Sky Tower

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Looking up at the Sky Tower / Sky Tower lit up at night.


The Sky Tower is an observation and telecommunications tower located on the corner of Victoria and Federal Streets in the central business district of Auckland, New Zealand. It is 328 metres tall, as measured from ground level to the top of the mast, making it the tallest free-standing structure in the Southern Hemisphere, and the 13th tallest member of the World Federation of Great Towers.[1]

The landmark is part of the SKYCITY Auckland casino complex, owned and operated by SKYCITY Entertainment Group.

Uses

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Sky Tower in the Auckland skyline.


The upper portion of the tower contains two restaurant levels (one with revolving seating) and one cafe level, as well as two observation decks (including some with sections of glass floor). The tower attracts over 600,000 visitors a year.

The tower also features the SkyJump, a 192-metre 'fan descender' jump (an experience between a bungy jump and a base jump) from the observation deck, during which a jumper can reach up to 85 km/h. The jump is guide-cable-controlled to prevent jumpers from colliding with the tower in case of gusts.[2] Climbs into the antennae portion are also possible for tour groups.

As well as for entertainment, the tower is used for telecommunications and broadcasting with the Auckland Peering Exchange (APE) being located on Level 48. Several radio broadcasting companies co-locate transmitters and share antenna systems, while television company Canwest (who runs the TV3 and C4 channels) has secondary transmitters on the tower, their primary one being at Waiatarua.

Construction

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Sky Tower illuminated in Christmas colours. Various other lighting schemes and colours are also often used.

Project history

Taking two and a half years of construction time, the tower was opened on March 3, 1997, six months ahead of schedule.[3]

Fletcher Construction was the contracted builder for the project, while engineering firm Beca Group provided the design management and coordination, structural, geotechnical, civil, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, lighting and fire engineering services. It was designed by Gordon Moller of Craig Craig Moller, and has received a New Zealand Institute of Architects National Award as well as regional awards.[4]

Facts & Figures

The tower is constructed of reinforced, high-performance concrete. Its 12 metre diameter shaft (containing three lifts and an emergency stairwell) is supported on eight 'legs' based on 16 foundation piles drilled over 12 m deep into the local sandstone.[5]

The upper levels were constructed from composite materials, structural steel, precast concrete and reinforced concrete, and the observation decks clad in aluminium with blue/green reflective glass. A structural steel framework supports the upper mast structure. During construction 15,000 cubic metres of concrete, 2,000 tonnes of reinforcing steel and 660 tonnes of structural steel were used. The mast alone weighs over 170 tonnes.[6]

Emergencies

The tower is designed to withstand wind in excess of 200 km/h and resist earthquakes with a 1,000 year return period. Analysis shows that an earthquake centered 40 kilometers away and reaching 7.0 on the Richter magnitude scale is expected to leave the tower practically undamaged. Even an earthquake measured at a magnitude of 8.0 (10 times stronger than a 7.0 quake), and located only 20 km away, is not expected to collapse the tower. As an additional safeguard against emergencies, fireproof rooms on the lower levels of the observation deck would provide refuge in the unlikely event of a conflagration, while the stairwell itself is also fire-safety rated.[6]

References

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360 degrees panorama view as seen from Sky Deck, Sky Tower, Auckland.
1. ^ Sky Tower (from the SKYCITY Auckland website)
2. ^ SkyJump (from the official skyjump.co.nz website)
3. ^ Sky Tower (from 'Feature Projects', Beca Group website)
4. ^ Sky Tower (from the website of Craig Craig Moller, Sky Tower's architects)
5. ^ Projects: Commercial: Sky Tower (from the Fletcher Construction website)
6. ^ Construction Facts (from the SKYCITY Auckland website)

See also

External links




tower blocks. In the United States, the now-destroyed World Trade Center had the nickname the Twin Towers, a name shared with the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur.
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The Auckland metropolitan area or Greater Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest urban area of the country. It is also New Zealand's most populous city with over 1.3 million people, it has over a quarter of the country's population (32.
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Anthem
"God Defend New Zealand"
"God Save the Queen" 1


Capital Wellington

Largest city Auckland
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Distances shorter than 100 m

Conversions

100 m is equal to:
  • 328 feet
  • one side of a 1 hectare square
  • a fifth of a modern li, a Chinese unit of measurement
  • 1 hectometre

Wavelengths


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Southern Hemisphere or southern hemisphere[1] is the half of a planet that is south of the equator—the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball'. It is also that half of the celestial sphere south of the celestial equator.
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The World Federation of Great Towers (WFGT) is an association of tall towers and skyscrapers from around the world. It was created in 1989. The key criterion for inclusion in the WFGT is that the building in question must have a public observation deck.
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SKYCITY Auckland

