Supersessionism



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Supersessionism and replacement theology are modern terms for particular interpretations of New Testament claims, that see God's relationship with Christians as superseding his prior relationship with ethnic Jews. Biblical expressions of God's relationships with people are known as covenants,[1] so the contentious element of supersessionism is the idea that God's covenants with the universal Church replace his covenants with Israel. Although the word supersessionism is modern, the ideas are as old as the New Testament documents and the earliest expositors of those documents.

Etymology

The word "supersessionism" comes from English "supersede", first known to have been used with the meaning "replace" in 1642.[2] Prior to this time the word is attested in Scottish legal English to describe restraining orders against debt collection, "restraint" being its original Latin sense. The Latin for "replace" is actually succedere. A Latin use of supersedere in context can be found in Julius Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War,[3] where it refers to Caesar's decision to delay battle until he knew the enemy's strength. The preposition super is being used to intensify the verb sedere, as in English "hold up". Both forms can mean "to delay". Hence the term "supercessionism" does not come from the Latin Church Fathers' description of their own views.

In German, supersessionism is known as ; and in French it is .

History of interpretation

The word supersession is used by S. Thelwall in the title of chapter three of his 1870 translation of Tertullian's Adversus Iudaeos (written about 198 to 208). The title is provided by Thelwall, it is not in the original Latin.[4] However, many early Christian commentators are generally agreed to have also understood the New Testament to teach supersession, for example:
  • Justin Martyr (about 100 to 165): "For the true spiritual Israel ... are we who have been led to God through this crucified Christ."[5]
    • Hippolytus of Rome (martyred 13 August 235): "[The Jews] have been darkened in the eyes of your soul with a darkness utter and everlasting."[6]
      • Origen (about 185 to 254): "[The Jews] will never be restored to their former condition."[7] Augustine (354–430) is seen to follow these views of the earlier Fathers.
        • "For if we hold with a firm heart the grace of God which hath been given us, we are Israel."[8]
          • "The Christian people then is rather Israel."[9] However, he introduces a new angle on the importance to Christianity of the continued existance of the Jewish people.
            • "The Jews ... are thus by their own Scriptures a testimony to us that we have not forged the prophecies about Christ."[10] Jeremy Cohen,[11] followed by John Y. B. Hood and James Carroll,[12] sees this as having had decisive social consequences.
              • "It is not too much to say that, at this juncture, Christianity 'permitted' Judaism to endure because of Augustine."[13] More than a millennium later, at the advent of Protestantism, Martin Luther (1483–1546) wrote,
                • "The Jews, surely rejected by God, are no longer his people, and neither is he any longer their God."[14] It is therefore fair to say that various forms of supersessionism have been mainstream Christian interpretation of the New Testament since the inception of all three main branches of Christianity — Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant. However, it is the New Testament itself, not the history of interpretation that is considered ultimately normative by modern Christians (and indeed by the commentators above).

                  Social context

                  It is important to note that the term supersessionism seems to arise more frequently in modern discourse in contexts critical of perceived Christian beliefs, rather than out of Christian attempts to articulate their own understanding of the New Testament. A more typical Christian attempt to describe the New Testament teaching in this area is gentile (non-Jewish) inclusion in God's plans, without consideration of Jewish exclusion (which is simply not an issue for most Christians). Although modern Christians (nearly all of whom are gentiles) naturally believe in gentile inclusion, they are divided in their understanding of whether the New Testament teaches Jewish exclusion. In other words, some modern Christians believe in supersessionism and others don't.

                  In contrast to this, the New Testament records that gentile inclusion was offensive to first century Jews.
                  • Acts 21:27–28: "Fellow Israelites, help us. This is the man who ... has even brought Greeks into the temple and defiled this sacred place."
                  And problematic even for Jewish Christians.
                  • Galatians 2:11–14: "If you, though a Jew, are living like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you compel the Gentiles to live like Jews?"
                  In fact, both Jesus and Paul are recorded as being explicit about their primary concern being Jews rather than gentiles.
                  • Mark 7:26–27: "The woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by birth, and she begged him to drive the demon out of her daughter. [Jesus] said to her, 'Let the children be fed first. For it is not right to take the food of the children and throw it to the dogs.'"
                  • Romans 2:10: "But there will be glory, honor, and peace for everyone who does good, Jew first and then Greek."
                  The social context of Jewish-Christian dialogue has changed dramatically since the early centuries. In the first century gentile inclusion was the "hot issue"; two millenia later Jewish exclusion is the issue.

