Sneferu

Snefru
Sneferu, Snofru, Soris
Preceded by:
Huni
Pharaoh of Egypt
4th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Khufu
Reign2613 BC to 2589 BC
29 years in Manetho
Nomen<hiero>G39-N5</hiero><hiero><-S29-F35-D21-G43-></hiero>
Sneferu
He of Beauty[1]
Horus
name
Neb-maat[1]
Nebty
name
Neb-maat-nebty[1]
Golden
Horus
Bik-nub[1]
Consort(s)Hetepheres I
IssueKhufu
FatherHuni
MotherMeresankh I
Died2589 BC
Major
Monuments
Bent Pyramid, Red Pyramid


Sneferu, also spelt as Snefru or Snofru (in Greek known as Soris), was the founder of the Fourth dynasty of Egypt, reigning from around 2613 BC to 2589 BC.

He was married to Hetepheres I who is thought to have been the daughter of his predecessor Huni. His father-in-law may also have been his father. According to this theory, Huni fathered Hetepheres from a wife and Sneferu from a concubine. Thus the marriage was what allowed Sneferu to inherit the throne.

Sneferu and Hetepheres were the parents of Egypt's most famous pyramid builder, Khufu. Sneferu was actually more prolific than his heir, being responsible first for completing the pyramid of Huni at Meidum, transforming it from a step pyramid to a true pyramid, the first of its kind. He then went on to build his own step pyramid there. These were followed by the famous Bent Pyramid at Dahshur, and finally, the Red Pyramid. A small pyramid at Seila, near Meidum, is also believed to have been built at his command. While the pyramids built under Sneferu are individually smaller than the Great Pyramid of Khufu, the total volume of stone used in Sneferu's monuments is the largest of all pharaohs.

Enlarge picture
The Red Pyramid of Sneferu


Despite the construction of such monuments, relatively little is known about his reign. From an inscription on the Palermo stone, it is evident that the Egyptians had already begun to import high-quality woods from abroad, as the inscription states that King Sneferu sent forty ships to acquire cedar from Lebanon. It is also known that he built boats used to transport goods and for military purposes to such places as the Sinai, Nubia, and Libya. Some of the court life from that time is evoked in the Westcar Papyrus, written sometime during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. Tradition ascribes that Sneferu was a wise and just ruler. Indeed, his reign was regarded in later years as something of a golden age. Clearly, his lifetime marked some kind of watershed in Egyptian history, as the dramatic expansion of pyramid-building seems to imply.

Notes

1. ^ Clayton, Peter A. 'Chronicle of the Pharaohs. p42. Thames and Hudson, London, 2006. ISBN 9-78-0500-286289
2. ^ Snefru accessed November 18, 2006

References

  • Anderson, Julie. 1999. "Furniture of the Old Kingdom". in Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • Leclant, Jean. 1999. "A Brief History of the Old Kingdom". in Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Huni was the last Pharaoh of Egypt of the Third dynasty. He established a fortress on the island of Elephantine, securing the southern border of Egypt at the First Cataract. Huni was probably the father of Hetepheres, queen of the next king, Sneferu.
..... Click the link for more information.
Dynasties of Pharaohs
in Ancient Egypt

Predynastic Egypt
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th
11th (Thebes only)

..... Click the link for more information.
Dynasties of Pharaohs
in Ancient Egypt

Predynastic Egypt
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th
11th (Thebes only)

