Spanish language in the Philippines
Information about Spanish language in the Philippines
|Spanish in the Philippines |
Idioma espaÃ±ol en Filipinas
|Pronunciation:||/espa'ɲol/, /kaste'ʎano/ or /kaste'ʝano/|
|Spoken in:||the Philippines|
|Total speakers:||First languagea: 322<- c. 400 million |
Totala: 400–500 million
aAll numbers are approximate.rank = 2-4 (native)
Total: 3fam2 = Italicfam3 = Romancefam4 = Italo-Westernfam5 = Gallo-Iberianfam6 = Ibero-Romancefam7 = West Iberianfam7 = Spanishscript = Latin (Spanish variant)nation =agency = Academia Filipina de la Lengua EspaÃ±olaiso1 = fil-esiso2 = fil-esiso3 = fil-es
Spanish in the Philippines}}}
Spanish was the first official language of the Philippines since the conquest by Spain in the 16th century. Spanish was proclaimed the official language of the independent First Philippine Republic by the Malolos Constitution of 1899 which was itself written in Spanish. Following the Philippine-American War, the First Philippine Republic was abolished and US sectarian colonist implemented English as the language of education and government, leaving Spanish and Tagalog language as co-official. Nevertheless, Spanish continued to be the language of business, culture, and to a certain extent politics, until the 1970s. However, as younger and new generations of Filipinos educated in the English language became fluent in American pop culture, the use of Spanish gradually declined and no longer spoken by the majority of the population. Spanish remained an official language until ratification of the 1973 constitution on January 17, 1973.
There are thousands of Spanish loan words in 170 indigenous Philippine languages. According to the 1990 Philippine census, there are 2,658 native Spanish speakers (Spanish being their first language) and 607,200 Spanish-based creole Chavacano speakers in the country. However, there is a total of 2.9 million Spanish-speaking people in the Philippines including those who speak it as a second, third, or even fourth language (according to the book, "Getting By in Spanish", published by BBC Worldwide Ltd. and the Barron's Educational Series) . A 2006 study conducted by the Instituto Cervantes and the ConsejerÃa de EducaciÃ³n de la Embajada de EspaÃ±a (Education Council, Embassy of Spain), in coordination with the Academia Filipina de la Lengua EspaÃ±ola (Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language) also produced an estimated figure of 3.18 million Spanish speakers.
On August 8, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo announced that Spanish will be reinstated as an official language of the Philippines by January 2008, and has asked help from the Spanish government in her plan, which will include an official ceremony and reintroduce Spanish as a required subject in the Philippine school system.
The Spanish colonial eraSpanish was first introduced to the Philippines in 1565, when the conquistador, Miguel LÃ³pez de Legazpi founded the first Spanish settlement on the island of Cebu. The Philippines, ruled from Mexico City was a Spanish territory for 333 years (1565-1898).
Although the language was never compulsory while under Spanish colonial rule, Spanish was at one time spoken by around 10% of the population. It was the first and only language of the Spanish and Filipino-Spanish mestizos minority, and the second but most important language of the educated native Ilustrados. The stance of the Roman Catholic Church and its missionaries was also to preach to the natives in local languages, and not in Spanish. The priests and friars preached in local languages and employed indigenous peoples as translators, creating a bilingual class known as ladinos. The natives, generally were not taught Spanish, but the bilingual individuals, notably poet-translator Gaspar Aquino de BelÃ©n, produced devotional poetry written in the Roman script in the Tagalog language. Pasyon is a narrative of the passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ begun by Gaspar Aquino de BelÃ©n, which has circulated in many versions. Later, the Spanish ballads of chivalry, the corrido, provided a model for secular literature. Verse narratives, or komedya, were performed in the regional languages for the illiterate majority.
A reason that Spanish did not expand as much as it did in the Americas is attributed to the fact that the archipelago was not a direct colony of Spain, but instead was administered from Mexico City (in what was then New Spain) thereby lessening the possibility of large scale Spanish migration to the Philippines. Another reason is the large distance separating Spain from the Philippines as compared to the Americas. Yet another is the actual population of Spaniards settling in the Philippines was believed to be quite less than that of the Americas.
