Trekboers

The Trekboers were nomadic pastoral descendants of Dutch settlers and smaller numbers of French Huguenot refugees, German Protestants, Frisians, Scots, as well as some Indian slaves and a mixture of Khoi and Malays, due to absorption into the nascent Boer nation. The Trekboers began migrating from the areas near Cape Town, Paarl, Stellenbosch and Franschhoek during the 1690s and into the expanding eastern Cape frontier throughout the 1700s.

The Trekboers were semi-nomadic subsistence farmers who began trekking eastwards into the interior in order to find better pastures/farm lands to graze as well as to escape the autocratic rule of the Dutch East India Company (or VOC), which administered the Cape. Trekboers tended to live in the wagons in which they traveled, rarely remaining in one location for an extended period of time. A number of Trekboers settled and establish themselves in the eastern Cape where their descendants were soon known as Grensboere (Border Farmers), or later simply known as Boers (which is an old-fashioned Dutch word for "farmers") and spoke a language which was called "die taal"—though later classified as Eastern Border Afrikaans or East Cape Afrikaans.

This language orinated from Dutch dialects but became a distinct language over time with a number of words also having non-Dutch origins, mainly words taken from French, German, Portuguese, Malay, Khoi, and later English.

Due to the autocratic nature of the VOC a group of Boers—descended from Trekboers who settled and established themselves on the eastern Cape frontier—resisted Dutch rule and set up independent republics in the towns of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet in 1795. This was later reversed by the British in 1796 upon their acquisition of the Cape as a result of the Napoleonic Wars. A generation later another group of Boers descended from Trekboers resist the administration of British legislation in 1815 which led to a rebellion at Slagters Nek in which the British executed some of the Boer leaders of the rebellion. After experiencing further British encroachments and constant border wars with the Xhosa to the east as well as growing land shortages, a large number of the established Boer inhabitants of the eastern Cape of Trekboer origin become Voortrekkers.

While a number of Trekboers settled down to become Border Farmers for a few generations and later Voortrekkers, Trekboers continued to exist well into the 20th century as an economic class of nomadic pastoralists.

Some Trekboers crossed the Orange River at least a decade before the Voortrekkers did. Voortrekkers often encountered Trekboers in Transorangia during the Great Trek. In 1815 a possible Trekboer named Coenraad (Du) Buys (a surname of French Huguenot origin) was accused of cattle theft and fled from the British and became the first white inhabitant of the (western) Transvaal, where he settled. He disappeared while travelling along the Limpopo River. His descendants still live in the small town of Buysville, near the mission station of Mara, 20 km to the west of Louis Trichardt in the modern Limpopo province.

During the late nineteenth century both Trekboers (proto-Afrikaans speakers who had trekked into the eastern frontiers largely for economic reasons as well as to escape the authoritarian rule of the VOC in the 1600s and 1700s) and Voortrekkers (Afrikaans speaking pioneers who trekked into the interior during the 1830s and 1840s largely for political reasons as well as to escape the constant border wars) were collectively called Boers.

During the twentieth century both Boers and the Cape Dutch—those who did not trek eastward and remained in the Western Cape—would become known as Afrikaners, a term that was applied to all Afrikaans speakers of Northern European (Dutch, Frisian, German, French Huguenot) ancestry. The term would later sometimes include non-White Afrikaans speakers (largely those who became known as Coloureds in the Cape Province) as well.

