Tuvinians

Tuvans
Тывала?
Tsengel Tuvan child and grandmother
Total population
over 220,000 ?
Regions with significant populations
Russia (200,000), Mongolia (20,000), China (2,400)
Languages
Russian, Tuvan, Mongolian
Religions
Tibetan Buddhism ("Lamaism"), Shamanism
Related ethnic groups
Tofalar, Soyots, other Turkic and Mongolian peoples
Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. They are historically known as Uriankhai from the Mongolian Uriyangqai (transcribed into Chinese as 烏梁海 Wūliánghǎi).

Tuvans have historically been cattle-breeding nomads, tending to their herds of goats, sheep, camels, reindeer and yaks for the past thousands of years. They have traditionally lived in yurts covered by felt or chums covered with birch bark or hide that they relocate seasonally as the move to newer pastures.

Tuvans can have a light hair complexion and Mongoloid facial features at the same time.

History

The Xiongnu ruled over the area of Tuva prior to 200 AD. At this time a people known to the Chinese as Dingling inhabited the region. The Chinese recorded the existence of a tribe of Dingling origin named Dubo in the eastern Sayans. This name is recognized as being associated with the Tuvan people and is the earliest written record of them. The Xianbei defeated the Xiongnu and they in turn were defeated by the Rouran. From around the end of the 6th century, the Göktürks held dominion over Tuva up until the 8th century when the Uyghurs took over.

Enlarge picture
Map showing extent of Uyghur Khanate and placement of Kyrgyz in 820 AD.
Tuvans were subjects of the Uyghur Khanate during the 8th and 9th centuries. The Uyghurs established several fortifications within Tuva as a means of subduing the population. There are plans being discussed to restore the remains of one of these fortresses, Por-Bazhyn in lake Tere-Khol in the southeast of the country.[1] The memory of Uyghur occupation could still be seen up until the end of the 19th century due to the application of the name Ondar Uyghur for the Ondar Tuvans living near the Khemchik river in the southwest.[2] Uyghur dominance was broken by the Kyrgyz in 840 AD, who came from the upper reaches of the Yenisei. The Yeniseian Kyrgyz then established a small khanate that lasted until the coming of the Mongols in the 13th century.

In 1207, Turkic Oirat prince Kuduka-Beki led Mongol detachments under Jochi to a tributary of the Kaa-Khem river. They encountered the Tuvan Keshdims, Baits, and Teleks. This was the beginning of Mongol suzerainty over the Tuvans. One of Genghis Khan's greatest generals, Subutai, is said to have been an Uriankhai.

Tuvans came to be ruled for most of the 17th century by Khalka Mongol leader Sholoi Ubashi's Altyn-Khan Khanate. It was at this time in 1615 that the first Russians, V. Tyumenets and I. Petrov, visited Tuva as emissaries to the Altyn-Khan.[3] Russian documents from this time record information about different tribal groups that contributed to the composition of modern Tuvans. Tyumenets and Petrov describe the Maads, who became Russian subjects in 1609, living in the Bii-Khem basin, a 14 day's ride from Tomsk. The Maads travelled to the area of the Khemchik and Ulug-Khem next to the lands of the Altyn-Khan near the lake Uvs Nuur. The ambassadors also described the Sayan raising reindeer with the Tochi (Todzhi) from the Sayan to the Altai mountain ranges. The descendants of the Ak-Sayan and Kara-Sayan live mostly around Tere-Khol rayon.

The state of the Altyn-Khan disappeared due to constant warring between the Oirats and the Khalka of Jasaghtu Khan Aimak. The Tuvans became part of the Dzungarian state ruled by the Oirats. The Dzungars ruled over all of the Sayano-Altay Plateau until 1755. It was during this time of Dzungarian rule that many tribes and clans broke up, moved around, and intermingled. Groups of Altayan Telengits settled in western Tuva on the Khemchik and Barlyk rivers and in the region of Bai-Taiga. Some Todzhans, Sayans, and Mingats ended up in the Altay. Other Tuvans migrated north across the Sayan range and became known as Beltirs (Dag-Kakpyn, Sug-Kakpyn, Ak-Chystar, Kara-Chystar). The languages of the Beltirs and Tuvans still contain common words not found in the language of the other Khakas (Kachins or Sagays).[4] Other Russian documents mention Yeniseian Kyrgyz (Saryglar and Kyrgyz), Orchaks (Oorzhaks) and Kuchugets (Kuzhugets) moving into Tuva from the north.