The more important reason however, is that the Philippines was prevented from consolidating its independent statehood under the First Philippine Republic and the Constitution of Malolos in 1899, which had established Spanish as the sole official language and would have continued the use of Spanish in public schools and universities as the medium of instruction. This would have increased the numbers of Filipino Spanish speakers considerably in a few generations, a phenomenon which took place in most Hispanic countries in Latin America after their independence during the 19th century. In the Philippines this was frustrated due to the US occupation and change of educational policy. Indigenous Philippine languages remained in use and Spanish was substituted for English as the medium of instruction. Also crucial in explaining the decrease of Spanish was the Philippine-American War in which thousands of Spanish-speaking Filipinos perished. In the 20th century, the US colonial governments increasingly marginalized Spanish by gradually forcing the press, schools and other institutions to abandon this language.
In 1593, the first printing press was founded. A great portion of the colonial history of the Philippines is written in Spanish. Up until recently, many land titles, contracts, newspapers and literature were still written in Spanish, and though it is no longer an official language, legal documents in Spanish are still recognized in Filipino courts of law.
The Universidad de Santo Tomas, one of the oldest existing educational institutions in Asia, was inaugurated in 1611 and continues to this day as the property of both Spain and the Roman Catholic church. Hence, the words "Royal" and "Pontifical" are part of the university's official title.
In 1863, Queen Isabel II of Spain decreed the establishment of a public school system.
A 17th century book to learn CastilianIn the early seventeenth century a Tagalog printer, Tomas Pinpin, set out to write a book in romanized phonetic script to teach Tagalogs how to learn Castilian. His book, published by the Dominican press where he worked, appeared in 1610, the same year as Blancas's arte. Unlike the missionary's grammar (which Pinpin had set in type), the Tagalog native's book dealt with the language of the dominant rather than the subordinate other. Pinpin's book was the first such work ever written and published by a Philippine native. As such, it is richly instructive for what it tells us about the interests that animated Tagalog translation and, by implication, Tagalog conversion in the early colonial period. Pinpin construed translation in ways that tended less to oppose than to elude the totalizing claims of Spanish signifying conventions.
The role of Spanish in rising nationalism
Propagandists during the Spanish era spread nationalism through Spanish. JosÃ© Rizal's novels Noli Me Tangere, Graciano LÃ³pez-Jaena's satirical articles, Marcelo Hilario del Pilar's anti-clerical manifestos, the bi-weekly La Solidaridad (published in Spain) and other materials in awakening nationalism were written in Spanish. The country's first constitution was written in Spanish, as well as the National Anthem. The constitution proclaimed Spanish as an official language. According to Horacio de la Costa, nationalism would not have been possible without Spanish. It is through Spanish that natives became aware of nationalistic ideas and independence movements in other countries.
Spanish was used by the first Filipino patriots like JosÃ© Rizal, AndrÃ©s Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo, who chose Spanish as the national language of independent Philippines. Spanish was used to write the country's first constitution, ConstituciÃ³n PolÃtica de Malolos, the original national anthem, (Himno Nacional Filipino), as well as nationalistic propaganda material and literature, like JosÃ© Rizal's Noli Me Tangere. Indeed, Philippine nationalism was first propagated in the Spanish language.
During the Spanish colonial era, and also through the early American period, Philippine nationalism, government reforms, the country's first constitution and historic novels were written in Spanish. While not widely understood by the majority of the population, Spanish at this time was nonetheless the unifying language since Tagalog was not as prominent or ubiquitous as it is today and each region had their own culture and language, and would rather speak in their local languages. Denizens of each region thought of themselves as Ilocano, Cebuano, Bicolano, et cetera, and not as Filipinos.
Throughout the colonial era the term "Filipino" originally referred to only the Filipino-born Spaniards and Filipino mestizos; while indigenous Filipinos (who are referred to as Indios) referred to them as 'Castila' or 'Cachila'.
The Ilustrados or "The Enlightened Ones", which included Philippine-born Spaniards, certain Mestizos, Sangleys (or Chinese mestizos) and prominent indigenous Filipinos, were the educated elite who promoted and propagated nationalism and a modern Filipino consciousness. The unifying force is primary reasons historians say that the Spanish authorities did not want to promote the language.
