sporangium

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Mature sporangium of a Mucor mold
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Moss sporangia (capsules)
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Sporangia (sori) on a fern leaf
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Equisetum arvense strobilus cut open to reveal sporangia


A sporangium (pl., sporangia) is a plant or fungal structure producing and containing spores. Sporangia occur on angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns, fern allies, bryophytes, algae, and fungi. Their spores are sometimes called sporangiospores.

Microsporangia are the structures on the stamens of flowers called anthers, and the pollen-producing structures on the microsporophylls of male conifer cones.

Megasporangia are the comparable "female" structures on these plants, associated with the flower carpel and the megasporangial cone.

On ferns, the mature plant is a sporophyte that develops sporangia, tiny, stalked sacs which contain meiospores, on all or just certain leaves (called sporophylls if sporangia are present). The spores are on the underside of the leaves.

In mosses, the little case that rises above the vegetative growth on a thin stalk is a sporangium often called a capsule that, as in ferns, produces meiospores. This sporophytic (diploid) growth arises out of the gametophytic (haploid) archegonium after the ovum is fertilized. The sporophyte initially has some chlorophyll, but later turns brown and becomes dependent upon the gametophyte for nutrition, which is absorbed through the foot (base of the stalk), embedded in the archegonial tissues.

Categorized based on developmental sequence, eusporangia and leptosporangia are differentiated in the vascular plants. In a leptosporangium, found only in ferns, development involves a single initial cell that becomes the stalk, wall, and spores within the sporangium. There are around 64 spores in a leptosporangium. In a eusporangium, characteristic of all other vascular plants and some primitive ferns, the initials are in a layer (i.e., more than one). A eusporangium is larger (hence contain more spores), and its wall is multi-layered. Although the wall may be stretched and damaged, resulting in only one cell-layer remaining.

A cluster of sporangia that have become fused in development is called a synangium. This structure is most prominent in Psilotum and Marattiaceae such as Christensenia, Danaea and Marattia.

See also

Plantae
Haeckel, 1866[1]

Divisions

Green algae
  • Chlorophyta
  • Charophyta
Land plants (embryophytes)
  • Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes)

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Eukarya
Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
(unranked) Opisthokonta

Kingdom: Fungi
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subkingdom/Phyla

Chytridiomycota
Blastocladiomycota

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spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersion and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and some protozoans.
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Magnoliophyta

Classes

Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Liliopsida - Monocots

The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. The flowering plants and the gymnosperms comprise the two extant groups of seed plants.
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gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, the sporophylls usually arranged in cone-like structures.
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FERN

Charity
Founded 1995, The Netherlands
Headquarters Brussels, Belgium and Moreton-in-Marsh, UK

Key people Jutta Kill
Leontien Krul
Iola Leal Riesco
Judith Neyer
Saskia Ozinga
Industry Environmentalism
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Fern ally is a general term covering a somewhat diverse group of vascular plants that are not flowering plants and not true ferns. Like ferns, these plants disperse by shedding spores to initiate an alternation of generations.
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The bryophytes are those embryophytes ('land plants') that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. They neither flower nor produce seeds, reproducing via spores.
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phytoplankton — provide the food base for most marine food chains. In very high densities (so-called algal blooms) these algae may discolor the water and outcompete or poison other life forms.
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Eukarya
Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
(unranked) Opisthokonta

Kingdom: Fungi
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subkingdom/Phyla

Chytridiomycota
Blastocladiomycota

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stamen (plural stamina, from Latin stamen meaning "thread of the warp") is the male organ of a flower. Each stamen generally has a stalk called the filament (from Latin filum, meaning "thread"), and, on top of the filament, an anther
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cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. The familiar woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds.
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carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium.

Carpel anatomy

The parts of the carpel are:
  • the stigma (from Ancient Greek stigma

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FERN

Charity
Founded 1995, The Netherlands
Headquarters Brussels, Belgium and Moreton-in-Marsh, UK

Key people Jutta Kill
Leontien Krul
Iola Leal Riesco
Judith Neyer
Saskia Ozinga
Industry Environmentalism
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spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersion and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and some protozoans.
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diploid sporophyte, the generation of a plant or alga that has a double set of chromosomes. A multicellular sporophyte generation or phase is present in the life cycle of all land plants and in some green algae.
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In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes:
  • The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. These spores develop into a gametophyte.

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An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek αρχη (beginning) and γονος (offspring), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants producing and containing the ovum
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Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Its name is derived from ancient Greek: chloros = green and phyllon = leaf.
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Psilotaceae

Genus: Psilotum

Species
  • Psilotum nudum (L.) Beauvois
  • Psilotum complanatum Sw.

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Marattiopsida
Doweld

Order: Marattiales
Link

Family: Marattiaceae
Kaulf.

genus
  • Angiopteris
  • Christensenia
  • Danaea
  • ''Marattia

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Christensenia
Maxon

Species

See text.

Christensenia (syn. Kaulfussia C.Presl) is a genus of ferns in the botanical family Marattiaceae.
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Danaea

Species

See text.

Danaea Sm. a genus of the botanical family of Marattiaceae. Ferns with erect or creeping rhizomes and bipinnate leaves with opposite pinnae.
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An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek αρχη (beginning) and γονος (offspring), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants producing and containing the ovum
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An antheridium (plural: antheridia) is a haploid structure or organ producing and containing male gametes (called antherozoids or sperm). It is present in the gametophyte phase of lower plants like mosses and ferns, and also in the primitive vascular psilotophytes.
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Bacteria

Phyla

Actinobacteria
Aquificae
Chlamydiae
Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi
Chloroflexi
Chrysiogenetes
Cyanobacteria
Deferribacteres
Deinococcus-Thermus
Dictyoglomi
Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria
Firmicutes
Fusobacteria
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An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute phylum. The primary function of most endospores is to ensure the survival of a bacterium through periods of environmental stress.
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