Taos Pueblo

Taos Pueblo
(U.S. National Historic Landmark)
Enlarge picture
Taos Pueblo today
Taos Pueblo today
Nearest city:Taos, New Mexico
Added to NRHP:October 15, 1966
NRHP Reference#:66000496 [1]
Governing body:Private
Pueblo de Taos*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party United States of America
TypeCultural
Criteriaiv
Reference492
RegionEurope and North America
Inscription History
Inscription1992  (16th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.


Taos Pueblo (or Pueblo de Taos), continuously inhabited for more than 1,000 years, is the ancient pueblo of a Northern Tiwa speaking Native American tribe of Pueblo people. It lies about 1 mile (1.6 km) north of the modern city of Taos, New Mexico, USA, on Red Willow Creek or Rio Pueblo, a small stream which flows from the Sangre de Cristo Range. 95,000 acres (384 km²) are attached to the pueblo, and about 2,000 people live there. In the Northern Tiwa language, the name of Taos is Tua-tah, which means "our village." Taos Pueblo is a member of the Eight Northern Pueblos.

Taos Pueblo's most prominent architectural feature is a multi-storied residential complex of reddish-brown adobe divided into two parts by the Rio Pueblo. According to the Pueblo's Web site, it was probably built between 1000 and 1450 A.D. It was designated a National Historic Landmark on October 9, 1960, and later became a World Heritage Site. As of 2006, about 150 people live in it full-time.

The history of Taos Pueblo include the plotting of the Pueblo Revolt in 1680, a siege by U.S. forces in 1847, and the return by President Nixon in 1970 of the Pueblo's 48,000 acres (194 km²) of mountain land taken by President Theodore Roosevelt and designated as the Carson National Forest early in the twentieth century. Blue Lake, which the people of the Pueblo traditionally consider sacred, was included in this return of Taos land. The Pueblo's web site names the acquisition of the sacred Blue Lake as the most important event in its history due to the spiritual belief that the Taos natives originated from the lake itself.

The North-Side Pueblo is said to be one of the most photographed and painted buildings in the Western Hemisphere. It is the largest multistoried Pueblo structure still existent and continuously inhabited. It is made of adobe walls that are often several feet thick. Its primary purpose was for defense. Up to as late as 1900, access to the rooms on lower floors was by ladders on the outside to the roof, and then down an inside ladder. In case of an attack, outside ladders could easily be pulled up.

The homes in this structure usually consist of two rooms, one of which is for general living and sleeping, and the second of which is for cooking, eating, and storage. Each home is self-contained; there are no passageways between the houses. Taos Indians made little use of furniture in the past, but today they have tables, chairs, and beds. In the Pueblo, electricity, running water, and indoor plumbing are prohibited.

The pueblo wall completely encloses the village except at the entrance as a symbol of the village boundaries. Now rather short, the wall used to be much taller for protection against surrounding tribes. The river running through the pueblo serves as the primary source for drinking and cooking water for the residents of the village. In the winter, the river never completely freezes although it does form a heavy layer of ice. Because the river moves so swiftly, the ice can be broken to obtain the fresh water beneath.

Three religions are represented in the Pueblo: Christianity, the aboriginal religion, and the Native American Church. Most of the Indians are Roman Catholic. Saint Jerome, or San Geronimo, is the patron saint of the pueblo.

Most archeologists believe that the Taos Indians along with other Pueblo Indians settled along the Rio Grande migrated from the Four Corners region. The dwellings of that region were inhabited by the Anasazi, and a long drought in the area in the late 1200s, may have caused them to move to the Rio Grande where the water supply was more dependable.

The deep feeling of belonging to a community, summed up in their phrase, “we are in one nest,” has held the Taos people together. Both men and women are expected to offer their services or “community duties,” when needed. One should be cooperative and never allow his own desires to be destructive of the community’s interest. One of Taos’s strongest institutions is the family. Descent on both the father and the mother’s side of the family is equally recognized. Each primary family lives in a separate dwelling so when a couple gets married, they move to their own home. With relatives so near by, everyone is available to help care for the children. The elderly teach the young the values and traditions that have been handed down, which protects the integrity of the Taos culture.