                  Types of supersessionism

                  Both Christian and Jewish theologians have identified different types of supersessionism in Christian reading of the Bible.

                  R. Kendall Soulen notes three categories of supersessionism are identified by Christian theologians: punitive, "economic" and structural.[15]
                  • Punitive supersessionism is represented by the quotes from Hippolytus, Origen and Luther above. It is the view that Jews who reject Jesus as Messiah are consequently condemned by God, forfeiting the promises otherwise due to them under the covenants.
                  • Economic supersessionism does not refer to money, rather it is used in the technical theological sense of function (see economic trinity). It is the view that the practical purpose of the nation of Israel in God's plans is replaced by the role of the church (represented by the quotes from Justin and Augustine above).
                  • Structural supersessionism is Soulen's term for the de facto marginalization of the Old Testament as normative for Christian thought. In his words, "Structural supersessionism refers to the narrative logic of the standard model whereby it renders the Hebrew Scriptures largely indecisive for shaping Christian convictions about how God’s works as Consummator and as Redeemer engage humankind in universal and enduring ways."[16] Soulen's terminology is used by Craig A. Blaising, in 'The Future of Israel as a Theological Question'.[17] Clearly, the three views are neither mutually exclusive, nor logically dependent — it is possible to hold all of them, or any one without the others.

                    Jewish theologian and rabbinic scholar, David Novak, considers the new covenant of Jeremiah 31:31, suggesting that, "Three possibilities present themselves:
                    1. the new covenant is an extension of the old covenant;
                    2. the new covenant is an addition to the old covenant;
                    3. the new covenant is a replacement for the old covenant [emphasis original]."[18]
                    He observes, "In the early Church, it seems, the new covenant presented by the [New Testament] was either taken to be an addition to the old covenant (the religion of the Torah and the Jewish Pharisaic tradition), or it was taken to be a replacement for the old covenant."<ref name="novak" /> Novak considers both understandings to be supersessionist. He designates the first as "soft supersessionism" and the second as "hard supersessionism".
                    • Soft supersessionism "does not assert that God terminated the covenant of Exodus-Sinai with the Jewish people. Rather, it asserts that Jesus came to fulfill the promise of the old covenant, first for those Jews already initiated into the covenant, who then accepted his messiahhood as that covenant's fulfillment. And, it asserts that Jesus came to both initiate and fulfill the promise of the covenant for those Gentiles whose sole connection to the covenant is through him. Hence, in this kind of supercessionism, those Jews who do not accept Jesus' messiahhood are still part of the covenant in the sense of 'what God has put together let no man put asunder' [emphasis original]."<ref name="novak" />
                    • Hard supersessionism, on the other hand, asserts that, "The old covenant is dead. The Jews by their sins, most prominently of rejecting Jesus as the Messiah, have forfeited any covenantal status."<ref name="novak" />
                    This classification provides mutually exclusive options. Hard supersessionism implies both punitive and economic supersessionism, however soft supersessionism does not fall into any of the three classes recognized as supersessionist by Christian theologians.

                    Theological views

                    The two theological traditions presented here are not "owned" by any denomination. However, historically they did arise within particular denominations, and some denominations are explicit in associating themselves with one or the other. Although both are historically associated with Protestantism, they are not specifically aimed at defending Protestant distinctives. Both views include ideas that were articulated by theologians prior to the Reformation.

                    They are the natural place to look for Christian views on supersessionism, because both arose as independent ways to understand the relationship between the various covenants of the Bible. As such, the relationship between the covenants of the Old Testament and the new covenant is one of the main questions they seek to understand. Covenant Theology attempts to answer the questions using a predominantly social approach, whereas Dispensationalism has a predominantly chronological approach. However, chronology and social implications are featured in both views. They are not, strictly speaking, competing views.