While the term Trekboer has now become obsolete: there is still some cultural, linguistic (accents and some terms), and geographic difference between the Boers of Voortrekker, Trekboer, and Republican descent and those who are of Cape Dutch (as they were called mainly by trekking Boers) or Western Cape descent.
From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists.
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Khoikhoi ("men of men"[1]) or Khoi, in standardised Khoekhoe/Nama orthography spelled Khoekhoe, are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of southwestern Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them).
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22 million
Regions with significant populations
Majority populations
 Malaysia [1]
 Brunei
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Boer (IPA: /bur/) is the Dutch word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the Dutch-speaking pastoralists of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa during the 1700s as well as those who left the Cape Colony during the 1800s to settle in the Orange Free State,
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Cape Town
Kaapstad, iKapa

Panorama of the Cape Town city bowl from the Waterfront to Table Mountain

Flag
Nickname: The mother city, or The Tavern of the Seas
Motto:
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Paarl (meaning "Pearl" in Dutch and called "Die Pêrel" in Afrikaans) is the third oldest European settlement in the Republic of South Africa (after Cape Town and Stellenbosch) and forms part of the Western Cape Province.
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Stellenbosch (IPA: [ˈstɛlənˌbɑ̹ʃ]) is the second oldest European settlement in the Western Cape Province, South Africa after Cape Town, and is situated about 50 kilometers (30 mi) away along
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Franschhoek (Dutch (spelling before 1947): "French corner") is a small town in the Western Cape Province and one of the oldest towns of the Republic of South Africa.

History

Main article: Huguenots in South Africa

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Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century

1660s 1670s 1680s - 1690s - 1700s 1710s 1720s
1690 1691 1692 1693 1694
1695 1696 1697 1698 1699

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The Cape Colony of the future South Africa was established by the Dutch East India Company (not by the Netherlands, as is often mistakenly presumed) in 1652, with the founding of Cape Town.
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Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century

1670s 1680s 1690s - 1700s - 1710s 1720s 1730s
1700 1701 1702 1703 1704
1705 1706 1707 1708 1709

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Events and trends


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autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler, usually a dictator. The term autocrat is derived from the Greek word autokratôr (lit. "self-ruler", or to: "rule by one's self").
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Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian Company") was established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in
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Dutch}}} 
Writing system: Latin alphabet (Dutch variant) 
Official status
Official language of:  Aruba
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 European Union
 European Union
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Afrikaans}}} 
Official status
Official language of:
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Motto
"Je maintiendrai"   (French)
"Ik zal handhaven"   (Dutch)
"I shall stand fast"1

Anthem
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Governance makes decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance. It consists either of a separate process or of a specific part of management or leadership processes. Sometimes people set up a government to administer these processes and systems.
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Motto
"Dieu et mon droit" [2]   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
"God Save the Queen" [3]
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7,888,999 (2001 Census)
Regions with significant populations Eastern Cape: 5.4 million
Western Cape: 1.1 million
Gauteng: 0.7 million
Free State: 0.25 million
Kwazulu-Natal: 0.
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Voortrekkers (Afrikaans and Dutch for pioneers, literally "those who trek ahead") were emigrants during the 1840s and 1850s from the British Cape Colony into the interior of what is now South Africa.
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Orange
Gariep, Senqu



Countries | Lesotho,South Africa,Namibia

Length | 2,200 km (1367 mi)
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Transvaal (lit. beyond the Vaal [pale river]) was one of the British colonies that united to form the Union of South Africa in 1910. After the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902 the bulk of the South African Republic became the Transvaal Colony, while the remainder was
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Louis Trichardt (for a short period known as Makhado) is a town situated at the foot of the Soutpansberg mountain range in the Limpopo province of South Africa. It is in a fertile region where litchis, bananas, mangoes and nuts are produced.
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Boer (IPA: /bur/) is the Dutch word for farmer which came to denote the descendants of the Dutch-speaking pastoralists of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa during the 1700s as well as those who left the Cape Colony during the 1800s to settle in the Orange Free State,
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Cape Dutch was used to describe the inhabitants of the Western Cape, descended primarily from Dutch and Flemish as well as smaller numbers of French, German and other European immigrants along with a percentage of their Asian and African slaves, who, from the 17th century into the
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4.5 million
10% of South Africa's population
Regions with significant populations South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe
Languages Afrikaans, English Religions Christian, Muslim Related ethnic groups Khoikhoi, Afrikaners, Cape Coloureds, Cape Malay
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