JosÃ© Rizal propagated Filipino consciousness and identity in Spanish. One material highly instrumental in developing nationalism was the novel Noli Me Tangere (Latin for "Do not touch me") which exposed abuses of the Spanish government and clergy. Nevertheless, Rizal promoted the use of the indigenous languages.
The novel Noli Me Tangere's very own notoriety among the Spanish authorities, government and clergy, propelled its popularity even more among Filipinos. Reading it was forbidden because it exposed and parodied Spanish clergy and government authority.
The American era
- See also:
Although the English language had begun to be heavily promoted and used as the medium of education and government proceedings, the majority of Spanish literature by indigenous Filipinos was produced at this time. Among the great Filipino literary writers of the period were Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Rafael Palma, Cecilio ApÃ³stol, JesÃºs Balmori, Manuel BernabÃ©, Trinidad Pardo de Tavera and Teodoro M. Kalaw.
This explosion of Spanish language literature occurred because the upper class minority were educated in Spanish. For the first time, Filipinos experienced a greater degree of freedom of expression and even support, since the Spanish authorities weren't too receptive to Filipino writers and intellectuals during the colonial period. As a result, Spanish became the most important language in the country despite that the majority was composed of non-Spanish speaking natives.
The new Philippine Republic established Spanish as the official language in the constitution of 1898, drawn up during the Constitutional Convention in Malolos, Bulacan. The language was then free to be taught and learned by all the natives, and not just by the select few. Its officialization was in an attempt to increase its speakers so it would serve as a common language in a nation of over 80 different local languages, each with its many dialects
In his 1899 book “Yesterdays in the Philippines”, the American John Early Stevens wrote: Spanish, of course, is the court and commercial language and, except among the uneducated native who have a lingua of their own or among the few members of the Anglo-Saxon colony, it has a monopoly everywhere. No one can really get on without it, and even the Chinese come in with their peculiar pidgin variety. (Page 11).
While the 1903 census officially reported the number of Spanish-speakers at only 1% of the population, it only considered those who were monolingual in the language and had Spanish as their one and only tongue, ie. Peninsulares (Spanish-born Spaniards), Insulares (Filipino-born Spaniards), and other Europeans (Filipino-born, Spanish-speaking Italian families, among others). It completely disregarded the bilingual Spanish-mestizo and multilingual Chinese-mestizo and Chinese minorities who - although spoke two or more languages - utilized Spanish as their primary language of business and culture. Furthermore, the indigenous Filipino illustrado class, who were academically instructed in the Spanish language, also used Spanish as their primary language despite having any one of the many native languages as their mother tongue. These together would have placed the numbers at 10% of the 8 million Filipinos of that era as Spanish-speakers.
The 1916 report by Henry Ford to President Woodrow Wilson says
- ...as I traveled through the Philippine Islands, using ordinary transportation and mixing with all classes of people under all conditions. Although based on the school statistics it is said that more Filipinos speak English than any other language, no one can be in agreement with this declaration if they base their assessment on what they hear...
- Spanish is everywhere the language of business and social intercourse...In order for anyone to obtain prompt service from anyone, Spanish turns out to be more useful than English...And outside of Manila it is almost indispensable. The Americans who travel around all the islands customarily use it.
In 1924, the Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language was created. In 1936, Filipino films in Spanish began to be produced.
Decline of the Spanish languageSpanish has been in decline since the 20th century due to the introduction of the English language, "lacked" of promotion to the public sphere and guidance by the Filipino government.
During World War II many of the centuries old Spanish-speaking families of Philippines migrated to Spain, Latin America and the United States following the US bombing of Intramuros home to thousands of Spanish-speaking families. Many migrated also during the Marcos regime. By 1940 the number of Spanish-speakers in the Philippines was approximately 6 million, however, as a percentage of the total population the numbers had actually dropped. By the 1950 Census Spanish-speakers constituted 6% of the population, down from a 10% peak. However, down through the 1960s and 1970s, Filipinos were still being exposed to the Spanish language through print and audiovisual media even before they learned to speak Filipino or English.