                    Covenant Theology

                    Main article: Covenant Theology
                    Covenant Theology is a framework for thinking about Biblical ideas typical of (but not exclusive to) the Reformed churches — but see also Covenantal Theology (Roman Catholic). The Protestant Reformer John Calvin (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) is typically credited with establishing the basic principles of Covenant Theology in his Institutes of the Christian Religion (2:9–11). The three covenants Calvin saw implied by the Bible are:
                    • the covenant of redemption (Latin) pactum salutis,
                    • the covenant of works (Latin) foedus operum, and
                    • the covenant of grace (Latin) foedus gratiae.
                    In the view of Calvin, and those who follow him, the first is a covenant between God the Father and God the Son, that the Son would be the ruler of a people he would personally redeem. In Calvin's formulation, the Holy Spirit is part of this covenant and redemption is understood to be rescue from willful rejection of God, at personal cost. Without exploring those features in depth, it should be noted that Covenant Theology quite deliberately views the rescue of humanity as part of God's "plan," prior even to creating the world. This idea is as objectionable to some Christians, as it is loved by others, its most common name is predestination. A key New Testament passage is Romans 9, which also deals with the place of Israel.

                    The covenants of works and grace, on the other hand, refer to God's covenants with man, rather than with himself. Clearly these occur later in time — during human history. Briefly stated, both are conceived of as "gifts" from God to man. They differ in that the covenant of works is a gift received by obedience — God promises good to those who do good. The covenant of grace, however, is an unconditional gift that can only be received by faith — God promises good even to those who have done bad.

                    In Calvin's scheme, the idea of supersession does not even arise. Because his reading of the Bible saw Jesus as God the Son and Redeemer from even before creation, those saved under Old Testament revelation, and those saved under the New are more properly, in his view, understood as saved under the same, eternal covenant of redemption. All salvation depends on a deal between Father and Son, independent of humanity. We become aware of the covenant of redemption progressively, through the revelation of various manifestions of the covenants of works and of grace. From Calvin's Institutes, book two, chapter nine:
                    Insert the text of the quote here, without quotation marks.


                    In Calvin's view, the difference between old and new revelation is a difference in clarity not kind (note eadem imagine, "same character"). As such, it is not conceived of as a "replacement" in any sense. Calvin's ideas were startling and unprecedented, he is still controversial within Protestantism today. Without the verifying Latin, it is also worth quoting Calvin's specific criticism of those who consider the promises of the Old Testament to have been replaced. Whatever subsequent covenant theologians may have said, Calvin himself is explicitly against supercessionism.
                    3. Here we must guard against the diabolical imagination of Servetus, who, from a wish, or at least the pretence of a wish, to extol the greatness of Christ, abolishes the promises entirely, as if they had come to an end at the same time with the Law.[19]
                    Michael Servetus was in fact executed as a heretic, by being burned; although finally executed by Protestants in Geneva, he had previously also been condemned to death by Catholic authorities. The grounds for the charge of heresy were numerous, he was not burned for supersessionism. (In fact, the word supersede had not yet been used in the sense of "replace" in English at this time.)

                    Covenant Theology is an extensively developed systematic approach to theology. It includes detailed treatment of God making covenants with individual men (in a gender-specific sense) on behalf of whole communities. This includes Adam, Noah and David, as well as Jesus, and is not restricted to just these men. In this sense, it is also known as Federal Theology. The discussion above is limited to aspects relevant to supersessionism, and to the primary source. The main article should be consulted for a comprehensive idea of the history of development of this theological system, and for criticisms of it.