Address Auckland, New Zealand
Signature attraction(s) Sky Tower
Owner SKYCITY Entertainment Group
Date opened February 2 1996
Casino type Land
Renovations 2006
Website http://www.skycityauckland.co.
..... Click the link for more information.
SKYCITY Entertainment Group Limited

Public (ASX: SKC NZX: SKC )
Founded 1996
Headquarters New Zealand

Key people Elmar Toime (CEO)
Industry Casinos and hotels
Products Casinos and Hotels
Website www.skycityentertainmentgroup.
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revolving restaurant is a restaurant on a revolving floorplate. The building remains stationary and the diners are carried on the revolving floor. The revolving rate varies between one and three times per hour and enables the visitors of the tower restaurant to enjoy the panorama
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Bungee jumping (or bungy jumping) is the sport that originated from New Zealand and was created by maverick daredevil A J Hackett, and his original jump from a bridge in Greenhithe, Auckland.
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BASE jumping is a sport involving the use of a parachute to jump from fixed objects. "BASE" is an acronym that stands for the four categories of fixed objects from which one can jump:
  • Building
  • Antenna (an uninhabited tower such as an aerial mast)

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The Auckland Peering Exchange (APE) is an Ethernet-based neutral peering point running over the CityLink metropolitan network in Auckland, New Zealand.

The Auckland Peering Exchange (APE) was established to allow entities connected to the APE switches in Auckland to send
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Availability
Terrestrial
Analogue VHF band
normally tuned to 3
SKY Television Analogue Channel 3
Satellite
Freeview DVB-S Channel 3
SKY Television Digital Channel 3
Cable
TelstraClear InHomeTV Channel 3 TV3
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Availability
Terrestrial
Analogue VHF band
normally tuned to 4 or 10
SKY Television Analogue Channel 10
Satellite
Freeview DVB-S Channel 4
SKY Television Digital Channel 64
Cable
TelstraClear InHomeTV Channel 64 C4
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Waiatarua is a small settlement near the top of the Waitakere Ranges, which border New Zealand's largest city, Auckland, close to the junction of Scenic Drive, West Coast Road and Piha Road to Piha.
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Fletcher Construction

Private company
Founded 1919
Headquarters Auckland, New Zealand

Area served New Zealand
Industry Construction
Products Building products
Services Construction
Parent Fletcher Building
Website www.fletcherconstruction.co.
..... Click the link for more information.
Beca Group (generally known as Beca) is a multinational, Australasia-centered engineering consultancy. It is the largest such company in New Zealand, where most of its staff are based.
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Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars ("rebars") or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle.
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Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure.
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Precast concrete is an ancient type of construction material made with concrete cast in a reusable mold or "form" and cured in a controlled environment, then transported to the construction site and lifted into place.
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The richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake.
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SKYCITY Auckland

Address Auckland, New Zealand
Signature attraction(s) Sky Tower
Owner SKYCITY Entertainment Group
Date opened February 2 1996
Casino type Land
Renovations 2006
Website http://www.skycityauckland.co.
..... Click the link for more information.
Beca Group (generally known as Beca) is a multinational, Australasia-centered engineering consultancy. It is the largest such company in New Zealand, where most of its staff are based.
..... Click the link for more information.
Fletcher Construction

Private company
Founded 1919
Headquarters Auckland, New Zealand

Area served New Zealand
Industry Construction
Products Building products
Services Construction
Parent Fletcher Building
Website www.fletcherconstruction.co.
..... Click the link for more information.
SKYCITY Auckland

Address Auckland, New Zealand
Signature attraction(s) Sky Tower
Owner SKYCITY Entertainment Group
Date opened February 2 1996
Casino type Land
Renovations 2006
Website http://www.skycityauckland.co.
..... Click the link for more information.
Macau Tower, also known as Macau Sky Tower, is a tower located in the former Portuguese colony of Macau, now a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. The tower measures 338 m (1,109 ft) in height from ground level to the highest point.
..... Click the link for more information.
SKYCITY Auckland

Address Auckland, New Zealand
Signature attraction(s) Sky Tower
Owner SKYCITY Entertainment Group
Date opened February 2 1996
Casino type Land
Renovations 2006
Website http://www.skycityauckland.co.
..... Click the link for more information.
Structurae is an online database containing works of structural and civil engineering of all kinds such as bridges, high-rise buildings, towers, dams, etc. Additionally, the database contains information on companies and persons (engineers, architects, and builders) involved in the
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Player support only: GNU/Linux (Intel, x86) and Solaris (Intel, SPARC) [1]
Genre: Multimedia Content Creator
License: Proprietary EULA
Website: Adobe.com's Flash page Adobe Flash, or simply Flash
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Maintainer: Apple Inc.

OS: Mac OS X, Windows XP and Vista

Use: Multimedia framework
License: Proprietary
Website: www.apple.com/quicktime/ QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc.
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