Siege of Zara

The Siege of Zara (Croatian - Zadar) (November 10-November 23, 1202) was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade. It was the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders.

Background

Shortly after his election as pope in 1198, Pope Innocent III (1161-1216) published several papal encyclicals calling for the invasion and recapture of the Holy Land from its Muslim tenants. His plan to accomplish this differed from the earlier ultimately unsuccessful Second and Third Crusades in several ways. Instead of the secular nobles who led the earlier crusades, this one would be, in theory, completely under Papal control. Innocent's plan also called for the invading armies to travel to Egypt by sea and seize the Nile Delta, which would then be used as a base from which to invade Palestine. His call was at first poorly received among the ruling families of Europe, but by 1200 an army of approximately 35,000 soldiers had been assembled under Boniface of Montferrat.

Innocent III negotiated an agreement with the Republic of Venice, Europe's dominant sea power at the time, involving the construction of a fleet of warships and transports, to be paid for at the time of their use. The deal stipulated that about 35,000 crusaders would need transport and the Venetians would be paid 85,000 silver marks. After the Venetians had suspended their commercial operations for a year to build and crew the ships, only about 12,000 showed up at Venice to man and pay for them. The crusaders thus found themselves only able to pay 51,000 marks to the Venetians. In response, the Venetians indicated that they would accept the invasion of Zara (now Zadar, Croatia), a Catholic city on the coast of the Adriatic, as well as nearby Trieste, in lieu of payment. Zara had rebelled against the Venetian Republic in 1183, and placed itself under the dual protection of the Papacy and King Emeric of Hungary (who had also recently happened to agree to join the crusade).

Though a large group of Crusaders found the scheme repulsive and refused to participate, the majority agreed (despite the written protests of Innocent III), citing it as the only means necessary to attain the larger goal of taking Jerusalem. In the winter of 1203, Innocent excommunicated the entire crusading army, along with the Venetians, for taking part in the attack. "Behold," the pope wrote, "your gold has turned into base metal and your silver has almost completely rusted since, departing from the purity of your plan and turning aside from the path onto the impassable road, you have, so to speak, withdrawn your hand from the plough [...] for when [...] you should have hastened to the land flowing with milk and honey, you turned away, going astray in the direction of the desert." [1] Although Pope Innocent was to later grant an absolution to the entire army. [2]

The attack

The attack on Zara took the form of an amphibious landing followed by a brief siege. The incident was to foreshadow the Siege of Constantinople later in the campaign. The crusaders used the 50 amphibious transports, 100 horse carriers and 60 warships designed and built for them by the Venetians. Their transports were approximately 30 m long, 9 m wide and 12 m high, with a crew of 100. Each one could carry up to 600 footmen. The horse carriers featured specially designed slings to carry their cargo of horses, and featured a fold-out ramp below the waterline that could be opened to allow mounted knights to charge directly onto shore. The Venetian warships were powered by 100 oarsmen each and featured a metal-tipped ram just above the waterline as their primary weapon. [3]

Chains and booms were laid across the mouth of Zara's harbor as a defense, but the Crusaders burst through them in their Venetian ships and landed their troops and equipment without harassment. [4] Zara fell on November 23, 1202.

Sources

Croatian}}} 
Official status
Official language of:
Burgenland (Austria)
Caraşova in Caraş-Severin County (Romania)
 Croatia
Molise (Italy)
Vojvodina (Serbia)
..... Click the link for more information.
Zadar (Latin: Iadera, Italian: Zara) is a city in Croatia on the Adriatic Sea, with a population of 72,718 (2006). It is the fifth largest Croatian city.
..... Click the link for more information.
November 10 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka

..... Click the link for more information.
November 23 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 800 - Charlemagne arrives at Rome to examine the alleged crimes of Pope Leo III.