                    Dispensationalism

                    Main article: Dispensationalism
                    The early development of Dispensationalism is generally attributed to John Nelson Darby (1800–1882), initially of the Plymouth Brethren denomination, but later the founder of the Exclusive Brethren. Although Darby's ideas started in the United Kingdom, they became much more widespread in the United States, perhaps due to population, and the non-exclusive nature of the American denominations that valued the teaching. The notes of the Scofield Reference Bible (1909 revised 1917) are frequently considered to have been particularly influential in establishing the popularity of Dispensationalism. Like Covenant Theology, Dispensationalism is an interpretive or narrative framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. It perceives the biblical description of God's manner of dealing with mankind to fall into seven epochs known as dispensations:
                    1. of innocence (Gen 1:1–3:7), prior to Adam's fall;
                    2. of conscience (Gen 3:8–8:22), Adam to Noah;
                    3. of government (Gen 9:1–11:32), Noah to Abraham;
                    4. of patriarchal rule (Gen 12:1–Exod 19:25), Abraham to Moses;
                    5. of the Mosaic Law (Exod 20:1–Acts 2:4), Moses to Jesus;
                    6. of grace (Acts 2:4–Rev 20:3), the current church age; and
                    7. of a literal, earthly 1,000-year Millennial Kingdom that has yet to come (Rev 20:4–20:6).[20]


                    A natural misunderstanding of Dispensationalism sees the covenant of Sinai (dispensation #5) to have been replaced by the gospel (dispensation #6). However, Dispensationalists believe that ethnic Israel, distinct from the church, and on the basis of the Sinai covenant, are featured in New Testament promises, which they interpret as referring to a future time associated with the Millennium of Revelation 20 (dispensation #7). In Dispensational thought, although the time from Jesus' resurrection until his return (or the advent of the Millennium) is dominated by the proclamation of the gospel, the Sinai covenant is neither terminated nor replaced, rather it is "quiescent" awaiting a fulfilment at the Millennium (click to expand diagram). This time of Jewish restoration has an especially prominent place within Dispensationalism.

                    Dispensationalists do not base this view on the New Testament alone, but consider that certain Old Testament prophecies concerning Israel will also be fulfilled in a return to the Promised Land, and ultimately a large-scale conversion of the Jews to Christianity.[21] Those who hold this view often note that the Bible does not promise that every individual Jew will be saved, but that the nation (or family) as a whole will be saved. It will still be up to individuals to accept Jesus as Messiah, but the nation as a whole will be blessed, because many (or most) will do so.

                    A distinctive feature of the dispensationalist scheme is that it conceives of the church age as primarily an arrangement through which God gathers in the Gentiles, a parenthesis in his dealing with the Jews, instituted due to the Jewish people rejecting the Messiah at his first coming.
                    • Romans 11:11–12: "Hence I ask, did they stumble so as to fall? Of course not! But through their transgression salvation has come to the Gentiles, so as to make them jealous. 12Now if their transgression is enrichment for the world, and if their diminished number is enrichment for the Gentiles, how much more their full number."
                    In the dispensationalist view, the Jewish restoration and acceptance of the Messiah will be as a people distinct from the Christian Church. Some believe the church will have actually ceased to exist on the earth at this time, having been removed by a miracle called the Rapture. Most dispensationalists believe that the 144,000 from the tribes of Israel, spoken of in the Book of Revelation, are either the literal or symbolic number of ethnic Jews who will be followers of the Messiah during a Great Tribulation. In the meantime, dispensationalists typically hold that the promise "I will bless those who bless you, and him who dishonors you I will curse" (Genesis 12:3) has abiding reference to the Jewish people; and some apply this to the modern, political state of Israel. Such ideas are often used in support of Christian Zionism.

                    With regard to supersessionism, then, Dispensationalism's key contribution to the history of Christian interpretation is this view that the fulfillment of God's covenant with Israel is postponed until the end of history. Traditional Christian interpretation, on the other hand, has seen the fulfillment of the covenant as progressive — starting with the apostles and early Jewish Christians and continuing throughout subsequent history in Messianic Judaism, until finally complete at the return of the Messiah. In either view, individual Jews are anticipated to accept Jesus as Messiah, and not by becoming gentile Christians first, but directly on the basis of the original promises to ethnic Israel. Neither of these interpretations is, as such, viewing the promises to Israel as either terminated or replaced.

