms and Busts. Yale University (Spring 2002). Retrieved on 2007-10-01. Author has granted blanket permission for material from that paper to be reused in Wikipedia. This article is no longer available. Now available at .
29. ^ Junius Rochester (1998-10-07). Yesler, Henry L.. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
30. ^ Greg Lange (1999-01-14). Klondike Gold Rush. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
31. ^ Hard Drive to the Klondike: Promoting Seattle During the Gold Rush. National Park Service (2003-02-18). Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
32. ^ History of Seattle: The "Jet City" Takes Off. Seattle's Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on 2006-10-02. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
33. ^ Greg Lange (1999-06-08). Billboard appears on April 16, 1971, near Sea-Tac, reading: Will the Last Person Leaving SEATTLE—Turn Out the Lights.. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.

The real estate agents were Bob McDonald and Jim Youngren, as cited at Don Duncan, Washington: the First One Hundred Years, 1889–1989 (Seattle: The Seattle Times, 1989), 108, 109–110; The Seattle Times, February 25, 1986, p. A3; Ronald R. Boyce, Seattle-Tacoma and the Southern Sound (Bozeman, Montana: Northwest Panorama Publishing, 1986), 99; Walt Crowley, Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995), 297.
34. ^ Kristi Heim. "Chicago's got the headquarters, but Seattle's still Jet City, USA", The Seattle Times, 2006-03-21. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. 
35. ^ Strategic Planning Office (2001-04-12). Decennial Population (PDF). City of Seattle. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
36. ^ Jane Hodges. "Seattle area "sticker shock" is a matter of perception", The Seattle Times, 2005-08-20. Retrieved on 2007-09-29. 
37. ^ Lee Gomes. "The Dot-Com Bubble Is Reconsidered -- And Maybe Relived", Wall Street Journal, 2006-11-08. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.  Gomes considers the bubble to have ended with the peak of the March 2000 peak of NASDAQ.
38. ^ David M. Ewalt. "The Bubble Bowl", Forbes, 2005-01-27. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.  Ewalt refers to the advertising on Super Bowl XXXIV (January 2000) as "the dot-com bubble's Waterloo".
39. ^ Chapter Three - Native American Cultures. The First Americans. Four Directions. Retrieved on 2007-10-20.
40. ^ Howard Morphy (1999). "Traditional and modern visual art of hunting and gathering peoples", in Richard B. Lee: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052157109X. 
41. ^ Department of Transportation. Highest Elevations in Seattle and The Twenty Steepest Streets in Seattle. City of Seattle. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
42. ^ Walt Crowley (2001-03-02). Earthquake registering 6.8 on Richter Scale jolts Seattle and Puget Sound on February 28, 2001. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
43. ^ Greg Lange (1999-02-01). Earthquake hits Washington Territory on December 14, 1872. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
44. ^ Greg Lange (2000-01-01). Earthquake hits Puget Sound area on April 13, 1949. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
45. ^ Greg Lange (2000-03-02). Earthquake rattles Western Washington on April 29, 1965. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
46. ^ Seattle Fault Zone - implications for earthquake hazards. United States Geological Survey (2007-06-15). Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
47. ^ Ray Flynn; Kyle Fletcher (2002-07-02). The Cascadia Subduction Zone - What is it? How big are the quakes? How Often?. University of Washington Department of Earth and Space Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
48. ^ World Climates after Köppen-Geiger. Shasta College. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
49. ^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel. "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15: 259–263. DOI:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
50. ^ What Is The Olympic Rain Shadow?. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
51. ^ Monthly Averages for Seattle, WA. The Weather Channel. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
52. ^ Precipitation Averages for Seattle, WA. Sperling's Best Places. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
53. ^ "Seattle Weather Records", Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
54. ^ Seattle Weather and Climate. Seattle 101 - A Guide for Travelers and Tourists. City of Seattle. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
55. ^ "What is the Puget Sound Convergence Zone?", Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
56. ^ David Wilma (2006-12-27). Hunukkah eve wind storm ravages Western Washington on December 14 and 15, 2006.. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
57. ^ Greg Nickels (July 2005). Nickels Newsletter - July 2005. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
58. ^ There is a book about Seattle by Arthur J O'Donnell, In the City of Neighborhoods, iUniverse, Inc., 2004), ISBN 0595337929.
59. ^ Jack Broom. "New Seattle map: There goes the neighborhood", Seattle Times, 2002-10-05. Retrieved on 2007-10-11. 
60. ^ Walt Crowley (2001-05-07). Seattle's Little City Halls -- A Snapshot History. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
61. ^ Official pages of several street fairs and similar events, all accessed 20 October 2007: Ballard Seafood Fest and Sustainable Ballard Festival; Central Area Community Festival; Wallingford Wurst Fest; Fremont Fair and Fremont Oktoberfest; Lake City Pioneer Days; South Lake Union Block Party; University District Street Fair; West Seattle Summer Fest; LakeFest (Eastlake); Pioneer Square Fire Festival; Greenwood Seafair Parade.

