Sullivan Principles

The Sullivan Principles are the names of two corporate codes of conduct, developed by the African-American preacher Rev. Leon Sullivan, promoting corporate social responsibility:

The Sullivan Principles

International opposition
to Apartheid in South Africa
Campaigns
Disinvestment Academic boycott
Instruments and legislation
UN Resolution 1761 (1962)
Crime of Apartheid Convention (1973)
Gleneagles Agreement (1977)
Sullivan Principles (1977)
Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act (1986)
Organisations
Anti-Apartheid Movement
UN Special Committee against Apartheid
Artists United Against Apartheid
Halt All Racist Tours
Conferences
1964 Conference for Economic Sanctions
1978 World Conference against Racism
Other aspects
Elimination of Racism Day
Biko (song)
This box:     [ edit]


In 1977, Rev. Leon Sullivan, an African-American preacher, was a member of the board of General Motors.[1] At the time, General Motors was one of the largest corporations in the United States. General Motors also happened to be the largest employer of blacks in South Africa, a country which was pursuing a harsh program of state-sanctioned racial segregation and discrimination targeted primarily at the country indigenous black population.[1]

Sullivan, looking back on his anti-Apartheid efforts, recalled:
“Starting with the work place, I tightened the screws step by step and raised the bar step by step. Eventually I got to the point where I said that companies must practice corporate civil disobedience against the laws and I threatened South Africa and said in two years Mandela must be freed, apartheid must end, and blacks must vote or else I'll bring every American company I can out of South Africa.”[1]

The original principles

The Sullivan Principles, introduced in 1977 with one addition 1984, consisted of seven requirements a corporation was to demand for its employees as a condition for doing business. In general, the principles demanded the equal treatment of employees regardless of their race both within and outside of the workplace, demands which directly conflicted with the official South African policies of racial segregation and unequal rights.

The principles read:
The Sullivan Principles[1]

  1. Non-segregation of the races in all eating, comfort, and work facilities.
  2. Equal and fair employment practices for all employees.
  3. Equal pay for all employees doing equal or comparable work for the same period of time.
  4. Initiation of and development of training programs that will prepare, in substantial numbers, blacks and other nonwhites for supervisory, administrative, clerical, and technical jobs.
  5. Increasing the number of blacks and other nonwhites in management and supervisory positions.
  6. Improving the quality of life for blacks and other nonwhites outside the work environment in such areas as housing, transportation, school, recreation, and health facilities.
  7. Working to eliminate laws and customs that impede social, economic, and political justice. (added in 1984)

Mixed success

The Sullivan Principles were celebrated when introduced and gained wide use in the United States, particularly during the disinvestment campaign of the 1980s. Before the end of South Africa's apartheid era, the principles were formally adopted by more than 125 U.S. corporations that had operations in South Africa. Of those companies that formally adopted the principles, at least 100 completely withdraw their existing operations from South Africa.[1]

Although, as South Africa's system of apartheid persisted relatively unchanged from the 1970s into the late 1980s Sullivan "abandoned [his principles] as not going far enough" complaining that the principles by themselves were not enough to pressure a South African government steadfast in its refusal to yield to change.[3]

The Global Sullivan Principles

In 1999, more than 20 years after the adoption of the original Sullivan Principles and six years after the end of apartheid, the Rev. Leon Sullivan and United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan together unveiled the new "Global Sullivan Principles"[2].

The overarching objective of these principles, according to Leon Sullivan, is “to support economic, social and political justice by companies where they do business,” including respect for human rights and equal work opportunities for all peoples.[2]

The new principles

In general, the expanded corporate code of conduct requires adopting multinational companies to be a full participant in the advancement of human rights and social justice internationally.[3][2]

The new principles read:
The Global Sullivan Principles[4]



The Principles:
As a company which endorses the Global Sullivan Principles we will respect the law, and as a responsible member of society we will apply these Principles with integrity consistent with the legitimate role of business. We will develop and implement company policies, procedures, training and internal reporting structures to ensure commitment to these principles throughout our organization. We believe the application of these Principles will achieve greater tolerance and better understanding among peoples, and advance the culture of peace.

Accordingly, we will:
  1. Express our support for universal human rights and, particularly, those of our employees, the communities within which we operate, and parties with whom we do business.
  2. Promote equal opportunity for our employees at all levels of the company with respect to issues such as color, race, gender, age, ethnicity or religious beliefs, and operate without unacceptable worker treatment such as the exploitation of children, physical punishment, female abuse, involuntary servitude, or other forms of abuse.
  3. Respect our employees’ voluntary freedom of association.
  4. Compensate our employees to enable them to meet at least their basic needs and provide the opportunity to improve their skill and capability in order to raise their social and economic opportunities.
  5. Provide a safe and healthy workplace; protect human health and the environment; and promote sustainable development.
  6. Promote fair competition including respect for intellectual and other property rights, and not offer, pay or accept bribes.
  7. Work with governments and communities in which we do business to improve the quality of life in those communities – their educational, cultural, economic and social well-being – and seek to provide training and opportunities for workers from disadvantaged backgrounds.
  8. Promote the application of these principles by those with whom we do business.