Besides the Turkic tribes mentioned above, there is indication that modern Tuvans are descended also from Mongolic, Samoyedic, and Kettic groups of peoples. Of the extinct Southern Samoyed groups, Mator, Koibal, Kamas, and Karagas were assimilated mostly into the eastern Tuvans such as the Todzhins, Tofalars, Soyots, and Dukha. The Irgit tribe is also suggested as being from Samoyedic ancestors.[5] The Tuvan name for the Yenisei river may stem from an ancient Samoyedic name.[6] Tribes such as Tumat, Mingat, Mongush, and Salchak are recognized as having a Mongolic origin.[7]

According to Ilya Zakharov of Moscow's Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, genetic evidence suggests that the modern Tuvan people are the closest genetic relatives to the native peoples of North and South America. [8]

The name Uriankhai

Main article: Uriankhai


There doesn't seem to exist a clear ethnic delineation for the application of the name Uriankhai. Mongols applied this name to all tribes of Forest People. This name has historically been applied to Tuvans. In Mongolia there are peoples also known by this name. A variation of the name, Uraŋxai, was an old name for the Sakha.[9] Russian Pavel Nebol'sin documented the Urankhu clan of Volga Kalmyks in the 1850s.[10] Another variant of the name, Orangkae (오랑캐), was traditionally used by the Koreans to refer indiscriminately to "barbarians" that inhabited the lands to their north.

Geography

Enlarge picture
Today's settlement areas of the Tyva in Russia and the Dukha in neighbouring Mongolia.
There are two major groups of Tuvans in Tuva: Western Tuvans and Tuvans-Todzhins (Тувинцы-тоджинцы). The latter ones live in Todzhinsky District, Tuva Republic and constitute about 5% of all Tuvans.

A people similar by language to Tuvans live in Oka District of Buryatia (self-naming: Soyots (сойоты), sometimes referred to as Oka Tuvans).

Mongolia

A noticeable proportion of Tuvans lives in Mongolia. The Dukha live in Khövsgöl Aimag. The largest population of Tuvans in Mongolia are the Tsengel Tuvans.[11] Around 1,500 live in Tsengel Sum of Bayan-Ölgii Aimag. Other Tuvans live in Khovd Aimag.

China

Tuvans in China, who live mostly in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, are included under the Mongol nationality.[12]

Culture

Music

Main article: Music of Tuva
A unique form of music exists in Tuva commonly known as throat singing. A throat-singer produces multiple tones (a base tone and its overtones). A documentary called Genghis Blueswas made in 1999 about an American blues musician, Paul Pena, who taught himself overtone singing and traveled to Tuva to compete in a throat-singing competition.

Religion

The traditional religion of Tuvans is animism (shamanism), which is still widely practiced alongside Tibetan Buddhism.

Language

Main article: Tuvan language
The Tuvan language belongs to the Northern or Siberian branch of the Turkic language family. Four dialects are recognized: Central, Western, Southeastern and Northeastern (Todzhinian). The written language is based on the Cyrillic alphabet.