Mentions of several others, all accessed 20 October 2007: The official Seafair site Community Events page, archived June 25, 2007 on the Internet Archive, accessed 20 October 2007, lists the following events associated with particular neighborhoods within city limits and not in neighborhoods mentioned above: The Crown of Queen Anne Fun Run, Walk & Children's Parade, Roosevelt Bull Moose Festival, Magnolia Summer Festival and Art Show. It also lists the following parades in neighborhoods for which a street fair is mentioned above: West Seattle Grand Parade, Wallingford Seafair Kiddie Parade & Street Fair, Chinatown Seafair Parade.
62. ^ Walt Crowley (1999-05-11). University District (Seattle) Street Fair is first held May 23 and 24, 1970. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
63. ^ For an overview of Seattle's neighborhood farmers markets see Markets. Neighborhood Farmers Market Alliance. Retrieved on 2007-10-11. For the scale of one of the larger markets (in the University District, see University District Farmers Market. Neighborhood Farmers Market Alliance. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
64. ^ Greg Lange (1999-01-01). Seattle doubles in size by annexing north-of-downtown communities on May 3, 1891.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
65. ^ Greg Lange (1999-01-17). Seattle annexes South Seattle on October 20, 1905.. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
66. ^ Greg Lange (2000-01-01). City of Seattle annexes six towns including Ballard and West Seattle in 1907.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
67. ^ David Wilma (2001-02-10). Georgetown (later a Seattle neighborhood) incorporates as a city on January 8, 1904.. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
68. ^ David Wilma (2005-10-12). Seattle annexes the area north of N 85th Street to N 145th Street on January 4, 1954.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
69. ^ Angela Galloway. "Neighboring cities jockey to grab North Highline", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2006-05-30. Retrieved on 2007-10-04. 
70. ^ David Wilma (2005-08-25). Columbia Center, tallest building in Pacific Northwest, opens doors on March 2, 1985.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
71. ^ Greg Lange (2003-03-05). Seattle's Smith Tower, tallest building west of Ohio, is dedicated on July 4, 1914.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
72. ^ Chapel of St. Ignatius: About Chapel. Chapel of St. Ignatius. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
73. ^ William Dietrich. "Meet your new Central Library", Pacific Northwest, The Seattle Times, 2004-04-25. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
74. ^ About Nitze-Stagen. Nitze-Stagen & Co., Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
75. ^ 9/11 Commission. Al Qaeda Aims at the American Homeland. 9/11 Commission Report. July 22, 2004. Retrieved June 12 2006.
76. ^ Original Starbucks. City of Seattle. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
77. ^ Junius Rochester (1998-11-10). Maynard, Dr. David Swinson (1808-1873). HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
78. ^ Recordings and Broadcasts. Seattle Symphony. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
79. ^ History. Seattle Sympony Orchestra. Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
80. ^ About the School. Pacific Northwest Ballet. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
81. ^ Met Opera and Seattle Opera to Co-Produce Gluck’s Final Operatic Masterpiece "Iphigénie en Tauride". Press release. Metropolitan Opera (2006-12-18). Retrieved on 2007-10-21. This press release from New York's Metropolitan Opera describes the Seattle Opera as "one of the leading opera companies in the United States… recognized internationally…"
82. ^ Wagner. Seattle Opera. Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
83. ^ Matthew Westphal. "Seattle Opera's First International Wagner Competition Announces Winners", Playbill Arts, 2006-08-21. Retrieved on 2007-10-21. 
84. ^ Home page. SYSO. Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
85. ^ Eric L. Flom (2002-04-21). Fifth (5th) Avenue Theatre. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
86. ^ Stuart Eskenazi. "Where culture goes to town", The Seattle Times, 2005-03-01. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. 
87. ^ Clark Humphrey. "Rock Music -- Seattle", HistoryLink, 2000-05-04. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
88. ^ Lori Patrick (2007-08-02). Skip your commute for a "Traffic Jam" with a twist, a Hip Hop & Spoken Word Mashup at City Hall, Aug. 16. City of Seattle. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
89. ^ Indie and Team Semis results. National Poetry Slam 2006 (2006-08-12). Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
90. ^ Home. Seattle Poetry Slam. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
91. ^ John Marshall. "Eleventh Hour's volunteers deserve credit for a strong poetry fest revival", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2007-08-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-06. 
92. ^ Annie Wagner. "Everything SIFF", The Stranger, May 25 - May 31, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.2006"> 
93. ^ Judy Chia Hui Hsu. "Rains wash records away", The Seattle Times, 2007-07-23. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. 