We will be transparent in our implementation of these principles and provide information which demonstrates publicly our commitment to them.

See also

References

1. ^ Rev. Leon Sullivan. The Sullivan Principles, The Rev. Leon Sullivan Website. Accessed June 5 2007
2. ^ Global Sullivan Principles of Corporate Social Responsibility
3. ^ Leon Sullivan Dies at 78. Christianity Today. April 1 2001.
4. ^ Global Sullivan Principle Endorsers
A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the responsibilities of or proper practices for an individual or organization. Related concepts include ethical codes and honor codes.
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African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.[1] In the United States the term is generally used for Americans with sub-Saharan African ancestry.
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Leon Howard Sullivan
October 16, 1922 - April 24, 2001

Place of birth: Charleston, West Virginia, USA

Place of death: Scottsdale, Arizona, USA
Movement: African-American Civil Rights Movement, Anti-Apartheid Movement

Reverend Dr.
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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, employees, shareholders, communities and the environment in all aspects of their operations.
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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1940s  1950s  1960s  - 1970s -  1980s  1990s  2000s
1974 1975 1976 - 1977 - 1978 1979 1980

Also: 1977 (album) by Ash.

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Apartheid (meaning separate-ness in Afrikaans, cognate to English apart and -hood ) was a system of racial segregation in South Africa from 1948, and was dismantled in a series of negotiations from 1990 to 1993, culminating in democratic elections in
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20th century - 21st century
1960s  1970s  1980s  - 1990s -  2000s  2010s  2020s
1996 1997 1998 - 1999 - 2000 2001 2002

Year 1999 (MCMXCIX
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The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. The Secretary-General acts as the de facto spokesperson and leader of the United Nations.
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Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1 1997 to January 1 2007, serving two five-year terms. He was the co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001.
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Human rights refers to "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law.
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Social justice is the quality of a society's generalized right-ness. As there is no objective, known standard of what is just, the term can be amorphous and refer to sometimes self-contradictory values of justice.
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Apartheid (meaning separate-ness in Afrikaans, cognate to English apart and -hood ) was a system of racial segregation in South Africa from 1948, and was dismantled in a series of negotiations from 1990 to 1993, culminating in democratic elections in
..... Click the link for more information.

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Disinvestment from South Africa, also termed divestment from South Africa, was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid 1980s.
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Academic boycotts of South Africa were a series of boycotts of South African academic institutions and scholars initiated in the 1960s, at the request of the African National Congress, with the goal of using such international pressure to force the end South Africa's system of
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United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 was passed on 6 November 1962 in response to the racist policies of apartheid established by the South African Government.

Condemnation of apartheid

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crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity "committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of
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Gleneagles Agreement was unanimously approved by the Commonwealth of Nations at a meeting at Gleneagles, Auchterarder, Scotland. In 1977, Commonwealth Presidents and Prime Ministers agreed, as part of their support for the international campaign against apartheid, to discourage
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Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act (H.R. 4868) was passed in the United States in 1986 in reaction to the plight of blacks in South Africa and demanded the end of Apartheid. The legislation called for sanctions against South Africa and stated preconditions for lifting the sanctions,
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Anti-Apartheid Movement, originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organization that was at the center of the international movement opposing South Africa's system of apartheid and supporting South Africa's Blacks.
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United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 was passed on 6 November 1962 in response to the racist policies of apartheid established by the South African Government.

Condemnation of apartheid

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Artists United Against Apartheid was a 1985 protest group founded by activist performer Steven Van Zandt to protest the existence of apartheid in South Africa, that produced the song "Sun City" and the album Sun City that year.
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Halt All Racist Tours was a group set up in New Zealand in 1969 to protest rugby union tours to and from Apartheid South Africa.

Up until 1970, South Africa refused to allow mixed-race sports teams to tour South Africa, and they were "disgusted" at having to play against
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Disinvestment from South Africa, also termed divestment from South Africa, was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid 1980s.
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International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is observed annually on 21 March. On that day, in 1960, police opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration in Sharpeville, South Africa, against the apartheid "pass laws".
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Released 1980
Format 7-inch
Genre World music
Length 7:22
Label Charisma Records
Writer(s) Peter Gabriel
Producer(s) Steve Lillywhite
Peak chart positions
  • #38 (UK pop singles)

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General Motors Corporation

Public (NYSE:  GM
Founded 1908
Headquarters Detroit, Michigan, USA
manufacturing facilities in 30 U.S. states and 33 countries

Key people Rick Wagoner, Chairman & CEO
Robert A.
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Disinvestment from South Africa, also termed divestment from South Africa, was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid 1980s.
..... Click the link for more information.
20th century - 21st century
1960s  1970s  1980s  - 1990s -  2000s  2010s  2020s
1996 1997 1998 - 1999 - 2000 2001 2002

Year 1999 (MCMXCIX
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