Spanish was abolished as an official language in 1973 during the Marcos regime and as a compulsory school subject in 1987 by Corazon Aquino.
The state of Spanish todayToday, Spanish is only used for cultural heritage purposes and on an optional basis. Recently there seems to have been a resurgence in interest in the language among educated youth as seen in recent survey by the Academia Filipina de la Lengua EspaÃ±ola (English: Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language), which showed that there were roughly 2,900,000 Spanish speakers in the Philippines (as a first, second, third, or fourth language) in 2006. The language is spoken and maintained mostly by Spanish-Filipinos living in minor communities throughout the country.
The reinstatement of Spanish as an official languageOn August 8, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo announced that Spanish will be "reinstated as an official language" of the Philippines by January 2008, and has asked help from the Spanish government in her plan, which will include an official ceremony and reintroduce Spanish as a required subject in the Philippine school system.
The reintroduction of Spanish as an official language is still in heavy dispute. On one side, much of the history and culture of the Philippines is embedded in the language, including the original Malolos Constitution and the works of national hero JosÃ© Rizal. On the other, Spanish is seen by some as the language of the former Philippine elite. In any case there are an estimated 13 million manuscripts from the 16th century to 1898 in the Spanish language, which include government documents, economics, trade disputes, legal matters, patriotic material, religious material, registrations etc. Up to the 1960s, birth certificates were printed in both English and Spanish. There is still a very strong need to translate a great number of historical documents for academic and research purposes.
As Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines mandates that: "For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English. The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis", the reinstatement of Spanish as an official language may arguably require a constitutional change.
Spanish as is used in the PhilippinesSince the Philippines was administered by New Spain (Mexico) rather than Spain itself during the colonial period, the Spanish language spoken in the Philippines had a greater affinity to Mexican Spanish (ie. Spanish as spoken in Mexico) rather than that of European Spanish (as spoken in Spain) and indigenous Philippine languages. Today, many of the Spanish families existing have stronger ties to Spain rather than Mexico, therefore European Spanish or has gained more ground.
PhonologyWhen pronouncing Spanish words (such as names of people or places), there are tendencies among the majority non-Spanish-speaking population to:
- Stress words differently than would Spanish speakers,
- Raise the mid vowels /o/ and /e/,
- Insert a glottal stop [/] before stressed syllable-initial vowels,
- Palatalize (or affricate) alveolar sounds when they appear before [j],
- Seseo, as in Latin America and Andalusia (where the tendency originated from). The modern European Castilian phoneme IPA /θ/ as in ciento, caza (interdental voiceless fricative, like English th in thin) does not exist in traditional Philippine Spanish nor in any native Philippine language; it combined with /s/ as in siento, casa,
- Pronounce d as [d] in all positions,
- Pronounce g as [g] in all positions,
- Pronounce both b and v as [b] or differentiate between the two, resulting in v sounding as in English,
- Pronounce z as [z],
- Pronounce sce and sci as [se] and [si] respectively,
- Not distinguish between r and rr,
- Pronounce the h,
- Pronounce au as [o],
- Pronounce eu as [ju],
- Pronounce sr as [sr] or [zr] ,
- Pronounce final m as [m].
VocabularyThere are Native Americanisms, archaisms and borrowings from indigenous Philippine languages. In fact, of the great number of Spanish loan words that exist in the various Filipino languages, a few are actually of Nahuatl origin that were first incorporated into Mexican Spanish, and which do not exist in European Spanish. These include nanay(nantl), tatay(tatle), bayabas [from guayaba(s), guava], abokado (avocado), papaya, zapote, etc.
WritingDiacritic marks are almost always left out, save for the tilde on the Ã±. Spanish words however are vocally stressed as they would be by Spanish speakers, by older generations and an increasing number of younger Filipinos.
Philippine computer keyboards currently and have always used the US standard layout, which includes neither Ã± nor combining diacritics. Typewriters sometimes include the Ã± but not accented vowels.