                    Caveat

                    There are many Protestants who are uncommitted to either of the broad theological schools of opinion above, and many have not even considered the issues associated with supersessionism. Protestants are a diverse group that explicitly affirm that the Bible is clear enough on its own for individuals to grasp its meaning, without church authorities determining it for them. This doctrine is a foundational Protestant distinctive, known as the perspicuity of scripture. Martin Luther wrote, "All things that are in the Scriptures, are by the Word brought forth into the clearest light, and proclaimed to the whole world."[22] Because of the prominence of this doctrine within Protestantism, it is difficult (or impossible) to identify an "official" Protestant position regarding supersessionism.

                    Roman Catholicism

                    As has been noted above, Covenant Theology and Dispensationalism are not specifically Protestant theological systems. Both draw on the writing of the Church Fathers, and modern Catholic theologians have also derived similar conclusions in their reading of the Bible. However, in contrast to Protestantism, Roman Catholicism has an intricate formal system of checks and balances on biblical interpretation. In an effort to safeguard reliability, it provides a hierarchy of sources, stretching from the absolute authority of the Bible and ex cathedra papal declarations, through approved Church Fathers, right down to authorized, active theological researchers. In this way, Catholicism seeks to serve its members with trustworthy offical positions on biblical issues.

                    Supersessionism is not the name of any official Catholic doctrine. However, Catholicism officially accepts Cyprian's (died 14 September 258) doctrine extra ecclesiam nulla salus — outside the church there is no salvation.[23][24][25][26] Because church is understood as specifically the Roman Catholic Church, with all its visible structure, there is a concrete sense in which the Judaism of the Old Testament is thus implicitly replaced, in Catholic thought, by: the Catholic heirarchy, Catholic canon law and the sacred rites of the Catholic Church.

                    Explicit statements that the Catholic system would consider to have a measure of authority, but which critics would consider supersessionist are numerous. In the 5th century, Pope Leo I pointed to Mark 15:38 to support his teaching that, "there [was] effected a transfer from the Law to the Gospel, from the Synagogue to the Church."[27] In the 15th century during the Council of Florence, Pope Eugene IV wrote in his Bull of Union with the Copts that, "[The Catholic Church] firmly believes, professes and preaches that all those who are outside the Catholic Church, not only pagans but also Jews or heretics and schismatics, cannot share in eternal life and will go into the everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels, unless they are joined to the Catholic Church before the end of their lives."[28]

                    Pope Pius XII, in his 1943 encyclical Mystici Corporis, wrote that, "The New Testament took the place of the Old Law which had been abolished."[29] As authority, he paraphrased Ephesians 2:15 and Colossians 2:14 in paragraph 29, "Jesus made void the Law with its decrees [and] fastened the handwriting of the Old Testament to the Cross;"[30] and he paraphrased Ephesians 2:16 and later 2:14 in paragraph 32, "[Jesus] made the Old Law void 'that He might make the two in Himself into one new man,' that is, the Church, and might reconcile both to God in one Body by the Cross."[31] Thus Pius condemned a two-path approach to salvation (one way for Christians and another way for Jews), affirming that the Roman Catholic Church was established for the salvation of all people, both gentiles and Jews, but also excluding a continued validity to the covenant of Exodus-Sinai.

                    The Vatican II document Lumen Gentium, on the other hand, introduced the idea that, although salvation comes from Christ, those "who through no fault of their own do not know the Gospel of Christ or His Church, yet sincerely seek God and moved by grace strive by their deeds to do His will as it is known to them through the dictates of conscience" may still attain salvation. However, the Catholic Church clarified committment to the necessity of Jesus and membership in the Church for salvation in the declaration Dominus Iesus published in the year 2000.

                    Despite all the history, however, the United States Catholic Catechism for Adults (2006), states explicitly: "The covenant that God made with the Jewish people through Moses remains eternally valid for them."[32] Just precisely what authority this statement in the catechism has, or whether it is an error, is a matter of internal debate among American Catholics.