See also

Notes

1. ^ "Ancient Uigur Fortress on a Tuvan Lake to Turn into a Recreation and Tourist Centre", by Dina Oyun
2. ^ KRUEGER, John (1977). Tuvan Manual, 41. 
which cites from POTAPOV, L.P. (1964). "The Tuvans", The Peoples of Siberia. 
3. ^ KRUEGER, John (1977). Tuvan Manual, 25. 
which cites from an English translation of Большая Советская Энциклопедия (The Great Soviet Encyclopedia) 43. (1956).1956">  by William H. Dougherty.
4. ^ KRUEGER, John (1977). Tuvan Manual, 42. 
which cites from POTAPOV, L.P. (1964). "The Tuvans", The Peoples of Siberia. 
5. ^ DERENKO, M.V.; et al (March 2002). "Polymorphism of the Y-Chromosome Diallelic Loci in Ethnic Groups of the Altai-Sayan Region". Russian Journal of Genetics 38 (3): 309-314. Retrieved on 2007-02-05. 
Mentions that "some authors" suggest this idea.
6. ^ VÁSÁRY, I. (1971). "Käm: an Early Samoyed Name of Yenisei". Studia Turcica: 469-482. 
7. ^ DERENKO, M.V.; et al (March 2002). "Polymorphism of the Y-Chromosome Diallelic Loci in Ethnic Groups of the Altai-Sayan Region". Russian Journal of Genetics 38 (3): 309-314. Retrieved on 2007-02-05. 
Mentions only Mongush and Salchak tribes.
8. ^ "Central Asian Origins of the Ancestor of First Americans", by I. Zakharov (Russian)
9. ^ POPPE, Nicholas (1969). "Review of Menges "The Turkic Languages and Peoples"". Central Asiatic Journal 12 (4): 330. 
10. ^ Mänchen-Helfen, Otto [1931]. Journey to Tuva. Los Angeles: Ethnographic Press University of Southern California. ISBN 187898604-X. 
11. ^ Mongush, M. V. "Tuvans of Mongolia and China." International Journal of Central Asian Studies, 1 (1996), 225-243. Talat Tekin, ed. Seoul: Inst. of Asian Culture & Development.
12. ^ Mongush, M. V. "Tuvans of Mongolia and China." International Journal of Central Asian Studies, 1 (1996), 225-243. Talat Tekin, ed. Seoul: Inst. of Asian Culture & Development.

References

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Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages.
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The Mongolian language (монгол хэл, mongol khel) is the best-known member of the Mongolic language family and the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia, where
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Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan regions which include northern Nepal, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh and Sikkim), Mongolia, Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia and Tuva) and northeastern China
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Shamanism refers to a range of traditional beliefs and practices concerned with communication with the spirit world. There are many variations in shamanism throughout the world, though there are some beliefs that are shared by all forms of shamanism:

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Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы
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According to the 2002 census, there were 2769 Soyots in Russia. Their extinct language was basically similar to the Tuvans, but they live in Buryatia.
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Turkic peoples are a group of peoples residing in northern, central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. These peoples share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.
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Mongols (Mongolian: Монгол Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups largely located now in Mongolia, China, and Russia.
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Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages.
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Turkic peoples are a group of peoples residing in northern, central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. These peoples share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.
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Anthem
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There isn't a clear ethnic delineation for the application of the name "Uriankhai". Mongols applied this name to all tribes of Forest People. This name has historically been applied to Tuvans and Tuva proper as Tannu Uriankhai.
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NOMAD was founded in 2002 as an independent formation and registered as association in 2006. It targets to produce and experiment new patterns in the digital art sphere by using various lenses of other disciplines.
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A Yurt is a portable, felt-covered, wood lattice-framed dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.
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tipi (also teepee, tepee) is a conical tent originally made of animal skins or birch bark and popularized by the Native Americans of the Great Plains. The dwelling was remarkably durable, and gave warmth and comfort to its inhabitants during harsh winters, was dry
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The Xiongnu (Chinese: 匈奴; Pinyin: Xiōngnú; Wade-Giles: Hsiung-nu); were a nomadic people from Central Asia, generally based in present day Mongolia.
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Dingling (丁零) or Gaoche (高車), Chile (敕勒), Tiele (鐵勒) were an ancient Siberian people. They originally lived on the bank of the Lena River in the area west of Lake Baikal and began to expand westward in the
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Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: 鲜卑; Traditional Chinese: 鮮卑; Pinyin: Xiānbēi; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei
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Rouran (Chinese: 柔然; Pinyin: Róurán; literally "soft-like"), Ruanruan/Ruru (Chinese: 蠕蠕/茹茹
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The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. Known in medieval Chinese sources as Tujue (突厥 Tūjué), the Göktürks under the leadership of Bumin Khan (d.
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The Uyghur Empire (Chinese: 回纥) existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries. They were a tribal confederation under the Uyghur nobility, referred to by the Chinese as the Nine Clans (Chiu Hsing).
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Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur; Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese:
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Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan.

Etymology

There are several etymological theories on the name "Kyrgyz." First, the name Kyrgyz may mean "forty girls" (kyrk + kyz), a reference to the Manas epic.
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Oirat ("Oirads" or "Oyirads") is the common name of several pastoral nomadic tribes of Mongolian origin whose ancestral home is in the Dzungaria and Amdo regions of western China and also western Mongolia.
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Mongols (Mongolian: Монгол Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups largely located now in Mongolia, China, and Russia.
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