Influence on the languages of the PhilippinesThere are approximately 4,000 Spanish words in Tagalog, and around 6,000 Spanish words in Visayan and other languages. The Spanish counting system, calendar, time, etc. are still in use with slight modifications. Archaic Spanish words have been preserved in Tagalog and the other vernaculars such as pera (coins), sabon [jabÃ³n (at the beginning of Spanish rule, the j used to be pronounced as [ʃ], the voiceless postalveolar fricative or the "sh" sound) - soap], relos [reloj (with the j sound) - watch], kwarta (cuarta), etc. The Spaniards and the language are referred to as either Kastila or Katsila (especially in most Visayan languages) after Castilla or Castile, the original Spanish Kingdom under which Spain was unified in 1492, which later became a Spanish region.
Chavacano, also called ZamboangueÃ±o, is a Spanish-based creole language spoken in the Philippines. Chavacano is concentrated mostly in the South, in the provinces of Zamboanga, with some speakers are found in Cavite. As a large number of workers to build military and other Spanish establishments in Zamboanga and other areas in the South, were imported from different linguistic regions, Chavacano developed and became the main language in the Zamboanga peninsula.
Meaning changesWhile many Spanish words have made their way to Philippine languages, many of these words have had a shift in meaning from the original Spanish. This has resulted in false friends, related words that exist in two languages with different meanings. A sampling of these words are shown below:
|Word||Language||Meaning in the Philippines||Original Spanish word||Spanish meaning|
|madre||Tagalog||nun (only)||madre||mother (parent) and nun|
|padre||Tagalog||priest (only, inflexible)||padre||father (parent) and priest|
|muchacha||Tagalog||maid (only)||muchacha||maid (Mexico and Spain) and girl|
|querida||Tagalog||mistress (only)||querida||dear (used for female loved ones including mothers, sisters, aunts, and friends) and mistress (when used as "la querida")|
|entonses||Tagalog||elite class||entonces||then, afterwards|
|chika||Tagalog||gossip and girl||chica||girl|
|pare||Tagalog||friend (slang)||pare||to stop, and friend (Caribbean Spanish) from "com-padre"|
|asar||Tagalog||to annoy||azar||luck, chance|
|bale||Tagalog||well and worth, wages, pay||vale||ok! and voucher or promissory note|
|banda||Tagalog||"near a place" and band||banda||band, side|
|barat||Tagalog||cheap||barato||cheap, low prices|
|maldito/a||Tagalog||naughty "little devil"||maldito/a||curse word|
|bomba||Tagalog||erotica/nudity and bomb||bomba||bomb, and impressive or surprising (slang) used as an exclamation ("la bomba!")|
|onse||Tagalog||eleven and hustle||once||eleven|
|pitso||Tagalog||chicken breast (only)||pecho||breast (in general including humans and other animals)|
|siguro||Tagalog, Chabacano, Cebuano, Ilokano, Hiligaynon||maybe||seguro||secure, stable, sure|
|syempre||Tagalog, Chabacano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon||of course||siempre||always|
|konyo||Tagalog||gold digger||coÃ±o||Exclamation and curse word (coÃ±o!)|
|letse||Tagalog||milk and curse word||leche||milk, and curse word|
|pirmi||Hiligaynon, Cebuano, Chabacano||steady||firme||firm, steady|
|basta||Tagalog, Chabacano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon||as long as||basta ; hasta||enough, stop!; until|
|Impakto||Tagalog||spirit causing temporary madness (originally elemental spirit from the earth)''||impacto||impact, shock|
|maske, maski||Tagalog, Chabacano (spelled masquen), Cebuano, Hiligaynon||even if||por mÃ¡s que/ mÃ¡s que||as much as; even if; even then;/more than|
|kasilyas||Tagalog, Cebuano, Chabacano, Ilokano||Comfort room (toilet)||casillas||squares, cube, hut|
|barkada||Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilokano||group of friends||barcada||boatload|
|sugal||Tagalog, Cebuano||gambling||jugar||to play, to gamble|
|mamon||Tagalog, Cebuano||fluffy bread||mamÃ³n (de "mamar"), mamÃ³n (de "mamas")||suckle (from mamar "to suckle") mammary glands (as in the English word "mammaries") Also papaya in the Caribbean|
|pera||Tagalog||money||pera||silver coin; pear|
|silbi||Tagalog, Cebuano||to serve||servir||to serve|
|suplado||Tagalog, Cebuano||snobbish, snooty, stubborn(child), brat||soplado||blown|
|kontrabida||Tagalog, Cebuano||villain||contra vida||against life|
False cognatesThe following words do not fall under false friends. They are still a source of confusion:
|Word||Language||Meaning in the Philippines||Similar Spanish word||Spanish meaning|
|Ama||Tagalog, Ilocano||father||ama||housewife, to love|
|Lupa||Tagalog||ground, earth||lupa||magnifying glass|
|Luto||Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilonggo||cook||luto||mourn|
|Puto||Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Ilonggo||a type of rice cake||puto||curse word|
|Baho||Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilonggo||pungent, smelly||bajo||low, short|
|Sabi||Tagalog||to say||saber||to know|
List of Spanish words of Philippine originAlthough the greatest linguistic impact and wordloans have been from Spanish to the languages of the Philippines, the Filipino languages have also loaned some words to Spanish.