                    Other views

                    Eastern Orthodox and Pentecostal groups, although quite different, have in common a focus on the work of the Holy Spirit in defining church membership. It has long been noted by theologians that pursuit of a dynamic, experiential and personal experience of faith has been typical of eastern theology, where legal and logical formulations have dominated in the Western churches. When articulated in formal ways, Orthodox theology looks very similar to Catholicism; Pentecostalism, on the other hand, is often associated with Dispensationalism. However, in practice, the focus on personal spirituality rather than intellectual assent, means detailed analysis of covenantal issues is considerably less a feature of these traditions.

                    A few groups assert that their group is literally descended from Abraham, and has a better claim to being considered the chosen people than the Jewish people. In adopting the identity of "the true Israel," they necessarily see the Jewish people as false Israel (see, for example, Anglo-Israelism, Christian Identity and Black Hebrew Israelite).

                    Summary

                    From a Jewish perspective, the Torah was given to the Jewish people as an eternal covenant, and will never be replaced or added to.

                    Did early Christians see themselves as a replacement of Israel? Yes. Does the Roman Catholic Church see herself as a replacement of Israel? Yes. Do modern Protestants? Covenant theologians do not, nor do dispensationalists, but for different reasons.

                    Even without supersessionism, by following a Jewish man who claimed to be the Messiah promised to the Jewish people, Christians of any denomination are endebted to Judaism, while nonetheless disagreeing with non-Messianic Judasim about that man. On that issue, neither faith can compromise with the other, without compromising its own faith.

                    In the sense that Judaism itself anticipates its own fulfilment in a coming Messiah, by claiming Jesus is that Messiah, Christianity, by definition, appropriates this fulfilment of Judaism for itself.

                    Supersessionists see their view as a theology of fulfillment, but from the standpoint of Judaism and other critics, it is a theology of replacement. Yet according to supersessionism, no Jew who truly believes the Gospel is ever replaced, and any unbelieving Jew (like Judas Iscariot or Ahab) was never truly part of God's chosen people, because he or she had never followed God.

                    New Testament

                    • Matthew 5:17-20 "Think not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets; I have come not to abolish them but to fulfil them. For truly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the law until all is accomplished. Whoever then relaxes one of the least of these commandments and teaches men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but he who does them and teaches them shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven."
                    • John 4:22 You Samaritans worship what you do not know. We worship what we do know, because salvation is from the Jews.
                    • Romans 1:16-17: I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile. For in the gospel a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last, just as it is written: "The righteous will live by faith."[Habakkuk 2:4]
                    • Romans 2:28-29: "For no one is a Jew who is merely one outwardly, nor is circumcision outward and physical. But a Jew is one inwardly, and circumcision is a matter of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the letter. His praise is not from man but from God."
                    • Romans 3:29-31: "Is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles too? Yes, of Gentiles too, since there is only one God, who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through that same faith. Do we, then, nullify the law by this faith? Not at all! Rather, we uphold the law."
                    • Romans 9:6-8: "But it is not as though the word of God has failed. For not all who are descended from Israel belong to Israel, and not all are children of Abraham because they are his offspring, but 'Through Isaac shall your offspring be named.' This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as offspring."
                    • Romans 10:12-13: For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile — the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him, for, "Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved."[Joel 2:32]
                    • Romans 11:1-6: "I ask, then, has God rejected his people? By no means! For I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, a member of the tribe of Benjamin. God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew. Do you not know what the Scripture says of Elijah, how he appeals to God against Israel? 'Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have demolished your altars, and I alone am left, and they seek my life.' But what is God's reply to him? 'I have kept for myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.' So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace."
                    • Romans 11:26: "So all Israel will be saved."
                    • Galatians 2:14-16: When I saw that they were not acting in line with the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter in front of them all, "You are a Jew, yet you live like a Gentile and not like a Jew. How is it, then, that you force Gentiles to follow Jewish customs? "We who are Jews by birth and not 'Gentile sinners' know that a man is not justified by observing the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ. So we, too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by observing the law, because by observing the law no one will be justified."
                    • Galatians 3:29: "And if you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's offspring, heirs according to the promise".
                    • Ephesians 2:11-22, especially v. 14: "For He Himself [Jesus] is our peace, who made both groups [Jews and non-Jews] into one and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall."

