smut (fungus)

The smuts are fungi, mostly Ustilaginomycetes (of the class Teliomycetae, subphylum Basidiomycota), that cause plant disease.

Smuts affect grasses, notably including cereal crops such as maize. They initially attack the plant's reproductive system, forming galls which darken and burst, releasing fungal spores which infect other plants nearby.

A smut infestation is controlled by removing and destroying the infected plants. In Agriculture, this process is known as destruction of the initial inoculum.

Sugarcane smut

Sugarcane smut or culmicolous smut is caused by the fungus Ustilago scitaminea. The smut 'whip' is a curved black structure which emerges from the leaf whorl. Sugarcane smut causes significant losses to the economic value of a sugarcane crop. Sugarcane smut which has recently been found in the Eastern Seaboard Areas of Australia, which is one of the worlds highest yielding sugar areas.

Corn smut

Corn smut, (Ustilago maydis), which infects maize, is a delicacy in Mexico, and Brazil, originally enjoyed by the Aztecs. It enlarges the ear of corn and fills it with sooty spores. Corn smut causes millions of dollars in crop damage every year. However, the immature galls of corn smut remain a popular delicacy and is deliberately cultivated in some areas as huitlacoche.

See also

  • Covered smut Tilletia tritici (syn. T. caries) and T. laevis (syn. T. foetida)

External links

Eukarya
Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
(unranked) Opisthokonta

Kingdom: Fungi
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subkingdom/Phyla

Chytridiomycota
Blastocladiomycota

..... Click the link for more information.
Ustilaginomycetes
R. Bauer, Oberw. & Vánky[1]

Orders

Urocystales
Ustilaginales

Ustilaginomycetes is the class of true smut fungi. They are plant parasites with about 1400 recognised species in 70 genera.
..... Click the link for more information.
Basidiomycota
R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subphyla/Classes

Pucciniomycotina
Ustilaginomycotina
Agaricomycotina
Incertae sedis (no phylum)
Wallemiomycetes
Entorrhizomycetes




..... Click the link for more information.
''Plant pathology redirects here. For the journal, see Plant Pathology (journal).

Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).
..... Click the link for more information.
Grass is a common word that generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Gramineae (Poaceae). True grasses include most plants grown as grains, for pasture, and for lawns (turf).
..... Click the link for more information.
Cereal crops or grains are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible grains or seeds (i.e., botanically a type of fruit called a caryopsis). Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore
..... Click the link for more information.
Z. mays

Binomial name
Zea mays
L.

Maize (IPA: /ˈmeɪz/) (Zea mays L. ssp.
..... Click the link for more information.
Galls or plant galls are proliferations and modifications of plant tissues and can be caused by various parasites, from fungi and bacteria, to insects and mites. Galls are often very organised structures and because of this, the cause of the gall can often be determined without the
..... Click the link for more information.
spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersion and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and some protozoans.
..... Click the link for more information.
S. scitamineum

Binomial name
Sporisorium scitamineum
(Syd.) M. Piepenbr., M. Stoll & Oberw. 2002

Synonyms
Ustilago scitaminea

Sugarcane smut
..... Click the link for more information.
S. scitamineum

Binomial name
Sporisorium scitamineum
(Syd.) M. Piepenbr., M. Stoll & Oberw. 2002

Synonyms
Ustilago scitaminea

Sugarcane smut
..... Click the link for more information.
Saccharum
L.

Species

Saccharum arundinaceum
Saccharum bengalense
Saccharum edule
Saccharum officinarum
Saccharum procerum
Saccharum ravennae
Saccharum robustum

..... Click the link for more information.
U. maydis

Binomial name
Ustilago maydis
(Persoon) Roussel

Corn smut is a disease of maize caused by the pathogenic plant fungus Ustilago maydis. U.
..... Click the link for more information.
U. maydis

Binomial name
Ustilago maydis
(Persoon) Roussel

Corn smut is a disease of maize caused by the pathogenic plant fungus Ustilago maydis. U.
..... Click the link for more information.
Z. mays

Binomial name
Zea mays
L.

Maize (IPA: /ˈmeɪz/) (Zea mays L. ssp.
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Himno Nacional Mexicano


Capital
(and largest city) Mexico City

Official languages Spanish (
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
Ordem e Progresso   (Portuguese)
"Order and Progress"
Anthem
Hino Nacional Brasileiro
..... Click the link for more information.
The Aztec world
Aztec society
Nahuatl language
Aztec calendar
Aztec religion
Aztec mythology
Human sacrifice in Aztec culture
Aztec history
Aztln
Aztec codices
Aztec warfare
Aztec Triple Alliance
Spanish conquest of Mexico
..... Click the link for more information.
Tilletia caries

Also known as "bunt" or "stinking smut", this was a serious disease of wheat in Europe before the invention of organomercury seed disinfectants.

Symptoms


..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.