Self-induced abortion

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A self-induced abortion is an abortion performed outside the recognized medical system. Although the term can include abortions induced through legal, over-the-counter medication, it also refers to efforts to terminate a pregnancy through more dangerous means. Such practices are illegal in most jurisdictions - even where abortion itself is legal - and may present a grave threat to the life of a woman. Self-induced abortions are usually performed when circumstances (legal constraints, cost, concerns about secrecy) prohibit women from seeking safer procedures. Presently they are more common in developing countries where abortion is illegal, but have occurred in developed countries as well.[7]

Methods

There are a number of anecdotally recorded and disseminated methods of performing a self-induced abortion. These may include:
  • physical exertion designed to bring about a miscarriage
  • abdominal massage
  • receiving blows to the abdominal area
  • attempted removal of the fetus with a coat-hanger or similar device inserted into the uterus through the cervix
  • attempted piercing of the fetus with a knitting needle or similar device inserted into the uterus through the cervix
  • self-induced suction through the insertion of a rubber tube into the uterus via the cervix
  • ingesting abortifacients, high quantities of vitamin C, or other substances believed to induce miscarriage
  • douching with substances believed to induce miscarriage (beginning in the 1960s, many women used Coca Cola for this purpose, although its utility is at least dubious)
Many of the above named methods present significant dangers to the life or health of the woman. In particular, attempts to insert hazardous objects into the uterus can cause punctures leading to septicemia. Ingesting or douching with harmful substances can have poisonous results. Receiving blows to the abdomen, whether self inflicted or at the hands of another, can damage organs. Furthermore, the less dangerous methods - physical exertion, abdominal massage, and ingestion of relatively harmless substances thought to induce miscarriage - are less effective, and may result in the fetus developing birth defects. However, abdominal massage abortion is traditionally practised in Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Indonesia [1] [2].

The cheap prescription blood pressure drug Misoprostol is often used as an abortifacient in self-induced abortion in Latin American countries where legal abortions are unavailable, and its use has also been observed in immigrant populations in New York.[1] Although proponents of this method deem it to be safer than those using insertion of objects or chemicals into the uterus, they also note that failure to effect an abortion by this method can lead to the child being born with serious birth defects.Furthermore, the drug causes a drastic drop in blood pressure, and women may haemmorhage as a result of misusing the drug for the purpose of abortion.[2]

Current medical procedures are significantly safer than traditional at-home methods. In 1979, Bernard Nathanson, MD, an "abortion expert and an obstetrician-gynecologist who once presided over the largest abortion clinic in the world," wrote in his book Aborting America:[3]

"The practice of abortion was revolutionized at virtually the same moment that the laws were revolutionized, through the widespread introduction of suction curettage in 1970. ... Even without a suction machine, a simple combination of catheter and syringe can produce enough suction to carry out a safe early abortion. As for the self-induced abortion, by thrusting a coat hanger or other dangerous object into the womb, this will also be a thing of the past."

In the United States

The practice of self-induced abortion by various means has long been recorded in the United States. Turn-of-the-20th-century birth control advocate Margaret Sanger wrote in her autobiography of a 1912 incident in which she was summoned to treat a woman who had nearly died from such an attempt.[4]

A study concluded in 1968[5] determined that over 1.2 million illegal abortions were performed every year in the United States, a portion of which were performed by women acting alone. The study suggested that the number of women dying as a result of self-induced abortions exceeded those resulting from abortions performed by another person. Due to estimated underreporting of illegal procedures, these numbers may not be accurate. A 1979 study noted that many women who required hospitalization following self-induced abortion attempts were admitted under the pretext of having had a spontaneous abortion.[6]

Although Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), made abortion more readily available throughout the U.S., it remains a crime in most jurisdictions for a woman to attempt to perform an abortion on herself. In May of 2005, Gabriela Flores - a Mexican immigrant living in South Carolina - was charged under such a statute, which carried a maximum penalty of two years in prison. She had induced abortion by ingesting misoprostol, an ulcer medication with abortifacient potential. Mississippi classifies self-induced abortions as deaths which affect the public interest, requiring that physicians report them to the local medical examiner. [3] By contrast, New Mexico's "Unborn Victims of Violence Act" exempts self-induced abortion from the criminal liability the act creates.[4]

References

7. ^ Thapa SR, Rimal D, Preston J (Sep 2006). "Self induction of abortion with instrumentation". Aust Fam Physician 35 (9). PMID 16969439. 
  • ^  Bose C., A comparative study of spontaneous and self-induced abortion cases in married women. J Indian Med Assoc. 1979 Aug; 73 (3-4): 56-9.
  • ^  Bernard Nathanson, MD, Aborting America (Doubleday, 1979).
  • ^  Margaret Sanger. An Autobiography. (New York, W. W. Norton & Company, 1938).
  • ^  Richard Schwarz, Septic Abortion (Philadelphia: JB Lippincott Co., 1968).
  • ^  John Leland: "Abortion Might Outgrow Its Need for Roe v. Wade", The New York Times, 2 October 2005
  • ^  Kathy Simmonds, Susan Yanow, Use of Misoprostol for Self-induced Abortion Around the World

See also

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Movements

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History of abortion
Abortion by country
Methods
Surgical:
Suction-Aspiration D&E
D&C* IDX*
Hysterotomy* Instillation*
Medical:
Mifepristone Misoprostol
* Rarely performed

Abortion law
Conscience clause Minors
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Pro-choice describes the political and ethical view that a woman should have complete control over her fertility and pregnancy. This entails the guarantee of reproductive rights
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Pro-life is a term representing a variety of perspectives and activist movements in bioethics. It can be used to indicate opposition to practices such as euthanasia, human cloning, research involving human embryonic stem cells, and the death penalty, but most commonly (especially
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The term fetal rights can refer either to legal rights accorded to fetuses or to ethical rights of fetuses.

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Many jurisdictions have laws applying to minors and abortion. These parental involvement laws require that one or more parents consent or be informed before their minor daughter may legally have an abortion.
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The paternal rights and abortion issue is an extension of both the abortion debate and the fathers' rights movement. A few countries have laws requiring that the biological father either consent to or be informed before his wife or girlfriend undergoes an abortion.
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Movements

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Movements

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Women’s rights, as a term, typically refers to the freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized, ignored or illegitimately suppressed by law, custom, and behavior in a particular society.
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History of abortion
Abortion by country
Methods
Surgical:
Suction-Aspiration D&E
D&C* IDX*
Hysterotomy* Instillation*
Medical:
Mifepristone Misoprostol
* Rarely performed

Abortion law
Conscience clause Minors
..... Click the link for more information.
developing country has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score. In developing countries, there is low per capita income, widespread poverty, and low capital formation.
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clothes hanger, or coat hanger, is a device in the shape of:
  • Human shoulders designed to facilitate the hanging of a coat, jacket, sweater, shirt, blouse or dress in a manner that prevents wrinkles, with a lower bar for the hanging of trousers or skirts.

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uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina; the other is connected on both sides to the fallopian tubes.
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The cervix (from Latin "neck") is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall.
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An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion.

History

The ancient Greek colony of Cyrene at one time had an economy based almost entirely on the production and export of silphium, a powerful abortifacient in the parsley family.
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Vitamin C or L -ascorbate is an essential nutrient for higher primates, and a small number of other species. The presence of ascorbate is required for a range of essential metabolic reactions in all animals and in plants and is made internally by almost all organisms,
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A douche is a device used to introduce a stream of water into the body for medical or hygienic reasons, or the stream of water itself. The word comes from the French language, in which its principal meaning is a shower (it is thus a notorious false friend encountered by non-native
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