94. ^ Casey McNerthney. "Where there's smoke, there's Hempfest", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2007-08-14. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. 
95. ^ Misha Berson. "Strong attendance, but not a record: 8:30 p.m.", Report from Bumbershoot: Monday, The Seattle Times, 2007-09-03. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. 
96. ^ Amy Rolph. "9,000 bicyclists ready to ride in annual event", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2007-07-13. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. 
97. ^ Murakami, Kery. "Gay pride events multiply", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2006-06-23. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. 
98. ^ About the Henry. Henry Art Gallery. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
99. ^ Dave Wilma. Seattle Art Museum opens in Volunteer Park on June 23, 1933.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
100. ^ Walt Crowley (1999-07-08). Woodland Park Zoo -- A Snapshot History. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
101. ^ Patrick McRoberts (1999-01-01). Seattle Aquarium opens to excited crowds on May 20, 1977.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
102. ^ "Seattle Underground Tour", USA Today, 2006-10-24. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. 
103. ^ Greg Lange (2003-03-14). Seattle Metropolitan hockey team wins the Stanley Cup on March 26, 1917.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
104. ^ 1979 NBA Champions Homepage. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
105. ^ Cassandra Tate (2005-05-25). Seattle Storm wins WNBA championship on October 12, 2004.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
106. ^ "2001 All-Star Game", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2001-07-11. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. 
107. ^ Joint Operation Agreement. The Seattle Times Company. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
108. ^ "Seatte-Area TV & Radio Stations and Their Formats", Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
109. ^ "Fortune 500 list for Washington", Fortune Magazine, 2006-04-17. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
110. ^ "Locke Unveils Boeing 7E7 Tax Cut Wish List", KOMO News, 2003-06-09. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
111. ^ George Howland Jr.. "The Billion-Dollar Neighborhood", Seattle Weekly, 2004-05-23. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
112. ^ Bill King. "2006 MAYOR'S CHALLENGE: Where Are the Best Metros for Future Business Locations?", Expansion Magazine, 2006-08-15. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
113. ^ Sara Clemence. "Most Overpriced Places In The U.S. 2005", Forbes magazine, 2005-07-14. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
114. ^ Seattle city, Washington. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
115. ^ Seattle in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000. The Brookings Institute (November 2003). Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
116. ^ Lornet Turnbull. "12.9% in Seattle are gay or bisexual, second only to S.F., study says", The Seattle Times, 2006-11-16. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
117. ^ Census 2000, Summary File 3 (PDF) 32-33, 52-54. City of Seattle (2002-09-17). Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
118. ^ Finally, a real plan to end homelessness ... "A Roof Over Every Bed in King County" within ten years. The Committee to End Homelessness in King County. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
119. ^ Council Adopts Strategies to Implement “Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness”. King County (2005-09-19). Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
120. ^ Bob Young. "Nickels backs 60 percent increase in city's population by 2040", The Seattle Times, 2006-08-15. Retrieved on 2009-09-28. 
121. ^ Bob Young. "High-rise boom coming to Seattle?", The Seattle Times, 2006-04-04. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
122. ^ Gary J. Gates (October 2006). Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey. UCLA School of Law. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
123. ^ "Seattle named fittest city in America", MSNBC, 2005-01-06. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
124. ^ Ethics and Elections Commission. Seattle Form of Government. City of Seattle. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
125. ^ Neil Modie. "Where have Seattle's lefties gone?", The Seattle Times, 2005-08-15. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
126. ^ "SPECIAL REPORT: 2006 VOTE RATINGS House Liberal Scores", National Journal. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
127. ^ Municipal Court of Seattle. "Jail Locations and Visitations", City of Seattle. Retrieved on 2007-10-04. 
128. ^ Walter F. Roche Jr. "Homicides, gun violence up nationwide last year", The Seattle Times, 2006-09-11. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
129. ^ Office of the Mayor. "Major crimes down in Seattle in 2006", City of Seattle, 2007-02-07. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. 
130. ^ Jessica Blanchard. "Area car-theft ranking falls", The Seattle Times, 2004-11-24. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
131. ^ Tracy Johnson. "Mak spared death for Wah Mee killings", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2002-04-30. Retrieved on 2007-10-04. 