..... Click the link for more information.
1202 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1202
MCCII
Ab urbe condita 1955
Armenian calendar 651
ԹՎ ՈԾԱ
Bah' calendar -642 – -641
Buddhist calendar 1746
..... Click the link for more information.
Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt. Instead, in April 1204, the Crusaders of the West invaded and conquered the Greek Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
..... Click the link for more information.
Catholic is an adjective derived from the Greek adjective καθολικός, meaning "general; universal" (cf. Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon) .
..... Click the link for more information.
Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe during 1095–1291, most of which were sanctioned by the Pope in the name
..... Click the link for more information.
11st century - 12nd century - 13rd century
1160s  1170s  1180s  - 1190s -  1200s  1210s  1220s
1195 1196 1197 - 1198 - 1199 1200 1201

Politics
State leaders - Sovereign states
Birth and death categories
..... Click the link for more information.
Pope Innocent III (c. 1161 – June 16, 1216), born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was pope from January 8, 1198 until his death.

Biography

Early life and election to the Papacy

Lotario de' Conti di Segni was born in Gavignano, near Anagni.
..... Click the link for more information.
11st century - 12nd century - 13rd century
1130s  1140s  1150s  - 1160s -  1170s  1180s  1190s
1158 1159 1160 - 1161 - 1162 1163 1164

Politics
State leaders - Sovereign states
Birth and death categories
..... Click the link for more information.
1216 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1216
MCCXVI
Ab urbe condita 1969
Armenian calendar 665
ԹՎ ՈԿԵ
Bah' calendar -628 – -627
Buddhist calendar 1760
..... Click the link for more information.
An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. At that time, the word could be used of a letter sent out by any bishop.
..... Click the link for more information.
The expression The Holy Land (Hebrew: ארץ הקודש, Standard  
..... Click the link for more information.
Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. The feminine form of 'Muslim' is Muslimah (Arabic: مسلمة).
..... Click the link for more information.
Second Crusade (1145–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year. Edessa was the first of the Crusader states to have been founded during the First Crusade (1095–1099), and was
..... Click the link for more information.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.

After the failure of the Second Crusade, the Zengid dynasty controlled a unified Syria and engaged in a conflict with
..... Click the link for more information.
Gumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah
Arab Republic of Egypt


Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Bilady, Bilady, Bilady
..... Click the link for more information.
Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
..... Click the link for more information.
Palestine (from Παλαιστινη; Palaestina; formerly also פלשתינה Palestina
..... Click the link for more information.
11st century - 12nd century - 13rd century
1170s  1180s  1190s  - 1200s -  1210s  1220s  1230s
1197 1198 1199 - 1200 - 1201 1202 1203

Politics
State leaders - Sovereign states
Birth and death categories
..... Click the link for more information.
Boniface of Montferrat (Italian: Bonifacio del Monferrato; Greek: Βονιφάτιος
..... Click the link for more information.
Most Serene Republic of Venice (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia, Venetian: Republica de Venesia
..... Click the link for more information.
Zadar (Latin: Iadera, Italian: Zara) is a city in Croatia on the Adriatic Sea, with a population of 72,718 (2006). It is the fifth largest Croatian city.
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Lijepa naša domovino
Our beautiful homeland


..... Click the link for more information.
Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. The Adriatic Sea is a part of the Mediterranean Sea.
..... Click the link for more information.
Country Italy
Region Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Province Trieste (TS)
Mayor Roberto Dipiazza (since 2001)

Area km
Population
 - Total (as of December 31, 2004)
 - Density /km

..... Click the link for more information.
11st century - 12nd century - 13rd century
1150s  1160s  1170s  - 1180s -  1190s  1200s  1210s
1180 1181 1182 - 1183 - 1184 1185 1186

Politics
State leaders - Sovereign states
Birth and death categories
..... Click the link for more information.
The Pope (from Latin: papa, father;[1] from Greek πάπας (papas) = father - originally written πάππας (
..... Click the link for more information.
Emeric (Hungarian: Imre, Croatian: Mirko, Emerik; 1174 – 30 November 1204) was the King of Hungary and Croatia from 1196 to his death. He was the son and heir of Béla III by his queen Agnes, daughter of Raynald of Châtillon.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.