Standard algorithms



In elementary arithmetic, a standard algorithm or method is an efficient manual method of computation which yields one correct answer, and has been traditionally taught over a long period of time. These methods vary somewhat by nation and time, but generally include carrying, borrowing, long division, and long multiplication using a standard notation, and standard formulas for average, area, and volume. Manual methods do exist for procedures such as square root and even more sophisticated functions, but have fallen out of the general mathematics curriculum in favor of calculators (or tables and slide rules before them).

This has recently fallen out of favor with the introduction of the 1989 NCTM standards-based mathematics which favors deep understanding over rote memorization of standard methods, or teaching only one method to arrive at one correct answer. It is believed by many that the development of sophisticated calculators has made manual calculation obsolete, and traditional methods have created failure among many students, particularly women and minorities in the United States, and equity should be made one of the primary goals of a mathematics education. Some researchers such as Constance Kamii have suggested that elementary arithmetic, as traditionally taught, is not appropriate in elementary school. Many first editions of textbooks written to the original 1989 standard such as TERC deliberately committed and actively discouraged teaching or application of any standard method, instead devoting class and homework time to cutting, pasting, singing music, circling groups of tally marks, and coloring in 100s or 10,000s charts.

However, the NCTM in more recent revisions has re-emphasize the learning of basic math facts and standard methods. Many new editions of standards-based texts do present standard methods and basic skills. However, many texts which followed the original guidelines continue to be used by many school districts, and continue to draw fire from parents and community members, some of whom advocate a return to traditional mathematics.
Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business
..... Click the link for more information.
In traditional mathematics instruction, the goal is to have the student produce a correct numerical answer. However, in standards-based mathematics, the most important goal is to understand mathematics and have learners construct their own mathematical power.
..... Click the link for more information.
Standards-based mathematics is one name for a reform method of mathematics instruction, usually based on recommendations published in 1989 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).
..... Click the link for more information.
Constance Kamii is a professor of early childhood education at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Overview

Kamii studied under Jean Piaget on and off for 15 years to develop an early childhood curriculum based on his theory.
..... Click the link for more information.
worldwide view.


Traditional mathematics is the term used for the style of mathematics instruction used for a period in the 20th century before the appearance of reform mathematics based on NCTM standards, so it is best defined by contrast with the alternatives.
..... Click the link for more information.
Education reform in the United States since the late 1980s has been largely driven by the setting of academic standards for what students should know and be able to do. These standards can then be used to guide all other system components.
..... Click the link for more information.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world.
..... Click the link for more information.
William Spady is the head of ChangeLeaders. William Spady is a sociologist and the self-proclaimed father of Outcome-Based Education (OBE). OBE is referred to by over 20 different names including Systemic education restructuring, Performance Based Education, Standards based
..... Click the link for more information.
Jean Piaget

Born July 9 1896(1896--)
Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Died September 16 1980 (aged 84)

Residence Switzerland
..... Click the link for more information.
Benjamin Bloom (b. 21 February, 1913 - d. September 13, 1999) was an American educational psychologist who made significant contributions to the classification of educational objectives and the theory of mastery learning.
..... Click the link for more information.
This biographical article or section is written like a resume.
Please help [ improve this article] by revising it to be and encyclopedic. ()


Marc Tucker is President of the National Center on Education and the Economy.
..... Click the link for more information.
Maria Montessori (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician, educator, philosopher, humanitarian and devout Catholic; she is best known for her philosophy and method of education of children from birth to adolescence.
..... Click the link for more information.
Education reform in the United States since the late 1980s has been largely driven by the setting of academic standards for what students should know and be able to do. These standards can then be used to guide all other system components.
..... Click the link for more information.
This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers.
Please [improve the article] or discuss this issue on the talk page. This article has been tagged since August 2007.
..... Click the link for more information.
Developmentally appropriate practice (or DAP) is a perspective within early childhood education whereby a teacher or child caregiver nurtures a child's social/emotional, physical, and cognitive development by basing all practices and decisions on (1) theories of child development, (2)
..... Click the link for more information.
Holism (from ὅλος holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) is the idea that all the properties of a given system (biological, chemical, social, economic, mental,
..... Click the link for more information.
Constructivism is a set of assumptions about the nature of human learning that guide constructivist learning theories and teaching methods of education. Constructivism values developmentally appropriate facilitator-supported learning that is initiated and directed by the learner.
..... Click the link for more information.
Block scheduling is a type of academic scheduling in which each student has fewer classes per day for a longer period of time. This is intended to result in more time for teaching due to less time wasted due to class switching and preparation.
..... Click the link for more information.
Standards based tests use holistic grading to establish scoring of a paper. It can also be used to assess classroom-based work. Rather than counting errors, a paper is judged holistically if it has too many or too few errors to merit a 1, 2 or 3, compared to an anchor paper, or if it
..... Click the link for more information.
This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling.
You can assist by [ editing it] now. A how-to guide is available, as is general .
This article has been tagged since February 2007.
..... Click the link for more information.
Active learning is an umbrella term that refers to several models of instruction that focus the responsibility of learning on learners. Bonwell and Eison (1991) popularized this approach to instruction.
..... Click the link for more information.
Discovery Learning is a method of inquiry-based instruction. Discovery learning is a constructivist based approach to education. It is supported by the work of learning theorists and psychologists Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, and Seymour Papert.
..... Click the link for more information.
Inquiry-based science is a method of teaching science where students learn science by using similar methods, attitudes and skills as scientists do when they are conducting scientific research. Students get to act like 'mini-researchers.
..... Click the link for more information.
Inventive, or invented, spelling is the non-conventional spelling of a word created by a novice reader or writer. It contrasts with conventional spelling, the correct or standard spelling.
..... Click the link for more information.
The open-space school concept was introduced into the United States in the 1970s as an experimental elementary school architecture where the physical walls separating classrooms were removed to promote movement across class areas by teachers.
..... Click the link for more information.
The small schools movement, also known as the Small Schools Initiative, in the United States of America holds that many high schools are too large and should be reorganized into smaller, autonomous schools of no more than 400 students.
..... Click the link for more information.
Inclusion may refer to:
  • inclusion (disability rights), a term used to refer to any socially organic process of equitably including people with disabilities in society.
  • inclusion (value and practice), the practice of including people in organizations.

..... Click the link for more information.
A key goal in education reform in many states is excellence and equity. Education leaders such as Washington's Terry Bergeson have stated that these goals are necessary to build in which all students earn a meaningful high school diploma.
..... Click the link for more information.
Education reform in the United States since the late 1980s has been largely driven by the setting of academic standards for what students should know and be able to do. These standards can then be used to guide all other system components.
..... Click the link for more information.
High Standards is a jazz album by the Finnish band Trio Töykeät. It was released in 2003. This particular record differs from other Töykeät -albums by consisting entirely of cover songs of songs the band members consider to be close to them.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.