132. ^ "Capitol Hill rampage worst since Wah Mee Massacre", The Seattle Times, 2006-03-26. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. 
133. ^ "One dead in hate-crime shooting at Jewish center", CNN, 2006-07-29. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. 
134. ^ Mayors Against Illegal Guns: Coalition Members. Mayors Against Illegal Guns. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
136. ^ Seattle City Symbols. City of Seattle. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
137. ^ Gene Johnson. "Seattle Unveils Slogan: 'Metronatural'", Comcast News, 2006-10-21. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
138. ^ Seattle City Council (2003-03-17). Seattle Names Great Blue Heron "Official Bird". City of Seattle. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
139. ^ Mildred Andrews (2003-03-02). Landes, Bertha Knight (1868-1943). HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
140. ^ Lee Micklin (1998-10-30). Jewish mayor of Seattle Bailey Gatzert is elected on August 2, 1875.. The Seattle Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
141. ^ Kit Oldham (2004-01-11). Langlie, Arthur B. (1900-1966). HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
142. ^ Cassandra Tate (2004-09-23). Voters re-elect businessman Robert Moran as mayor of the City of Seattle on July 8, 1889.. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
143. ^ PARENTS INVOLVED IN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS v. SEATTLE SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1 ET AL. (PDF). Supreme Court of the United States (2007-06-28). Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
144. ^ Cassandra Tate (2002-09-07). Busing in Seattle: A Well-Intentioned Failure. HistoryLink. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
145. ^ "Supreme Court takes on K-12 schools racial mix", Associated Press via MSNBC, 2006-12-04. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
146. ^ "High court rejects school integration plans", The Seattle Times, 2007-06-28. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
147. ^ Deborah Bach. "School ban on tribal nicknames upheld", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2003-03-11. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
148. ^ "School Guide", The Seattle Times. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
149. ^ "University of Washington", Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
150. ^ This is discussed in detail at University of Washington#Rankings. Numerous U.W. departments score in the top 10 in their respective fields in virtually all such studies. In particular, the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index by Academic Analytics ranks University of Washington #1 in research productivity in Business Administration, Genetics, Fisheries Science and Management, Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Science and Medicinal Pharmacy and Zoology, #2 in Anatomy, Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography, Nutrition, Epidemiology and Forestry, and in the top ten for 20 other major disciplines. See Top Research Universities in the 2005 Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index: University of Washington. Chronicle of Higher Education (2003). Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
151. ^ "The Complete List: The Top 100 Global Universities", Newsweek International Edition, 2006-08-13. 
152. ^ Andrew Goldstein. "Seattle Central", Time magazine, 2001-09-10. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
153. ^ Cobb honored as one of "Resuscitation Greats". UW School of Medicine Online News (2002-08-16). Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
154. ^ "King County Medic One: A History of Excellence", King County, 2007-03-29. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
155. ^ Trauma Center. UW Medicine. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
156. ^ Tom Boyer. "Pill Hill property sells for a bundle", The Seattle Times, 2005-08-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. 
157. ^ Walt Crowley. "Interurban Rail Transit in King County and the Puget Sound Region -- A Snapshot History",, 2000-09-19. Retrieved on 2007-09-29. 
158. ^ Sound Transit 2 Interactive Map. Sound Transit. Retrieved on 2007-09-28.
159. ^ "2005 Long Range Plan" (PDF), Sound Transit. Retrieved on 2007-09-29. 
160. ^ History. Washington State Department of Transit. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
161. ^ Cheryl Phillips, Mike Lindblom and Mike Carter. "Monorail trains collide", The Seattle Times, 2005-11-28. Retrieved on 2007-10-14. 
162. ^ Christine Clarridge. "Monorail runs again today", The Seattle Times, 2006-07-18. Retrieved on 2007-10-14. 
163. ^ Seattle Monorail Project. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
164. ^ The South Lake Union Streetcar. Seattle Department of Transportation. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
165. ^ Jennifer Langston, Gordy Holt. "Plan won't fly: Sims kills Southwest's Boeing Field hopes", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2005-10-12. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. 
166. ^ SR 99 - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Seawall Replacement. Washington State Department of Transportation. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
167. ^ King County Election Results. King County (2007-03-13). Retrieved on 2007-09-29.