Following are some of the words of Philippine origin that can be found in the DRAE (the dictionary published by the Royal Spanish Academy):
- abacÃ¡(from AbakÃ¡)
- baguio (from bagyo), typhoon/hurricane
- barangay(from Balangay, Balanghai)
- bolo, a big knife or short sword
- carabao (from kalabaw)
- caracoa, (from Karakau)small barge
- cogÃ³n, (from Kogon)a grass
- gumamela, a flower
- paipay,(from Pamaypay) a kind of fan
- palay, unhusked rice
- pantalÃ¡n, wooden pier
- sampaguita, a flower
- The city of Ozamiz announced plans to recommission the Guardia Civil, who will be required to take Spanish language courses and whose first task will be to guard a local 250-year-old fortress.
- Manuel L. Quezon brought a Spanish dictionary to the United States when he was in exile, as he was more fluent in the language.
- Manila is home to the main East Asian branch of the Instituto Cervantes, the Spanish government's official overseas institute for the promotion of Spanish language. The Spanish language enjoys popularity as a language of choice for learning a foreign language among new generations of young Filipinos.
- Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language
- Hispanic culture in the Philippines
- Spanish Filipinos
- Latin Union
- Chavacano language
- Spanish language
- Literature of the Philippines
- Black Legend
- Language shift
- Tagalog loanwords
- About History:
- La Solidaridad article on teaching of Spanish during the Spanish Period
- "Statistics: Spanish Language in the Philippines"
- About Philippine Spanish
- Spanish in the Philippines, by Ian Mackenzie
- Philippine Spanish Literature by Professor Resil Mojares
- Chabacano, Spanish and the Philippine Linguistic Identity, by John M. Lipski
- About the influence on the languages of the Philippines
- Spanish words in Tagalog
id="CITEREFLipskic.2002">Lipski, John (c.2002), Spanish world-wide: the last century of language contacts, < (retrieved on 2007-08-03).
1. ^ Ethlogue-Spanish-language]
- Alas Filipinas, the first and only Filipino blog written entirely in Spanish.
- Instituto Cervantes in Manila.
- Spanish Speaking call -center
2. ^ Encarta-Most Spoken languages
3. ^ Ciberamerica-Castellano
4. ^ El Nuevo Diario
5. ^ Terra Noticias
6. ^ Universidad de MÃ©xico
7. ^ Instituto Cervantes ("El Mundo" news)
8. ^ Yahoo Press Room
9. ^ Languages of the world by Ethnologue
10. ^ Most widely spoken languges by Nations Online
11. ^ Most spoken languages by Ask Men
12. ^ Encarta Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People
13. ^ La presidenta filipina pedirÃ¡ ayuda a EspaÃ±a para oficializar el espaÃ±ol (Spanish). MSN Noticias. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
14. ^ The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines; Article 14: Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports. Government of thePhilippines. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
International Phonetic Alphabet
- CÃrculo Hispanofilipino, a group which aims to preserve and revive the use of the Spanish language in the Philippines.
