Treaty of the Bogue

The Treaty of the Bogue was an agreement between China and the United Kingdom, which was concluded in October 1843 in order to supplement the previous Treaty of Nanking. The treaty is mostly known for the fact that it granted extraterritoriality and most favored nation status to Britain.

Background

In order to conclude the First Opium War, imperial commissioner Qiying and Henry Pottinger concluded the Treaty of Nanking aboard the British warship HMS Cornwallis in 1842 in Nanjing on the behalf of the British and the Qing Empires. The treaty became the first of a series of commercial treaties, often referred to as "Unequal Treaties", which China concluded with Western powers.

Terms

Already during the negotiations in Nanjing, China and Britain agreed that a supplementary treaty be concluded, and on 22 July 1843 the two parties promulgated the "General Regulations of Trade with Britain and China" in Guangzhou. These regulations were included in the "Treaty of the Bogue," which Qiying and Pottinger signed on 3 October 1843 on the Bogue outside Guangzhou.

The treaty laid down detailed regulations for Sino-British trade and specified the terms under which Britons could reside in the newly opened ports of Shanghai, Ningbo, Xiamen, Fuzhou and Guangzhou. While Britons were allowed to buy property in the treaty ports and reside there with their families, they were not allowed to travel to the interior of China or carry out trade there.

The treaty also granted extraterritorial privileges to British subjects and Most Favored Nation status to the United Kingdom, which meant that Britain would enjoy any privilege granted to other powers.

Aftermath

In China, the treaty is widely regarded as an imperialist treaty, which paved the way for the subjugation of China to Western imperialism. The treaty consolidated the "opening" of China to foreign trade in the wake of the First Opium War and allowed Britons to reside in parts of China, which had not been opened to foreigners before. In 1845, local Qing authorities and the British authorities promulgated the Shanghai Land regulations, which paved the way for the foundation of the International Settlement. Similar agreements were concluded in other treaty ports, which created a social divide between the Europeans and Chinese citizens in the cities.

Reference

  • Fairbank, John King. Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842-1854. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953.
  • Hertslet, Edward, ed. Treaties, &C., between Great Britain and China; and between China and Foreign Powers; Orders in Council, Rules, Regulations, Acts of Parliament, Decrees, and Notifications Affecting British Interests in China, in Force on the 1st January, 1896. 2 vols. London: Homson, 1896.

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See also

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China (Traditional Chinese:
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Motto
"Dieu et mon droit" [2]   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
"God Save the Queen" [3]
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The Treaty of Nanking (Treaty of Nanjing) is the peace treaty which marked the end of the First Opium War between the British and Qing Empires in 1839-42.

Conclusion of the Treaty


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Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. Extraterritoriality can also be applied to physical places, such as embassies, consulates, or military bases of foreign countries, or offices of
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Most favoured nation (MFN), also called normal trade relations in the United States, is a status awarded by one nation to another in international trade. Somewhat contradictorily, it does not confer particular advantages on the receiving nation, but means that the receiving
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First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the British East India Company and the Qing Dynasty in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British opium.
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Qiying (zh: 耆英; Manchu: Ciyeng) born 21 March 1787,[1] forced suicide 29 June 1858) Manchu statesman during the Qing Dynasty.

Background and early career


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Sir Henry Eldred Curwen Pottinger (Chinese Translated Name 砵甸乍; also 璞鼎查 in Qing document) (3 October 1789 - 18 March 1856) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and colonial administrator, who became the first Governor of Hong Kong.
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The Treaty of Nanking (Treaty of Nanjing) is the peace treaty which marked the end of the First Opium War between the British and Qing Empires in 1839-42.

Conclusion of the Treaty


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HMS Cornwallis was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 12 May 1813 at Bombay.

On 27 April 1815, she was engaged by the American sloop USS Hornet, which had mistaken the Cornwallis for a merchant ship.
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Nánjīng Shì
南京市

Nanjing city skyline
Location within China
Nanjing is highlighted on this map of Jiangsu province
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British Empire was the largest empire in history and for a substantial time was the foremost global power. It was a product of the European age of discovery, which began with the maritime explorations of the 15th century, that sparked the era of the European colonial empires.
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History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty
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Guangzhou
An Overview of Guangzhou
Nickname: The Flower City
Location within China
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Bocca Tigris or the Bogue (Chinese: 虎门) a narrow strait in the Pearl River Delta, where the Pearl River discharges into the South China sea. Because of its strategic location, the strait was traditionally fortified and some major battles in the First
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Shànghǎi Shì
上海?

A view of Lujiazui, a financial district in Pudong.
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Ningbo (Simplified Chinese: 宁波; Traditional Chinese: 寧波; Pinyin: Níngbō
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Xiamen is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China. It looks out to the Taiwan Strait and borders the cities of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou to the north and south respectively.
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Fuzhou   (Chinese: 福州; Pinyin: Fúzhōu
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Guangzhou
An Overview of Guangzhou
Nickname: The Flower City
Location within China
Coordinates:
Country People's Republic of China
Province
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Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. Extraterritoriality can also be applied to physical places, such as embassies, consulates, or military bases of foreign countries, or offices of
..... Click the link for more information.
Most favoured nation (MFN), also called normal trade relations in the United States, is a status awarded by one nation to another in international trade. Somewhat contradictorily, it does not confer particular advantages on the receiving nation, but means that the receiving
..... Click the link for more information.
The Shanghai Municipal Council (工部局, literally "Works Department", from the standard English local government title of 'Board of works') was the governing body which administered the combined British and American foreign concessions in Shanghai, known as the
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John King Fairbank (b. 24 May 1907 in Huron, South Dakota; d. 14 September 1991 in Cambridge, Massachusetts) was among the most prominent American scholars of East Asia in the twentieth century.
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Baidu Baike (Chinese: 百度百科; Pinyin: bǎidù bǎikē; translation: Baidu Encyclopedia) is a Chinese language collaborative Web-based encyclopedia provided by the
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Opium Wars (Simplified Chinese: 鸦片战争; Traditional Chinese: 鴉片戰爭; Pinyin:
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Imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices.
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Anglo-Chinese relations (Traditional Chinese: 中英關係; Simplified Chinese: 中英关系; Pinyin:
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