..... Click the link for more information.
Khufu (in Greek known as Χέωψ, Cheops; pronounced "key-ops") was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. He reigned from around 2589 BC to 2566 BC. Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty.
..... Click the link for more information.
The creation of a reliable Chronology of Ancient Egypt is a task fraught with problems. While the overwhelming majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many of the details of a common chronology, disagreements either individually or in groups have resulted in a variety of
..... Click the link for more information.
c. 2613 BC – 2494 BC — The Great Sphinx at Giza is built. Fourth Dynasty.
  • c. 2601 BC–c. 2515 BC — Great Pyramids at Giza are built for Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu. Fourth Dynasty.
  • c. 2601 BC — Khufu started to rule in Ancient Egypt.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
  • c. 2900 BC–2334 BC — Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period continue.
  • c. 2600 BC — The Harappan civilization rises to become a powerful civilization.
  • c. 2600 BC — Pre-Palace Period, phase I, in Crete (Mellersh 1970)
  • c.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
  • Queen Hetepheres I was the sister and wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Sneferu, and mother of Khufu, and is thought to have been the daughter of Huni. She may have died during the reign of Khufu.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    c. 2900 BC–2334 BC — Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period continue.
  • c. 2600 BC — The Harappan civilization rises to become a powerful civilization.
  • c. 2600 BC — Pre-Palace Period, phase I, in Crete (Mellersh 1970)
  • c.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
  • Bent Pyramid, located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur, approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo, of Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu, is a unique example of early pyramid development in Egypt. This was the second pyramid built by Sneferu.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Red Pyramid, named for the light crimson hue of its exposed granite surface, is the largest of the three major pyramids located at the Dahshur necropolis, and the third largest Egyptian pyramid, after those of Khufu and Khafre at Giza.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Greek}}} 
    Writing system: Greek alphabet 
    Official status
    Official language of:  Greece
     Cyprus
     European Union
    recognised as minority language in parts of:
     European Union
     Italy
     Turkey
    Regulated by:
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    Dynasties of Pharaohs
    in Ancient Egypt

    Predynastic Egypt
    Protodynastic Period
    Early Dynastic Period
    1st 2nd
    Old Kingdom
    3rd 4th 5th 6th
    First Intermediate Period
    7th 8th 9th 10th
    11th (Thebes only)

    ..... Click the link for more information.
    c. 2613 BC – 2494 BC — The Great Sphinx at Giza is built. Fourth Dynasty.
  • c. 2601 BC–c. 2515 BC — Great Pyramids at Giza are built for Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu. Fourth Dynasty.
  • c. 2601 BC — Khufu started to rule in Ancient Egypt.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
  • c. 2900 BC–2334 BC — Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period continue.
  • c. 2600 BC — The Harappan civilization rises to become a powerful civilization.
  • c. 2600 BC — Pre-Palace Period, phase I, in Crete (Mellersh 1970)
  • c.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
  • Queen Hetepheres I was the sister and wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Sneferu, and mother of Khufu, and is thought to have been the daughter of Huni. She may have died during the reign of Khufu.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Huni was the last Pharaoh of Egypt of the Third dynasty. He established a fortress on the island of Elephantine, securing the southern border of Egypt at the First Cataract. Huni was probably the father of Hetepheres, queen of the next king, Sneferu.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. Typically, the man has an official wife and, in addition, one or more concubines.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    pyramid is any three-dimensional structure where the upper surfaces are triangular and converge on one point (apex). The base of pyramids are usually quadrilateral or trilateral (but generally may be of any polygon shape), meaning that a pyramid usually has four or three sides.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Khufu (in Greek known as Χέωψ, Cheops; pronounced "key-ops") was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. He reigned from around 2589 BC to 2566 BC. Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Meidum (Arabic: ميدوم) is the location of a large pyramid, and several large mud-brick mastabas.

    Pyramid


    ..... Click the link for more information.
    step pyramids has been an ancient part of several cultures throughout history. These pyramids typically are large and made of several layers, or steps, of stone. The term refers to pyramids of similar design that emerged separately from one another, as there was no connection
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Bent Pyramid, located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur, approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo, of Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu, is a unique example of early pyramid development in Egypt. This was the second pyramid built by Sneferu.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    State Party  Egypt
    Type Cultural
    Criteria i, iii, vi
    Reference 86
    Region Arab States

    Inscription History
    Inscription 1979  (3rd Session)
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    Red Pyramid, named for the light crimson hue of its exposed granite surface, is the largest of the three major pyramids located at the Dahshur necropolis, and the third largest Egyptian pyramid, after those of Khufu and Khafre at Giza.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Khufu (in Greek known as Χέωψ, Cheops; pronounced "key-ops") was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. He reigned from around 2589 BC to 2566 BC. Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Dynasties of Pharaohs
    in Ancient Egypt

    Predynastic Egypt
    Protodynastic Period
    Early Dynastic Period
    1st 2nd
    Old Kingdom
    3rd 4th 5th 6th
    First Intermediate Period
    7th 8th 9th 10th
    11th (Thebes only)

    ..... Click the link for more information.
    Palermo Stone or the "Old Kingdom Annals" (the text) is a fragment of an ancient Egyptian stela of black basalt that was engraved toward the end of the fifth dynasty during the twenty-fifth century B.C. It is probably the earliest known Egyptian historical text.
    ..... Click the link for more information.
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