                    Supersessionism in popular culture

                    See also

                    Notes

                    1. ^ "The notion of covenant is at the foundation of religious identity because it constitutes the primary designation of relationship between humanity and God." Michael A. Signer, 'The Covenant in Recent Theological Statements', in Eugene B. Korn (ed.), Two Faiths, One Covenant?: Jewish and Christian Identity in the Presence of the Other, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), p. 111.
                    2. ^ 'supersede', Online Etymological Dictionary.
                    3. ^ Gaius Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, 2:8. (Latin)
                    4. ^ Tertullian, Adversus Iudaeos (Latin) = An Answer to the Jews trans. S. Thelwall, (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1870).
                    5. ^
                  Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho 11, in Ante-Nicene Fathers 1:200.
                  6. ^
                Hippolytus, Treatise Against the Jews 6, in Ante-Nicene Fathers 5.220.
                7. ^
              Origen, Against Celsus 4.22, in Ante-Nicene Fathers 4.506.
              8. ^
            Augustine, On the Psalms 114.3, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 8:550.
            9. ^
          Augustine, On the Psalms 114.3, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 8:550.
          10. ^
        Augustine, The City of God 18.46, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 2:389.
        11. ^ Jeremy Cohen, 'Introduction', in Jeremy Cohen (ed.), Essential Papers on Judaism and Christianity in Conflict: From Late Antiquity to the Reformation, (New York: New York University Press, 1991), 13–14.
        12. ^ John Y. B. Hood, Aquinas and the Jews, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995), 12f.
        13. ^
      James Carroll, Constantine’s Sword: The Church and the Jews, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001).
      14. ^
    Martin Luther, On the Jews and Their Lies, in Luther's Works 47:138–39.
    15. ^ R. Kendall Soulen, The God of Israel and Christian Theology, (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996).
    16. ^
Ibid., 181, n6.
17. ^ Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44 (2001): 442.
18. ^ David Novak, 'The Covenant in Rabbinic Thought', in Eugene B. Korn (ed.), Two Faiths, One Covenant?: Jewish and Christian Identity in the Presence of the Other, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), pp. 65-80.
19. ^ Ibid., p. 365.
20. ^ Scofield Reference Bible
21. ^ Charles Hodge, 'The Conversion of the Jews,' in Systematic Theology, IV.3.5.
22. ^ Martin Luther, The Bondage of the Will, translated by Henry Cole, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1976), p. 29.
23. ^ "Nemini salus esse nisi in Ecclesia." Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus, Epistolae, (Latin) 73.21: PL 3,1169.
24. ^ "Unam solam Ecclesiam, extra quam nulla salus datur." Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus, De Unitate Ecclesiae, (Latin) PL 4,509-536.
25. ^ "Ecclesia est catholica", (Latin) in , (Status Civitatis Vaticanae: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1993), pars prima, sectio secunda, caput tertium, articulus 9, paragraphus 3 III §846.
26. ^ "The Church is Catholic", in Catechism of the Catholic Church, (Vatican City: Vatican Library Publishing, 2003), part one, section two, chapter 3, article 9, paragraph 3 III §846.
27. ^ Quoted in Pius XII, Mystici Corporis, para 29.
28. ^ Pope Eugene IV (1442-02-04). Bull of Union with the Copts. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
29. ^ Pope Pius XII (1943-06-29). Mystici Corporis Christi paragraph 29.
30. ^ Ibid., para. 29.
31. ^ Ibid., para 32.
32. ^ United States Catholic Catechism for Adults, (Washington, D.C.: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2006).

External links

Supercessionism specific resources:
Catholic Apologetic International (CAI):
  • Robert A. Sungenis. Teachings on the Jews @ CatholicIntl.com
  • Letter. Re: United States Catholic Catechism for Adults (USCCA 2006, ISBN 978-1-57455-450-2).
Quote: "Thus the covenant that God made with the Jewish people through Moses remains eternally valid for them." (USCCA)
From: David J. Malloy and others.
To: William J. Levada.
Date: 5 September, 2007.
Other specific groups:
Jewish-Christian relations organizations:

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