  • Jones, Nard (1972). Seattle. New York City: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-01875-4. 
  • Morgan, Murray (1982 (originally published 1951, 1982 revised and updated, first illuntrated edition)). Skid Road: an Informal Portrait of Seattle. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95846-4. 
  • Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, ed. (1998 (originally published 1994)). Shaping Seattle Architecture: A Historical Guide to the Architects. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 029597365X. 
  • Sale, Roger (1976). Seattle: Past To Present. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95615-1. 
  • Speidel, William C. (1978). Doc Maynard: the man who invented Seattle. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company, pp. 196–197, 200. ISBN 0-914890-02-6. 
    Speidel provides a substantial bibliography with extensive primary sources.
  • Speidel, William C. (1967). Sons of the profits; or, There's no business like grow business: the Seattle story, 1851–1901. Seattle: Nettle Creek Publishing Company, pp. 196–197, 200. ISBN 0-914890-00-X, ISBN 0-914890-06-9. 
    Speidel provides a substantial bibliography with extensive primary sources.

Further reading

  • Klingle, Matthew. Emerald City: An Environmental History of Seattle. New Haven, Yale University Press, 2007. ISBN 0300116411
  • MacGibbon, Elma (1904). "Seattle, the city of destiny", Leaves of knowledge (DJVU), Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection, Shaw & Borden. OCLC 61326250. 
  • Pierce, J. Kingston. Eccentric Seattle: Pillars and Pariahs Who Made the City Not Such a Boring Place After All. Pullman, Washington: Washington State University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-87422-269-2