- Espaniero, An Online Conversation Group for Pinoys
Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
IPA for English The
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..... Click the link for more information.Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. It includes the Romance languages (including Italian, Catalan, Occitan, French, Corsican, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish), and a number of extinct languages.
..... Click the link for more information.Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprisies all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire.
..... Click the link for more information.Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. It comprises 38 languages in 2 subsets: Italo-Dalmatian, and Western.
- Italo-Dalmatian includes Italian, Neapolitan and the extinct Dalmatian.
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- Gallo-Italic languages
- Western Lombard
- Eastern Lombard
..... Click the link for more information.Iberian Romance languages followed more or less this process:
- A common Romance language with dialectal differences was spoken throughout the ancient Roman Empire. During this stage, we can speak of the
..... Click the link for more information.West Iberian is a branch of the Romance languages which includes Spanish, Ladino, the Astur-Leonese group (Asturian, Leonese, Extremaduran and Mirandese), and the modern descendants of Galician-Portuguese (Galician, Portuguese, and the Fala language).
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Writing system: Latin (Spanish variant)
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: —
ISO 639-3: —
..... Click the link for more information.Latin alphabet
Child systems Numerous: see Alphabets derived from the Latin
Sister systems Cyrillic
Unicode range See Latin characters in Unicode
ISO 15924 Latn
..... Click the link for more information.Spanish orthography is one of the most phonemic among those that are written with the Latin alphabet. For detailed information on the pronunciation not found here, see also Spanish phonology.
..... Click the link for more information.The Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language (in Spanish: Academia Filipina de la Lengua EspaÃ±ola) is the main Spanish-language regulating body in the Philippines. Its headquarters are located in Makati City. It was established in Manila on July 25, 1924.
..... Click the link for more information.A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language. As with biological families, the evidence of relationship is observable shared characteristics.
..... Click the link for more information.ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. It consists of 136 two-letter codes used to identify the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international shorthand for indicating languages.
..... Click the link for more information.ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 language codes in the list.
..... Click the link for more information.ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. It extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages. The standard was published by ISO on 5 February 2007.
..... Click the link for more information.An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. It is typically the language used in a nation's legislative bodies, though the law in many nations requires that government documents be produced in other
..... Click the link for more information.Motto
"Plus Ultra" (Latin)
"Marcha Real" 1
..... Click the link for more information.The First Philippine Republic, officially RepÃºblica Filipina (English: Philippine Republic) was the shortlived government of the Philippines formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899 in Malolos, Bulacan until
..... Click the link for more information.18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1860s 1870s 1880s - 1890s - 1900s 1910s 1920s
1896 1897 1898 - 1899 - 1900 1901 1902
Subjects: Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.Philippine-American War was an armed military conflict between the United States of America and the First Philippine Republic, fought between 1899 to at least 1902, which occurred from a Filipino political struggle against U.S. occupation of the Philippines.
..... Click the link for more information.Philippine English is the variety of English used in the Republic of the Philippines by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos. English is taught in schools as one of the two official languages of the country, the other being Filipino, the standardized dialect of
..... Click the link for more information.Tagalog}}}
Writing system: Latin (Filipino variant);
Historically written in Baybayin
Official language of: Philippines (in the form of Filipino)
Regulated by: Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (Commission on the Filipino language)
..... Click the link for more information.Motto
"In God We Trust" (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum" ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
..... Click the link for more information.Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that society's vernacular language or lingua franca.
..... Click the link for more information.January 17 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.
- 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla.
..... Click the link for more information.19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1940s 1950s 1960s - 1970s - 1980s 1990s 2000s
1970 1971 1972 - 1973 - 1974 1975 1976
..... Click the link for more information.A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. By contrast, a calque or loan translation is a related concept whereby it is the meaning or idiom that is borrowed rather than the lexical item itself.
..... Click the link for more information.There are over 170 languages in the Philippines; almost all of them belong to the Austronesian language family. Of all of these languages, only 2 are considered official in the country, at least 10 are considered major and at least 8 are considered co-official.
..... Click the link for more information.20th century - 21st century
1960s 1970s 1980s - 1990s - 2000s 2010s 2020s
1987 1988 1989 - 1990 - 1991 1992 1993
Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar).
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