Sixteen Kingdoms

Sui Dynasty581–619 CE
History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty 1122–256 BCE
  Western Zhou
  Eastern Zhou
    Spring and Autumn Period
    Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BCE–206 BCE
Han Dynasty 206 BCE–220 CE
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280 CE
  Wei, Shu & Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420 CE
  Western Jin
  Eastern Jin16 Kingdoms
304–439 CE
Southern & Northern Dynasties 420–589 CE
Tang Dynasty 618–907 CE
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960 CE
Liao Dynasty
907–1125 CE
Song Dynasty
960–1279 CE
  Northern SongW. Xia Dyn.
  Southern SongJin Dyn.
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368 CE
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644 CE
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911 CE
MODERN
Republic of China 1911–present
People's Republic
of China
1949–present
Republic of China
(on Taiwan)

Timeline of Chinese history
Dynasties in Chinese history
Military history of China
History of Chinese art
History of science and technology in China
History of Education in China
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Sixteen Kingdoms.
16 Kingdoms
Cheng Han
Han Zhao
Later Zhao
Former Liang
Later Liang
Western Liang
Northern Liang
Southern Liang
Former Qin
Later Qin
Western Qin
Former Yan
Later Yan
Northern Yan
Southern Yan
Xia
Not included
in the 16 Kingdoms
Ran Wei
Western Shu
Western Yan
Duan
Yuwen
Chouchi
Wei (Dingling)
Dai
Huan Chu
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The Sixteen Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 十六國; Simplified Chinese: 十六国; Pinyin: Shíliù Guó), or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereign states in China proper and its neighboring areas from 304 to 439 CE after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. Originally, the term was first introduced by Cui Hong in the lost historical record, Shiliuguo Chunqiu (the Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms) and restricted to sixteen kingdoms of this era, namely the states of Han Zhao, Later Zhao, Cheng Han, Former Liang, Later Liang, Northern Liang, Western Liáng, Southern Liang, Former Yan, Later Yan, Northern Yan, Southern Yan, Former Qin, Later Qin and Western Qin and Xia. The term has been broadened to included all sovereignities from 304 to 439. These do not all exist through the entire period.

A less used term, the Period of Sixteen Kingdoms represents this turbulent era from 304 to 439.

Almost all rulers of the kingdoms were part of the Wu Hu ethnicity and claimed to be the emperors and wangs (kings). The Han Chinese founded the four states: Northern Yan, Western Liang, Former Liang and the state of Wei. Six Chinese rulers of the Former Liang remained titularly under the government of the Jin Dynasty. The Northern Wei Dynasty is not counted as one of the Sixteen Kingdoms even though it was founded during the Period.

Rulers of each of the Kingdoms are listed in relevant articles.

Preceded by
Western Jin Dynasty
Sixteen Kingdoms
304 – 439
Succeeded by
Southern and Northern Dynasties

See also

The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations.
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The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (Chinese: 三皇五帝; Pinyin: Sānhuáng wǔdì; Wade-Giles: San-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c.
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The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: 夏朝; Pinyin: xià cháo; Wade-Giles: hsia-ch'ao), ca.
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Shang Dynasty (Chinese: ) or Yin Dynasty () (ca. 1750 BC - ca. 1045 BC) is the second historic Chinese dynasty and ruled in the northeastern region of the area known as "China proper", in the Yellow River valley.
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Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Zhōu Cháo; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1123 BC to 256 BC[1]) preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China.
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Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Zhōu Cháo; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1123 BC to 256 BC[1]) preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China.
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Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Zhōu Cháo; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1123 BC to 256 BC[1]) preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China.
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Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: 春秋時代; Pinyin: Chūnqiū Shídài
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History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty
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Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝; Simplified Chinese: 汉朝
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Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝; Simplified Chinese: 汉朝
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Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Pinyin: Xīn Cháo; literally "New Dynasty"; 9-23) was a "dynasty" (contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had only one emperor).
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Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝; Simplified Chinese: 汉朝
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The Three Kingdoms era (Traditional Chinese: 三國; Simplified Chinese: 三国; Pinyin: Sānguo
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Cao Wei (Chinese: 曹魏; Pinyin: Cáo Wèi; Wade-Giles: Ts'ao Wei) was one of the regimes that competed for control of China during the Three Kingdoms period.
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Shu Han (Traditional Chinese: 蜀漢, pinyin: Shǔ Hàn), sometimes known as the Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty, based on areas around Sichuan which was then known
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Eastern Wu (Chinese: 東吳; pinyin: Dōng Wú), also known as Sun Wu
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Southern and Northern Dynasties (Chinese: 南北朝; Pinyin: nánběicháo; 420-589 AD) followed the Sixteen Kingdoms and preceded Sui Dynasty in China.
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Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Suí cháo; 581-618 AD[]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China.
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History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty
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The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; Pinyin: Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao) was a ruling dynasty in China between 960–1279 AD; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms era, and
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Released March 27, 2003
Recorded Peter Gabriel's studio
Genre Pop
Length 3:33
Label EMI
Writer(s) Ruslana
Composer(s) Ruslana
Producer(s) Ruslana , O.
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History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty
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The Song Dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; Pinyin: Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao) was a ruling dynasty in China between 960–1279 AD; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms era, and
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The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Classical Mongolian: Yuan Guren) was a khanate of the Mongol Empire, one of the four major divisions of the empire, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the
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History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty
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History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty
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The History of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese:
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