Additional Images

thumb|center
Taos Pueblo today

Taos Pueblo, 1893 illustration

Taos Pueblo, circa 1920

Detail of Taos Pueblo

Taos Pueblo with Rio Pueblo in foreground

The remains of the original San Geronimo church amid sacred gravesites.

The entrance to a kiva, or room for religious rituals, at Taos.

Ancient apartment-style dwellings at the Taos Pueblo.

The Taos Pueblo dwellings have changed little in 1,000 years.


References

1. ^ National Register Information System. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service (2006-03-15).


Bodine, John J., Taos Pueblo: A Walk Through Time. Tucson: Rio Nuevo Publishers, 1996.

External links

Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, site, structure, or object, almost always within the United States, officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance.
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Taos, New Mexico

Seal
Motto:
Location of Taos, New Mexico
Coordinates:
Country United States
State New Mexico
County Taos
Area
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National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects worthy of preservation. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) established the National Register and the process for adding properties
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October 15 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events


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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1930s  1940s  1950s  - 1960s -  1970s  1980s  1990s
1963 1964 1965 - 1966 - 1967 1968 1969

Year 1966 (MCMLXVI
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A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO
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State Party Natural WHS Cultural WHS Mixed WHS Total WHS Zone
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 Algeria 6 1 7 Arab States
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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.

Argentina

  • Cueva de las Manos, Río Pinturas
  • Iguazú National Park, home of Iguazu Falls

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Pueblos are traditional communities of aboriginal Americans in the southwestern United States of America. The communities are recognized worldwide for adobe buildings, which are sometimes called "pueblos," although some pueblos only have a few of these buildings still standing.
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Tiwa, (Spanish Tigua, also E-nagh-magh[1], is a group of closely related languages spoken by the Tiwa Pueblo people in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
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American Indian and Alaska Native
One race: 2.5 million[1]
In combination with one or more other races: 1.6 million[2]
Regions with significant populations  United States

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The Pueblo subsisted on agriculture. When first encountered by the Spanish in the 1500s, they were living in villages that the Spanish called pueblos, meaning "towns". Of the approximately 25 pueblos that exist today, Taos, Acoma, Zuñi, and Hopi are the best-known.
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Taos, New Mexico

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Motto:
Location of Taos, New Mexico
Coordinates:
Country United States
State New Mexico
County Taos
Area
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State of New Mexico

Flag of New Mexico Seal
Nickname(s): Land of Enchantment / Tierra del Encanto
Motto(s): Crescit eundo

Capital Santa Fe
Largest city Albuquerque
Largest metro area
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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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Sangre de Cristo Range
Northern Sangre de Cristo Range


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The Eight Northern Pueblos of New Mexico are Taos, Picuris, Santa Clara, San Juan, San Ildefonso, Nambé, Pojoaque, and Tesuque. Taos and Picuris are Tiwa-speaking pueblos; the rest speak Tewa. Tiwa and Tewa are closely related languages of the Kiowa Tanoan language family.
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Adobe is a natural building material mixed from sand, clay, and straw, dung or other fibrous materials, which is shaped into bricks using frames and dried in the sun. It is similar to cob and mudbrick.
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National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, site, structure, or object, almost always within the United States, officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance.
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October 9 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of France.

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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1930s  1940s  1950s  - 1960s -  1970s  1980s  1990s
1957 1958 1959 - 1960 - 1961 1962 1963

Year 1960 (MCMLX
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A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO
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Pueblo Revolt of 1680 or Popé's Rebellion was an uprising of many pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonists in the New Spain province of New Mexico.

Background


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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Siege of Pueblo de Taos was the final battle of the Taos Revolt, a popular insurrection against the United States during the Mexican-American War. It was also the final engagement between U.S. forces and insurgent forces in New Mexico during the war.
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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1810s  1820s  1830s  - 1840s -  1850s  1860s  1870s
1844 1845 1846 - 1847 - 1848 1849 1850

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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
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1967 1968 1969 - 1970 - 1971 1972 1973

Year 1970 (MCMLXX
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