External links

Seattle neighborhoods
Ballard Beacon Hill Belltown Bitter Lake Blue Ridge Broadmoor Broadview Bryant Capitol Hill Cascade Central District Cherry Hill Crown Hill Denny Regrade Denny-Blaine Downtown Eastlake First Hill Fremont Georgetown Green Lake Greenwood Haller Lake Harbor Island Industrial District Interbay International District Judkins Lake City (Cedar Park, Matthews Beach, Meadowbrook, Olympic Hills, Victory Heights) Laurelhurst Leschi Licton Springs Lower Queen Anne Madison Park Madison Valley Madrona Magnolia Montlake Maple Leaf Mount Baker Northgate Phinney Ridge Pioneer Square Queen Anne Rainier Beach Rainier Valley (Brighton, Columbia City, Dunlap) Rainier View Ravenna Roosevelt Sand Point Seward Park Sodo South Lake Union South Park Squire Park University District University Village View Ridge Wallingford (Meridian, Northlake) Washington Park Wedgwood Westlake West Seattle Windermere
West Seattle is further divided into:
Alki Arbor Heights Delridge (Highland Park, High Point, North Delridge, Pigeon Point, Riverview, Roxhill, South Delridge) Fairmount Park Fauntleroy Gatewood Genesee North Admiral Seaview
Street layout of Seattle

Seattle can refer to:
  • Seattle, Washington, a city in the United States.
  • Chief Seattle, the Suquamish chief the city of Seattle is named after.
  • Seattle (Perry Como album), a Perry Como album.
  • Seattle Slew, former American Thoroughbred racehorse.

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The official flag of Seattle is teal and white, featuring a portrait of Chief Seattle in the center. The words CITY OF GOODWILL surround the upper half of the portrait and the word SEATTLE appears below the portrait.
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The official seal of Seattle consists of a portrait of Chief Seattle under which appears the date 1869, the year of the city's incorporation. It is surrounded by two circles.
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country, state, and nation can have various meanings. Therefore, diverse lists of these entities are possible. Wikipedia offers the following lists:

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"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
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United States of America

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States

Federal government

President Vice President

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This is a list of counties in Washington. There are thirty-nine counties in the U.S. state of Washington.

Certain residents of Snohomish County consider themselves to be part of Freedom County.
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King County is located in the U.S. state of Washington. The population in the 2000 census was 1,737,034 and in 2006 was an estimated 1,835,300. By population, King is the largest county in Washington, and the 12th largest in the United States.
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A municipal corporation is a legal definition for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
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December 2 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.


  • 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens.

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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1830s  1840s  1850s  - 1860s -  1870s  1880s  1890s
1866 1867 1868 - 1869 - 1870 1871 1872

Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "larger", "greater") is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer.

In many systems, the mayor is an elected politician who serves as chief executive and/or ceremonial official of many types of
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Gregory J. "Greg" Nickels (born August 7, 1955) became the 51st and current mayor of Seattle, Washington on January 1, 2002. He was elected to a second term November 8, 2005.
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Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object.


Units for measuring surface area include:
square metre = SI derived unit

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city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
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square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
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elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, often the mean sea level. Elevation, or geometric height, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height
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1 foot =
SI units
0 m 0 mm
US customary / Imperial units
0 yd 0 in
A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes,
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1 metre =
SI units
1000 mm 0 cm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 in
The metre or meter[1](symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).
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July 1 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining. The end of this day marks the halfway point of a leap year.
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20th century - 21st century - 22nd century
1970s  1980s  1990s  - 2000s -  2010s  2020s  2030s
2003 2004 2005 - 2006 - 2007 2008 2009

2006 by topic:
News by month
Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun
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city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
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Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular.

Biological population densities

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metropolitan area is a large population centre consisting of a large metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence, or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central cities and their zone of influence.
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time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. Most adjacent time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time).
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The Pacific Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-8). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 120th degree meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.
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UTC−8 is a band of timezones separated from the Universal Coordinated Time by 8 hours.


  • Pacific Standard Time
  • Alaska Daylight Time
  • Clipperton Island Standard Time

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Daylight saving time (DST; also summer time in British English) is the convention of advancing clocks so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less.
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The Pacific Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-8). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 120th degree meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.
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UTC−7 can be observed in:
  • Mountain Standard Time Zone
  • Pacific Daylight Time Zone
  • Canada
  • The portion of the Peace River Valley in British Columbia.

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